Observation of Global Spin Alignment of $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ Vector Mesons in Nuclear Collisions

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Nature (2023), 2023.
Inspire Record 2063245 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.129067

Notwithstanding decades of progress since Yukawa first developed a description of the force between nucleons in terms of meson exchange, a full understanding of the strong interaction remains a major challenge in modern science. One remaining difficulty arises from the non-perturbative nature of the strong force, which leads to the phenomenon of quark confinement at distances on the order of the size of the proton. Here we show that in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, where quarks and gluons are set free over an extended volume, two species of produced vector (spin-1) mesons, namely $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$, emerge with a surprising pattern of global spin alignment. In particular, the global spin alignment for $\phi$ is unexpectedly large, while that for $K^{*0}$ is consistent with zero. The observed spin-alignment pattern and magnitude for the $\phi$ cannot be explained by conventional mechanisms, while a model with a connection to strong force fields, i.e. an effective proxy description within the Standard Model and Quantum Chromodynamics, accommodates the current data. This connection, if fully established, will open a potential new avenue for studying the behaviour of strong force fields.

38 data tables

Global spin alignment of $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. The measured matrix element $\rho_{00}$ as a function of beam energy for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons within the indicated windows of centrality, transverse momentum ($p_T$) and rapidity ($y$). The open symbols indicate ALICE results for Pb+Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV at $p_{T}$ values of 2.0 and 1.4 GeV/c for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ mesons, respectively, corresponding to the $p_{T}$ bin nearest to the mean $p_{T}$ for the 1.0 – 5.0 GeV/$c$ range assumed for each meson in the present analysis. The red solid curve is a fit to data in the range of $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 19.6$ to 200 GeV, based on a theoretical calculation with a $\phi$-meson field. Parameter sensitivity of $\rho_{00}$ to the $\phi$-meson field is shown in Ref.5. The red dashed line is an extension of the solid curve with the fitted parameter $G_s^{(y)}$. The black dashed line represents $\rho_{00}=1/3.$

Global spin alignment of $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. The measured matrix element $\rho_{00}$ as a function of beam energy for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons within the indicated windows of centrality, transverse momentum ($p_T$) and rapidity ($y$). The open symbols indicate ALICE results for Pb+Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV at $p_{T}$ values of 2.0 and 1.4 GeV/c for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ mesons, respectively, corresponding to the $p_{T}$ bin nearest to the mean $p_{T}$ for the 1.0 – 5.0 GeV/$c$ range assumed for each meson in the present analysis. The red solid curve is a fit to data in the range of $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 19.6$ to 200 GeV, based on a theoretical calculation with a $\phi$-meson field. Parameter sensitivity of $\rho_{00}$ to the $\phi$-meson field is shown in Ref.5. The red dashed line is an extension of the solid curve with the fitted parameter $G_s^{(y)}$. The black dashed line represents $\rho_{00}=1/3.$

Example of combinatorial background subtracted invariant mass distributions and the extracted yields as a function of $\cos \theta^*$ for $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ mesons. \textbf{a)} example of $\phi \rightarrow K^+ + K^-$ invariant mass distributions, with combinatorial background subtracted, integrated over $\cos \theta^*$; \textbf{b)} example of $K^{*0} (\overline{K^{*0}}) \rightarrow K^{-} \pi^{+} (K^{+} \pi^{-})$ invariant mass distributions, with combinatorial background subtracted, integrated over $\cos \theta^*$; \textbf{c)} extracted yields of $\phi$ as a function of $\cos \theta^*$; \textbf{d)} extracted yields of $K^{*0}$ as a function of $\cos \theta^*$.

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Light Nuclei Collectivity from $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 3 GeV Au+Au Collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 827 (2022) 136941, 2022.
Inspire Record 1986611 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115569

In high-energy heavy-ion collisions, partonic collectivity is evidenced by the constituent quark number scaling of elliptic flow anisotropy for identified hadrons. A breaking of this scaling and dominance of baryonic interactions is found for identified hadron collective flow measurements in $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 3 GeV Au+Au collisions. In this paper, we report measurements of the first- and second-order azimuthal anisotropic parameters, $v_1$ and $v_2$, of light nuclei ($d$, $t$, $^{3}$He, $^{4}$He) produced in $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 3 GeV Au+Au collisions at the STAR experiment. An atomic mass number scaling is found in the measured $v_1$ slopes of light nuclei at mid-rapidity. For the measured $v_2$ magnitude, a strong rapidity dependence is observed. Unlike $v_2$ at higher collision energies, the $v_2$ values at mid-rapidity for all light nuclei are negative and no scaling is observed with the atomic mass number. Calculations by the Jet AA Microscopic Transport Model (JAM), with baryonic mean-field plus nucleon coalescence, are in good agreement with our observations, implying baryonic interactions dominate the collective dynamics in 3 GeV Au+Au collisions at RHIC.

22 data tables

The rapidity and $p_{T}$ dependencies of $v_{1}$ for $p$ in 10-40% mid-central Au+Au collisions at 3 GeV.

The rapidity and $p_{T}$ dependencies of $v_{1}$ for $d$ in 10-40% mid-central Au+Au collisions at 3 GeV.

