Characterizing the initial conditions of heavy-ion collisions at the LHC with mean transverse momentum and anisotropic flow correlations

The ALICE collaboration
Phys.Lett.B 834 (2022) 137393, 2022.

Abstract (data abstract)
Correlations between mean transverse momentum $[p_{\rm T}]$ and anisotropic flow coefficients $v_{\rm 2}$ or $v_{\rm 3}$ are measured as a function of centrality in Pb--Pb and Xe--Xe collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV and 5.44 TeV, respectively, with ALICE. In addition, the recently proposed higher-order correlation between $[p_{\rm T}]$, $v_{\rm 2}$, and $v_{\rm 3}$ is measured for the first time, which shows an anticorrelation for the presented centrality ranges. These measurements are compared with hydrodynamic calculations using IP-Glasma and $\rm T_{R}ENTo$ initial-state shapes, the former based on the Color Glass Condensate effective theory with gluon saturation, and the latter a parameterized model with nucleons as the relevant degrees of freedom. The data are better described by the IP-Glasma rather than the $\rm T_{R}ENTo$ based calculations. In particular, Trajectum and JETSCAPE predictions, both based on the $\rm T_{R}ENTo$ initial state model but with different parameter settings, fail to describe the measurements. As the correlations between $[p_{\rm T}]$ and $v_{\rm n}$ are mainly driven by the correlations of the size and the shape of the system in the initial state, these new studies pave a novel way to characterize the initial state in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  • Table 1

    Table from Figure 1


    Centrality dependence of $\rho\left(v_{2}^{2}, [p_{\rm T}] \right)$ and $\rho\left(v_{3}^{2}, [p_{\rm T}] \right)$ in Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02...

  • Table 2

    Table from Figure 1


    Centrality dependence of $\rho\left(v_{2}^{2}, [p_{\rm T}] \right)$ in Xe--Xe collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.44 TeV

  • Table 3

    Table from Figure 1


    Centrality dependence of $\rho\left(v_{3}^{2}, [p_{\rm T}] \right)$ in Xe--Xe collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.44 TeV

  • Table 4

    Table from Figure 2


    Centrality dependence of $\rho\left(v_{2}^{2}, v_{3}^{2}, [p_{\rm T}] \right)$ in Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

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