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Measurement of long-range multiparticle azimuthal correlations with the subevent cumulant method in $pp$ and $p + Pb$ collisions with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

The ATLAS collaboration
Phys.Rev.C 97 (2018) 024904, 2018.

Abstract
A detailed study of multi-particle azimuthal correlations is presented using $pp$ data at $\sqrt{s}=5.02$ and 13 TeV, and $p$+Pb data at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV, recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The azimuthal correlations are probed using four-particle cumulants $c_{n}\{4\}$ and flow coefficients $v_n\{4\}=(-c_{n}\{4\})^{1/4}$ for $n=2$ and 3, with the goal of extracting long-range multi-particle azimuthal correlation signals and suppressing the short-range correlations. The values of $c_{n}\{4\}$ are obtained as a function of the average number of charged particles per event, $\left\langle N_{\rm{ch}} \right\rangle$, using the recently proposed two-subevent and three-subevent cumulant methods, and compared with results obtained with the standard cumulant method. The three-subevent method is found to be least sensitive to short-range correlations, which originate mostly from jets with a positive contribution to $c_{n}\{4\}$. The three-subevent method gives a negative $c_{2}\{4\}$, and therefore a well-defined $v_2\{4\}$, nearly independent of $\left\langle N_{\rm{ch}} \right\rangle$, which provides direct evidence that the long-range multi-particle azimuthal correlations persist to events with low multiplicity. Furthermore, $v_2\{4\}$ is found to be smaller than the $v_2\{2\}$ measured using the two-particle correlation method, as expected for long-range collective behavior. Finally, the measured values of $v_2\{4\}$ and $v_2\{2\}$ are used to estimate the number of sources relevant for the initial eccentricity in the collision geometry.

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