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Global baryon number conservation encoded in net-proton fluctuations measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration
Phys.Lett.B 807 (2020) 135564, 2020.

Abstract (data abstract)
CERN-LHC. Experimental results are presented on event-by-event net-proton fluctuation measurements in Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}} = 2.76$~TeV, recorded by the ALICE detector at the CERN LHC. These measurements have as their ultimate goal an experimental test of Lattice QCD (LQCD) predictions on second and higher order cumulants of net-baryon distributions to search for critical behavior near the QCD phase boundary. Before confronting them with LQCD predictions, account has to be taken of correlations stemming from baryon number conservation as well as fluctuations of participating nucleons. Both effects influence the experimental measurements and are usually not considered in theoretical calculations. For the first time, it is shown that event-by-event baryon number conservation leads to subtle long-range correlations arising from very early interactions in the collisions.

  • Table 1

    Data from Figure 1


    Measured second cumulants of net-proton distributions.

  • Table 2

    Data from Figure 1


    Second cumulants of the Skellam distribution.

  • Table 3

    Data from Figure 1


    Measured second cumulants of protons.

  • Table 4

    Data from Figure 1


    Measured second cumulants of anti-protons.

  • Table 5

    Data from Figure 1


    Measured first cumulants of protons.

  • Table 6

    Data from Figure 1


    Measured first cumulants of anti-protons.

  • Table 7

    Data from Figure 1


    Measured R1 values.

  • Table 8

    Data from Figure 1


    Measured R2 values.

  • Table 9

    Data from Figure 1


    R2 values from Model.

  • Table 10

    Data from Figure 2


    R1 values vs. delaY.

  • Table 11

    Data from Figure 2


    Global baryon number conservation.

  • Table 12

    Data from Figure 2


    Local baryon number conservation, deltaY_corr = 5.

  • Table 13

    Data from Figure 2


    Local baryon number conservation, deltaY_corr = 2.

  • Table 14

    Data from Figure 2


    HIJING results.

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