Measurement of multi-particle azimuthal correlations in $pp$, $p$+Pb and low-multiplicity Pb+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration
Eur.Phys.J.C 77 (2017) 428, 2017.

Abstract (data abstract)
CERN-LHC. Multi-particle cumulants and corresponding Fourier harmonics are measured for azimuthal angle distributions of charged particles in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 5.02 and 13 TeV and in p+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV, and compared to the results obtained for low-multiplicity Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV. These measurements aim to assess the collective nature of particle production. The measurements of multi-particle cumulants confirm the evidence for collective phenomena in p+Pb and low-multiplicity Pb+Pb collisions. On the other hand, the pp results for four-particle cumulants do not demonstrate collective behaviour, indicating that they may be biased by contributions from non-flow correlations. A comparison of multi-particle cumulants and derived Fourier harmonics across different collision systems is presented as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity. For a given multiplicity, the measured Fourier harmonics are largest in Pb+Pb, smaller in p+Pb and smallest in pp collisions. The pp results show no dependence on the collision energy, nor on the multiplicity.

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