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Measurement of the distributions of event-by-event flow harmonics in lead-lead collisions at = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

The ATLAS collaboration
JHEP 1311 (2013) 183, 2013

Abstract (data abstract)
CERN-LHC. The distributions of event-by-event harmonic flow coefficients vn for n = 2-4 are measured in sqrt(sNN) = 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measurements are performed using charged particles with transverse momentum pT > 0.5 GeV and in the pseudorapidity range |eta| < 2.5 in a dataset of approximately 7 mub^-1 recorded in 2010. The shapes of the vn distributions suggest that the associated flow vectors are described by a two-dimensional Gaussian function in central collisions for v2 and over most of the measured centrality range for v3 and v4. Significant deviations from this function are observed for v2 in mid-central and peripheral collisions, and a small deviation is observed for v3 in mid-central collisions. In order to be sensitive to these deviations, it is shown that the commonly used multi-particle cumulants, involving four particles or more, need to be measured with a precision better than a few percent. The vn distributions are also measured independently for charged particles with 0.5 < pT < 1 GeV and pT > 1 GeV. When these distributions are rescaled to the same mean values, the adjusted shapes are found to be nearly the same for these two pT ranges. The vn distributions are compared with the eccentricity distributions from two models for the initial collision geometry: a Glauber model and a model that includes corrections to the initial geometry due to gluon saturation effects. Both models fail to describe the experimental data consistently over most of the measured centrality range.

  • Table 1

    Data from Table 1

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    The relationship between centrality intervals and MEAN(Npart) estimated from the Glauber model.

  • Table 2

    Data from Figure 12

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t2

    The MEAN(Npart) dependence of MEAN(V2) for three pT ranges together with the total systematic uncertainties.

  • Table 3

    Data from Figure 12

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t3

    The MEAN(Npart) dependence of SIGMA(V2) for three pT ranges together with the total systematic uncertainties.

  • Table 4

    Data from Figure 12

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t4

    The MEAN(Npart) dependence of SIGMA(V2)/MEAN(V2) for three pT ranges together with the total systematic uncertainties.

  • Table 5

    Data from Figure 12

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t5

    The MEAN(Npart) dependence of MEAN(V3) for three pT ranges together with the total systematic uncertainties.

  • Table 6

    Data from Figure 12

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t6

    The MEAN(Npart) dependence of SIGMA(V3) for three pT ranges together with the total systematic uncertainties.

  • Table 7

    Data from Figure 12

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t7

    The MEAN(Npart) dependence of SIGMA(V3)/MEAN(V3) for three pT ranges together with the total systematic uncertainties.

  • Table 8

    Data from Figure 12

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t8

    The MEAN(Npart) dependence of MEAN(V4) for three pT ranges together with the total systematic uncertainties.

  • Table 9

    Data from Figure 12

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t9

    The MEAN(Npart) dependence of SIGMA(V4) for three pT ranges together with the total systematic uncertainties.

  • Table 10

    Data from Figure 12

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t10

    The MEAN(Npart) dependence of SIGMA(V4)/MEAN(V4) for three pT ranges together with the total systematic uncertainties.

  • Table 11

    Data from Figure 12

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    Eccentricity curves for EPSILON2 in Figure 12.

  • Table 12

    Data from Figure 12

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    Eccentricity curves for EPSILON3 in Figure 12.

  • Table 13

    Data from Figure 12

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    Eccentricity curves for EPSILON4 in Figure 12.

  • Table 14

    Data from Figure 13

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t14

    Comparison of MEAN(V2) and SQRT(MEAN(V2**2)), derived from the EbyE V2 distributions, with the V2(EP), for charged particles in the pT...

  • Table 15

    Data from Figure 13

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t15

    The ratios of SQRT(MEAN(V2**2)) and V2(EP) to MEAN(V2), for charged particles in the pT > 0.5 GeV range.

  • Table 16

    Data from Figure 13

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t16

    Comparison of MEAN(V3) and SQRT(MEAN(V3**2)), derived from the EbyE V3 distributions, with the V3(EP), for charged particles in the pT...

  • Table 17

    Data from Figure 13

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t17

    The ratios of SQRT(MEAN(V3**2)) and V3(EP) to MEAN(V3), for charged particles in the pT > 0.5 GeV range.

  • Table 18

    Data from Figure 13

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t18

    Comparison of MEAN(V4) and SQRT(MEAN(V4**2)), derived from the EbyE V4 distributions, with the V4(EP), for charged particles in the pT...

  • Table 19

    Data from Figure 13

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t19

    The ratios of SQRT(MEAN(V4**2)) and V4(EP) to MEAN(V4), for charged particles in the pT > 0.5 GeV range.

  • Table 20

    Data from Figure 27

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t20

    Comparison of MEAN(V2) and SQRT(MEAN(V2**2)), derived from the EbyE V2 distributions, with the V2(EP), for charged particles in the 0.5...

  • Table 21

    Data from Figure 27

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t21

    The ratios of SQRT(MEAN(V2**2)) and V2(EP) to MEAN(V2), for charged particles in the 0.5 < pT < 1 GeV range.

  • Table 22

    Data from Figure 27

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t22

    Comparison of MEAN(V3) and SQRT(MEAN(V3**2)), derived from the EbyE V3 distributions, with the V3(EP), for charged particles in the 0.5...

  • Table 23

    Data from Figure 27

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t23

    The ratios of SQRT(MEAN(V3**2)) and V3(EP) to MEAN(V3), for charged particles in the 0.5 < pT < 1 GeV range.

  • Table 24

    Data from Figure 27

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t24

    Comparison of MEAN(V4) and SQRT(MEAN(V4**2)), derived from the EbyE V4 distributions, with the V4(EP), for charged particles in the 0.5...

