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Beam energy dependence of moments of the net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration
Phys.Rev.Lett. 113 (2014) 092301, 2014.

Abstract (data abstract)
We report the first measurements of the moments - mean ($M$), variance ($\sigma^{2}$), skewness ($S$) and kurtosis ($\kappa$) - of the net-charge multiplicity distributions at mid-rapidity in Au+Au collisions at seven energies, ranging from $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 7.7 to 200~GeV, as a part of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC. The moments are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of net-charge, and are sensitive to the location of the QCD critical point. We compare the products of the moments, $\sigma^{2}/M$, $S\sigma$ and $\kappa\sigma^{2}$ with the expectations from Poisson and negative binomial distributions (NBD). The $S\sigma$ values deviate from Poisson and are close to NBD baseline, while the $\kappa\sigma^{2}$ values tend to lie between the two. Within the present uncertainties, our data do not show non-monotonic behavior as a function of collision energy. These measurements provide a valuable tool to extract the freeze-out parameters in heavy-ion collisions by comparing with theoretical models.

  • Figure 1 (a) 7.7 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (a)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t1

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected mean (M) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (a) 11.5 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (a)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t2

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected mean (M) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (a) 19.6 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (a)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t3

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected mean (M) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (a) 27 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (a)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t4

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected mean (M) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (a) 39 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (a)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t5

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected mean (M) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (a) 62.4 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (a)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t6

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected mean (M) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (a) 200 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (a)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t7

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected mean (M) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (b) 7.7 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (b)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t8

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected standard deviation ($\sigma$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number...

  • Figure 1 (b) 11.5 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (b)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t9

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected standard deviation ($\sigma$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number...

  • Figure 1 (b) 19.6 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (b)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t10

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected standard deviation ($\sigma$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number...

  • Figure 1 (b) 27 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (b)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t11

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected standard deviation ($\sigma$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number...

  • Figure 1 (b) 39 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (b)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t12

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected standard deviation ($\sigma$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number...

  • Figure 1 (b) 62.4 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (b)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t13

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected standard deviation ($\sigma$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number...

  • Figure 1 (b) 200 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (b)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t14

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected standard deviation ($\sigma$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number...

  • Figure 1 (c) 7.7 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (c)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t15

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected skewness ($S$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (c) 11.5 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (c)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t16

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected skewness ($S$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (c) 19.6 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (c)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t17

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected skewness ($S$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (c) 27 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (c)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t18

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected skewness ($S$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (c) 39 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (c)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t19

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected skewness ($S$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (c) 62.4 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (c)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t20

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected skewness ($S$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (c) 200 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (c)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t21

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected skewness ($S$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (d) 7.7 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (d)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t22

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected kurtosis ($\kappa$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (d) 11.5 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (d)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t23

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected kurtosis ($\kappa$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (d) 19.6 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (d)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t24

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected kurtosis ($\kappa$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (d) 27 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (d)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t25

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected kurtosis ($\kappa$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (d) 39 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (d)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t26

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected kurtosis ($\kappa$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (d) 62.4 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (d)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t27

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected kurtosis ($\kappa$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 1 (d) 200 GeV

    Data from Figure 1 (d)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t28

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected kurtosis ($\kappa$) of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of...

  • Figure 2 (a) 7.7 GeV

    Data from Figure 2 (a)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t29

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected $S\sigma$ of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of participating...

  • Figure 2 (b) 11.5 GeV

    Data from Figure 2 (b)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t30

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected $S\sigma$ of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of participating...

  • Figure 2 (c) 19.6 GeV

    Data from Figure 2 (c)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t31

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected $S\sigma$ of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of participating...

  • Figure 2 (d) 27 GeV

    Data from Figure 2 (d)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t32

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected $S\sigma$ of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of participating...

  • Figure 2 (e) 39 GeV

    Data from Figure 2 (e)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t33

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected $S\sigma$ of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of participating...

  • Figure 2 (e) 62.4 GeV

    Data from Figure 2 (e)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t34

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected $S\sigma$ of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of participating...

  • Figure 2 (f) 200 GeV

    Data from Figure 2 (f)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t35

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected $S\sigma$ of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of participating...

  • Figure 3 (a) 7.7 GeV

    Data from Figure 3 (a)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t36

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected $\kappa\sigma^2$ of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of participating...

  • Figure 3 (b) 11.5 GeV

    Data from Figure 3 (b)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t37

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected $\kappa\sigma^2$ of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of participating...

  • Figure 3 (c) 19.6 GeV

    Data from Figure 3 (c)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t38

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected $\kappa\sigma^2$ of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of participating...

  • Figure 3 (d) 27 GeV

    Data from Figure 3 (d)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t39

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected $\kappa\sigma^2$ of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of participating...

  • Figure 3 (e) 39 GeV

    Data from Figure 3 (e)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t40

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected $\kappa\sigma^2$ of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of participating...

  • Figure 3 (e) 62.4 GeV

    Data from Figure 3 (e)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t41

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected $\kappa\sigma^2$ of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of participating...

  • Figure 3 (f) 200 GeV

    Data from Figure 3 (f)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t42

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected $\kappa\sigma^2$ of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of number of participating...

  • Figure 4 (a)

    Data from Figure 4 (a)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t43

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected $\sigma^2/M$ of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of collision energy for...

  • Figure 4 (b)

    Data from Figure 4 (b)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t44

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected $S\sigma^2$ of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of collision energy for...

  • Figure 4 (c)

    Data from Figure 4 (c)

    10.17182/hepdata.105915.v1/t45

    The efficiency and centrality bin width corrected $\kappa\sigma^2$ of the net-charge multiplicity distributions as a function of collision energy for...

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