Measurement of $W^{\pm}Z$ production cross sections and gauge boson polarisation in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration
Eur.Phys.J.C 79 (2019) 535, 2019.

Abstract (data abstract)
CERN-LHC. This paper presents measurements of $W^{\pm}Z$ production in $pp$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $13$ TeV. The data were collected in 2015 and 2016 by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb$^{-1}$. The $W^{\pm}Z$ candidate events are reconstructed using leptonic decay modes into electrons and muons of the gauge bosons. The measured inclusive cross section in the detector fiducial region for leptonic decay modes is $\sigma_{W^\pm Z \rightarrow \ell^{'} \nu \ell \ell}^{\textrm{fid.}} = 63.7 \, \pm~1.0~\textrm{(stat.)} \, \pm~2.3~\textrm{(sys.)} \, \pm~0.3~\textrm{(mod.)} \, \pm~1.5~\textrm{(lumi.)}$ fb, in agreement with the next-to-next-to-leading-order Standard Model prediction of $61.5^{+1.4}_{-1.3}$ fb. Cross sections for $W^+Z$ and $W^-Z$ production and their ratio are presented as well as differential cross sections for several kinematic observables. An analysis of angular distributions of lepton decays of $W$ and $Z$ bosons is performed and integrated helicity fractions in the detector fiducial region are measured for each of the $W$ and $Z$ bosons. The longitudinal polarisation of pair-produced vector bosons is measured for the first time in $pp$ collisions. The cross sections are measured in a fiducial phase space reflecting the detector acceptance, defined by: - $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ of electrons and muons from Z0 decays > 15 GeV - $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ of electrons and muons from the $W^{\pm}$ decays > 20 GeV - $|\eta|$ of muons and electrons < 2.5 - Leptons from the Z0 boson are separated by $\Delta R(\ell,\ell) > 0.2$ from each other - Leptons from the Z0 and W bosons are separated by $\Delta R(\ell,\ell) > 0.3$ from each other - |dilepton mass - Z0 mass| < 10 GeV - $m_{\mathrm{T}}$ of $W^{\pm}$ > 30 GeV. At particle level, the kinematics of final-state prompt electrons and muons is computed including the contributions from final-state radiated photons within a distance in the ($\eta,\phi$) plane of $\Delta R = \sqrt{(\Delta\eta)^2 + (\Delta\phi)^2} = 0.1$ around the direction of the charged lepton. These dressed leptons and the final-state neutrinos that do not originate from hadron or $\tau$ decays are associated with the $W$ and $Z$ boson decay products with an algorithmic approach, called ``resonant shape''. This algorithm is based on the value of an estimator expressing the product of the nominal line shapes of the $W$ and $Z$ resonances $P = \left| \frac{1}{ m^2_{(\ell^+,\ell^-)} - \left(m_Z^{\textrm{PDG}}\right)^2 + i \; \Gamma_Z^{\textrm{PDG}} \; m_Z^{\textrm{PDG}} } \right|^2 \times \; \left| \frac {1} { m^2_{(\ell',\nu_{\ell'})} - \left(m_W^{\textrm{PDG}}\right)^2 + i \; \Gamma_W^{\textrm{PDG}} \; m_W^{\textrm{PDG}} } \right|^2$ where $m_Z^{\textrm{PDG}}$ ($m_W^{\textrm{PDG}}$) and $\Gamma_Z^{\textrm{PDG}}$ ($\Gamma_W^{\textrm{PDG}}$) are the world average mass and total width of the $Z$ ($W$) boson, respectively, as reported by the Particle Data Group. The input to the estimator is the invariant mass $m$ of all possible pairs ($\ell^+,\ell^-$) and ($\ell',\nu_{\ell'}$) satisfying the fiducial selection requirements. The final choice of which leptons are assigned to the $W$ or $Z$ bosons corresponds to the configuration exhibiting the highest value of the estimator.

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