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Beam-energy-dependent two-pion interferometry and the freeze-out eccentricity of pions measured in heavy ion collisions at the STAR detector

The STAR collaboration
Phys.Rev.C 92 (2015) 014904, 2015.

Abstract (data abstract)
We present results of analyses of two-pion interferometry in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{sNN}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV measured in the STAR detector as part of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan program. The extracted correlation lengths (HBT radii) are studied as a function of beam energy, azimuthal angle relative to the reaction plane, centrality, and transverse mass ($m_T$) of the particles. The azimuthal analysis allows extraction of the eccentricity of the entire fireball at kinetic freeze-out. The energy dependence of this observable is expected to be sensitive to changes in the equation of state. A new global fit method is studied as an alternate method to directly measure the parameters in the azimuthal analysis. The eccentricity shows a monotonic decrease with beam energy that is qualitatively consistent with the trend from all model predictions and quantitatively consistent with a hadronic transport model.

  • Figure 3

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    Angular oscillations of the HBT radii relative to the event plane from 20-30% central, 19.6 GeV Au+Au collisions for 0.15...

  • Figure 4.1

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    Angular oscillations of the HBT radii relative to the event plane from 20-30% central, 19.6 GeV Au+Au collisions for 0.15...

  • Figure 4.2

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    Angular oscillations of the HBT radii relative to the event plane from 20-30% central, 19.6 GeV Au+Au collisions for 0.15...

  • Figure 5

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    Sample fit projections onto the $q_{out}$, $q_{side}$, and $q_{long}$ axes respectively for four angular bins relative to the reaction. These...

  • Figure 6

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    Energy dependence of the HBT parameters for central Au+Au, Pb+Pb, and Pb+Au collisions at mid-rapidity and $\langle k_T \rangle \approx...

  • Figure 7

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    The $\langle m_T \rangle$ dependence of $R_{out}$, $R_{side}$ and $R_{long}$ for all energies at 0-5% centrality. Errors are statistical only....

  • Figure 8

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    The $\langle m_T \rangle$ dependence of $R_{out}$, $R_{side}$ and $R_{long}$ for each energy and multiple centralities. Errors are statistical only.

  • Figure 9.1

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    The dependence of the HBT radii on multiplicity,$\langle dN_{ch}/d\eta \rangle^{1/3}$, for $k_T\approx 0.22$ GeV/c and$k_T\approx 0.39$ GeV/c. Results are for...

  • Figure 9.2

    10.17182/hepdata.96391.v1/t9

    The dependence of the HBT radii on multiplicity,$\langle dN_{ch}/d\eta \rangle^{1/3}$, for $k_T\approx 0.22$ GeV/c and$k_T\approx 0.39$ GeV/c. Results are for...

  • Figure 9.3

    10.17182/hepdata.96391.v1/t10

    The dependence of the HBT radii on multiplicity,$\langle dN_{ch}/d\eta \rangle^{1/3}$, for $k_T\approx 0.22$ GeV/c and$k_T\approx 0.39$ GeV/c. Results are for...

  • Figure 9.4

    10.17182/hepdata.96391.v1/t11

    The dependence of the HBT radii on multiplicity,$\langle dN_{ch}/d\eta \rangle^{1/3}$, for $k_T\approx 0.22$ GeV/c and$k_T\approx 0.39$ GeV/c. Results are for...

  • Figure 9.5

    10.17182/hepdata.96391.v1/t12

    The dependence of the HBT radii on multiplicity,$\langle dN_{ch}/d\eta \rangle^{1/3}$, for $k_T\approx 0.22$ GeV/c and$k_T\approx 0.39$ GeV/c. Results are for...

  • Figure 9.6

    10.17182/hepdata.96391.v1/t13

    The dependence of the HBT radii on multiplicity,$\langle dN_{ch}/d\eta \rangle^{1/3}$, for $k_T\approx 0.22$ GeV/c and$k_T\approx 0.39$ GeV/c. Results are for...

  • Figure 9.7

    10.17182/hepdata.96391.v1/t14

    The dependence of the HBT radii on multiplicity,$\langle dN_{ch}/d\eta \rangle^{1/3}$, for $k_T\approx 0.22$ GeV/c and$k_T\approx 0.39$ GeV/c. Results are for...

  • Figure 9.8

    10.17182/hepdata.96391.v1/t15

    The dependence of the HBT radii on multiplicity,$\langle dN_{ch}/d\eta \rangle^{1/3}$, for $k_T\approx 0.22$ GeV/c and$k_T\approx 0.39$ GeV/c. Results are for...

  • Figure 10

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    The beam energy dependence of the volume of the regions of homogeneity at kinetic freeze-out in central Au+Au, Pb+Pb and...

  • Figure 11

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    The lifetime, $\tau$, of the system as a function of beam energy for central Au+Au collisions assuming a temperature of...

  • Figure 12.1

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 12.2

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 13

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at backward(−1<y<−0.5), forward(0.5<y<1)and mid(−0.5<y< 0.5) rapidity,...

  • Figure 14.1

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 14.2

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 15

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at backward(−1<y<−0.5), forward(0.5<y<1) and mid(−0.5<y< 0.5)...

  • Figure 16.1

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 16.2

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 17

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at backward(−1<y<−0.5), forward(0.5<y<1) and mid(−0.5<y< 0.5)...

  • Figure 18.1

    10.17182/hepdata.96391.v1/t27

    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 18.2

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 19

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at backward(−1<y<−0.5), forward(0.5<y<1) and mid(−0.5<y< 0.5)...

  • Figure 20.1

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 20.2

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 21

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at backward(−1<y<−0.5), forward(0.5<y<1) and mid(−0.5<y< 0.5)...

  • Figure 22.1

    10.17182/hepdata.96391.v1/t33

    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 22.2

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 23

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at backward(−1<y<−0.5), forward(0.5<y<1) and mid(−0.5<y< 0.5)...

  • Figure 24.1

    10.17182/hepdata.96391.v1/t36

    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 24.2

    10.17182/hepdata.96391.v1/t37

    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 25

    10.17182/hepdata.96391.v1/t38

    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at backward(−1<y<−0.5), forward(0.5<y<1) and mid(−0.5<y< 0.5)...

  • Figure 26

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    Beam energy dependence of the $R_{ol,0}^2$ cross term for forward and backward rapidity with ⟨$k_T$⟩ ≈ 0.31 GeV/c.

  • Figure 27

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    The eccentricity of the collisions at kinetic freez-out, εF , as a function of initial eccentricity relative to the participant...

  • Figure 28.1

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    The dependence of the kinetic freeze-out eccentricity of pions on collision energy in mid-central Au+Au collisions (E895, STAR) and Pb+Au...

  • Figure 28.2

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    The dependence of the kinetic freeze-out eccentricity of pions on collision energy in mid-central Au+Au collisions using UrQMD calculations, (2+1)D...

  • Figure 28.3

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    The dependence of the kinetic freeze-out eccentricity of pions on collision energy in mid-central Au+Au collisions using (2+1)D hydro EOS-Q,...

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