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Azimuthal anisotropy in Cu$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration
Phys.Rev.C 98 (2018) 014915, 2018.

Abstract
The azimuthal anisotropic flow of identified and unidentified charged particles has been systematically studied in Cu+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV for harmonics $n=$ 1-4 in the pseudorapidity range $|\eta|<1$. The directed flow in Cu+Au collisions is compared with the rapidity-odd and, for the first time, the rapidity-even components of charged particle directed flow in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200~GeV. The slope of the directed flow pseudorapidity dependence in Cu+Au collisions is found to be similar to that in Au+Au collisions, with the intercept shifted toward positive $\eta$ values, i.e., the Cu-going direction. The mean transverse momentum projected onto the spectator plane, $\langle p_x\rangle$, in Cu+Au collision also exhibits approximately linear dependence on $\eta$ with the intercept at about $\eta\approx-0.4$, closer to the rapidity of the Cu+Au system center-of-mass. The observed dependencies find natural explanation in a picture of the directed flow originating partly due the "tilted source" and partly due to the rapidity dependent asymmetry in the initial density distribution. Charge-dependence of the $\langle p_x\rangle$ was also observed in Cu+Au collisions, indicating an effect of the initial electric field created by charge difference of the spectator protons in two colliding nuclei. The rapidity-even component of directed flow in Au+Au collisions is close to that in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV, indicating a similar magnitude of dipole-like fluctuations in the initial-state density distribution. Higher harmonic flow in Cu+Au collisions exhibits similar trends to those observed in Au+Au and Pb+Pb collisions and is qualitatively reproduced by a viscous hydrodynamic model and a multi-phase transport model. For all harmonics with $n\ge2$ we observe an approximate scaling of $v_n$ with the number of constituent quarks.

  • Figure 4ab

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    Directed flow $v_1(\eta)$ and $(\eta)$ of charged particles measured with respect to the target and projectile spectator planes in 10%-40%...

  • Figure 4cd

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    Directed flow $v_1(\eta)$ and $(\eta)$ of charged particles measured with respect to the target and projectile spectator planes in 10%-40%...

  • Figure 5

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    Conventional and fluctuation components of directed flow $v_1(\eta)$ and momentum shift $/(\eta)$ of charged particles in 10%-40% centrality for Cu+Au...

  • Figure 6ab

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    Slopes and intercepts of $/(\eta)$ in Cu+Au and Au+Au collisions.

  • Figure 6cd

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    Slopes and intercepts of $v_1(\eta)$ in Cu+Au and Au+Au collisions.

  • Figure 7

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    Centrality dependence of $v_1^{fluc(even)}$ and $/$ in Cu+Au and Au+Au collisions.

  • Figure 8

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    $p_T$ dependence of $v_1^{fluc(even)}$ and $v_1^{conv(odd)}$ in Cu+Au and Au+Au collisions.

  • Figure 9a.1

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    $p_T$ dependence of $v_1$ measured with three-point correlator in Cu+Au collisions

  • Figure 9a.2

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    $p_T$ dependence of $v_1$ measured with three-point correlator in Cu+Au collisions

  • Figure 9b

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    $\eta$ dependence of $v_1$ measured with three-point correlator in Cu+Au collisions

  • Figure 10.1

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    Directed flow $v_1(p_T)$ of $\pi^+ + \pi^-$ in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 10.2

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    Directed flow $v_1(p_T)$ of $K^++K^-$ in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 10.3

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    Directed flow $v_1(p_T)$ of $p+\bar{p}$ in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 11

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    Centrality dpendence of $$ of positively and negatively charged particles and its differece in Cu+Au and Au+Au collisions.

  • Figure 13.1

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    Higher harmonic flow coefficients $v_n{\Psi_n}$ of charged particles for different centrality bins in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 13.2

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    Higher harmonic flow coefficients of charged particles for different centrality bins in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 13.3

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    Higher harmonic flow coefficients $v_n{\Psi_n}$ of charged particles for different centrality bins in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 14.1

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    Higher harmonic flow coefficients $v_n$ of charged particles for two selected $p_T$ bins as a function of the number of...

  • Figure 14.2

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    Higher harmonic flow coefficients $v_n$ of charged particles for two selected $p_T$ bins as a function of the number of...

  • Figure 15

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    The second and third harmonic flow coefficients $v_n(p_T)$ of charged particles measured with the scalar product method for 0-5% and...

  • Figure 17.1

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    The second $v_2(p_T)$ harmonic flow coefficients of $\pi$ for different centrality bins in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 17.2

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    The second $v_2(p_T)$ harmonic flow coefficients of p for different centrality bins in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 17.3

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    The third $v_3(p_T)$ harmonic flow coefficients of $\pi$ for different centrality bins in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 17.4

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    The third $v_3(p_T)$ harmonic flow coefficients of p for different centrality bins in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 17.5

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    The second $v_2(p_T)$ and third $v_3(p_T)$ harmonic flow coefficients of K for different centrality bins in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 18.1

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    Higher harmonic flow coefficients $v_2(p_T)$, $v_3(p_T)$, and $v_4(p_T)$ of $\pi$, K, and p for 0-40% centrality bin in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 18.2

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    Higher harmonic flow coefficients $v_2(p_T)$, $v_3(p_T)$, and $v_4(p_T)$ of $\pi$, K, and p for 0-40% centrality bin in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 18.3

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    Higher harmonic flow coefficients $v_2(p_T)$, $v_3(p_T)$, and $v_4(p_T)$ of $\pi$, K, and p for 0-40% centrality bin in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 18.4

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    Higher harmonic flow coefficients $v_2(p_T)$, $v_3(p_T)$, and $v_4(p_T)$ of $\pi$, K, and p for 0-40% centrality bin in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 18.5

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    Higher harmonic flow coefficients $v_2(p_T)$, $v_3(p_T)$, and $v_4(p_T)$ of $\pi$, K, and p for 0-40% centrality bin in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 18.6

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    Higher harmonic flow coefficients $v_2(p_T)$, $v_3(p_T)$, and $v_4(p_T)$ of $\pi$, K, and p for 0-40% centrality bin in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 18.7

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    Higher harmonic flow coefficients $v_2(p_T)$, $v_3(p_T)$, and $v_4(p_T)$ of $\pi$, K, and p for 0-40% centrality bin in Cu+Au collisions.

  • Figure 18.8

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    Higher harmonic flow coefficients $v_2(p_T)$, $v_3(p_T)$, and $v_4(p_T)$ of $\pi$, K, and p for 0-40% centrality bin in Cu+Au collisions.

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