  • Table 25

    Data from Figure 27

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t25

    The ratios of SQRT(MEAN(V4**2)) and V4(EP) to MEAN(V4), for charged particles in the 0.5 < pT < 1 GeV range.

  • Table 26

    Data from Figure 28

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t26

    Comparison of MEAN(V2) and SQRT(MEAN(V2**2)), derived from the EbyE V2 distributions, with the V2(EP), for charged particles in the pT...

  • Table 27

    Data from Figure 28

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t27

    The ratios of SQRT(MEAN(V2**2)) and V2(EP) to MEAN(V2), for charged particles in the pT > 1 GeV range.

  • Table 28

    Data from Figure 28

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t28

    Comparison of MEAN(V3) and SQRT(MEAN(V3**2)), derived from the EbyE V3 distributions, with the V3(EP), for charged particles in the pT...

  • Table 29

    Data from Figure 28

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t29

    The ratios of SQRT(MEAN(V3**2)) and V3(EP) to MEAN(V3), for charged particles in the pT > 1 GeV range.

  • Table 30

    Data from Figure 28

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t30

    Comparison of MEAN(V4) and SQRT(MEAN(V4**2)), derived from the EbyE V4 distributions, with the V4(EP), for charged particles in the pT...

  • Table 31

    Data from Figure 28

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t31

    The ratios of SQRT(MEAN(V4**2)) and V4(EP) to MEAN(V4), for charged particles in the pT > 1 GeV range.

  • Table 32

    Data from Figure 14

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    Bessel-Gaussian fit parameters from Eq. (1.4) and total errors.

  • Table 33

    Data from Figure 15

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t33

    The dependence of MEAN(V2) and V2(RP) on MEAN(Npart).

  • Table 34

    Data from Figure 15

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t34

    The dependence of SIGMA(V2) and DELTA(V2) on MEAN(Npart).

  • Table 35

    Data from Figure 15

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t35

    The dependence of SIGMA(V2) / MEAN(V2) and DELTA(V2) / V2(RP) on MEAN(Npart).

  • Table 36

    Data from Figure 16

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t36

    Comparison of the V2(RP) obtained from the Bessel-Gaussian fit of the V2 distributions with the values for two-particle (V2(calc){2}), four-particle...

  • Table 37

    Data from Figure 16

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t37

    The ratios of the four-particle (V2(calc){4}), six-particle (V2(calc){6}) and eight-particle (V2(calc){8}) cumulants to the fit results (V2(RP)), with the total...

  • Table 38

    Data from Figure 16

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t38

    The ratios of the six-particle (V2(calc){6}) and eight-particle (V2(calc){8}) cumulants to the four-particle (V2(calc){4}) cumulants, with the total uncertainties.

  • Table 39

    Data from Figure 16

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t39

    Comparison of the V3(RP) obtained from the Bessel-Gaussian fit of the V3 distributions with the values for two-particle (V3(calc){2}), four-particle...

  • Table 40

    Data from Figure 16

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t40

    The ratios of the four-particle (V3(calc){4}), six-particle (V3(calc){6}) and eight-particle (V3(calc){8}) cumulants to the fit results (V3(RP)), with the total...

  • Table 41

    Data from Figure 16

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t41

    The ratios of the six-particle (V3(calc){6}) and eight-particle (V3(calc){8}) cumulants to the four-particle (V3(calc){4}) cumulants, with the total uncertainties.

  • Table 42

    Data from Figure 17

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t42

    The standard deviation (SIGMA(V2)), the width obtained from Bessel-Gaussian function (DELTA(V2)), the width F1 = SQRT( ( V2(calc){2}**2 - V2(calc){4}**2...

  • Table 43

    Data from Figure 17

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t43

    Various estimates of the relative fluctuations given as SIGMA(V2) / MEAN(V2), DELTA(V2) / V2(RP), F2 = SQRT( ( V2(calc){2}**2 -...

  • Table 44

    Data from Figure 29 (left panel)

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t44

    Comparison in 0.5 < pT < 1 GeV of the V2(RP) obtained from the Bessel-Gaussian fit of the V2 distributions...

  • Table 45

    Data from Figure 29 (left panel)

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t45

    The ratios for 0.5 < pT < 1 GeV of the four-particle (V2(calc){4}), six-particle (V2(calc){6}) and eight-particle (V2(calc){8}) cumulants to...

  • Table 46

    Data from Figure 29 (left panel)

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t46

    The ratios for 0.5 < pT < 1 GeV of the six-particle (V2(calc){6}) and eight-particle (V2(calc){8}) cumulants to the four-particle...

  • Table 47

    Data from Figure 29 (right panel)

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t47

    Comparison in pT > 1 GeV of the V2(RP) obtained from the Bessel-Gaussian fit of the V2 distributions with the...

  • Table 48

    Data from Figure 29 (right panel)

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t48

    The ratios for pT > 1 GeV of the four-particle (V2(calc){4}), six-particle (V2(calc){6}) and eight-particle (V2(calc){8}) cumulants to the fit...

  • Table 49

    Data from Figure 29 (right panel)

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t49

    The ratios for pT > 1 GeV of the six-particle (V2(calc){6}) and eight-particle (V2(calc){8}) cumulants to the four-particle (V2(calc){4}) cumulants,...

  • Table 50

    Data from Figure 32 (left panel)

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t50

    The values of V2(RP) and V2(RP,obs) obtained from the Bessel-Gaussian fits to the V2 and V2(obs) distributions, with the statistical...

  • Table 51

    Data from Figure 32 (right panel)

    10.17182/hepdata.62783.v1/t51

    The values of DELTA(V2) and DELTA(V2,obs) obtained from the Bessel-Gaussian fits to the V2 and V2(obs) distributions, with the statistical...

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