The $p_{T}$ dependencies of $v_{1}$ within $-0.1<y<0$ for $t$ in 10-40% mid-central Au+Au collisions at 3 GeV.

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Measurements of Proton High Order Cumulants in 3 GeV Au+Au Collisions and Implications for the QCD Critical Point

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 128 (2022) 202303, 2022.
Inspire Record 1981670 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115559

We report cumulants of the proton multiplicity distribution from dedicated fixed-target Au+Au collisions at 3.0 GeV, measured by the STAR experiment in the kinematic acceptance of rapidity ($y$) and transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) within $-0.5 < y<0$ and $0.4 < p_{\rm T} <2.0 $ GeV/$c$. In the most central 0--5% collisions, a proton cumulant ratio is measured to be $C_4/C_2=-0.85 \pm 0.09 ~(\rm stat.) \pm 0.82 ~(\rm syst.)$, which is less than unity, the Poisson baseline. The hadronic transport UrQMD model reproduces our $C_4/C_2$ in the measured acceptance. Compared to higher energy results and the transport model calculations, the suppression in $C_4/C_2$ is consistent with fluctuations driven by baryon number conservation and indicates an energy regime dominated by hadronic interactions. These data imply that the QCD critical region, if created in heavy-ion collisions, could only exist at energies higher than 3 GeV.

10 data tables

$\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 3.0 GeV data (black markers), GM (red histogram), and single and pile-up contributions from unfolding. Vertical lines on markers represent statistical uncertainties. Single, pile-up and single+pile-up collisions are shown in solid blue markers, dashed green and dashed magenta curves, respectively. Analysis is performed on 0–5% central events, indicated by a black arrow.

$\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 3.0 GeV data (black markers), GM (red histogram), and single and pile-up contributions from unfolding. Vertical lines on markers represent statistical uncertainties. Single, pile-up and single+pile-up collisions are shown in solid blue markers, dashed green and dashed magenta curves, respectively. Analysis is performed on 0–5% central events, indicated by a black arrow.

Centrality dependence of the proton cumulant ratios for Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 3.0 GeV. Protons are from $-0.5 < y < 0$ and $0.4 < p_{T} < 2.0$ GeV/$c$. Systematic uncertainties are represented by gray bars. Statistical uncertainties are smaller than marker size. CBWC is applied to all cumulant ratios. While open squares represent the data without the VFC correction, blue triangles and red circles are the results with VFC using the $\langle N_{\rm{part}} \rangle$ distributions from the UrQMD and Glauber models, respectively. UrQMD model results are represented as gold dashed line.

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Evidence of Mass Ordering of Charm and Bottom Quark Energy Loss in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 82 (2022) 1150, 2022.
Inspire Record 1978766 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115424

Partons traversing the strongly interacting medium produced in heavy-ion collisions are expected to lose energy depending on their color charge and mass. We measure the nuclear modification factors for charm- and bottom-decay electrons, defined as the ratio of yields, scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, in $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions to $p$+$p$ collisions ($R_{\rm AA}$), or in central to peripheral Au+Au collisions ($R_{\rm CP}$). We find the bottom-decay electron $R_{\rm AA}$ and $R_{\rm CP}$ to be significantly higher than that of charm-decay electrons. Model calculations including mass-dependent parton energy loss in a strongly coupled medium are consistent with the measured data. These observations provide clear evidence of mass ordering of charm and bottom quark energy loss when traversing through the strongly coupled medium created in heavy-ion collisions.

12 data tables

Fit to the $\rm log_{10}(DCA/cm)$ of candidate electrons with $p_{\rm T}$ $\in$ [3.5,4.5] GeV/$c$ in 0-80% Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=200$ GeV, where the DCA is defined as the 3D distance-of-closest approach of the track to the primary vertex. The solid blue line shows the full template fit, and the various other lines show the individual components. The bottom panel shows the residual distribution of the template fit scaled by the statistical uncertainties.

Invariant yield of the electrons from decays of prompt $J/\psi$, $\Upsilon$, Drell-Yan and light vector mesons in 0-80% Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV.

Invariant yield of heavy flavor hadron decayed electrons in 0-80% Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV.

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Evidence for Nonlinear Gluon Effects in QCD and their $A$ Dependence at STAR

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 129 (2022) 092501, 2022.
Inspire Record 1972873 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115421

The STAR Collaboration reports measurements of back-to-back azimuthal correlations of di-$\pi^0$s produced at forward pseudorapidities ($2.6<\eta<4.0$) in $p$+$p$, $p+$Al, and $p+$Au collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 200 GeV. We observe a clear suppression of the correlated yields of back-to-back $\pi^0$ pairs in $p+$Al and $p+$Au collisions compared to the $p$+$p$ data. The observed suppression of back-to-back pairs as a function of transverse momentum suggests nonlinear gluon dynamics arising at high parton densities. The larger suppression found in $p+$Au relative to $p+$Al collisions exhibits a dependence of the saturation scale, $Q_s^2$, on the mass number, $A$. A linear scaling of the suppression with $A^{1/3}$ is observed with a slope of $-0.09$$\pm$$0.01$.

15 data tables

The correlation functions (corrected for nonuniform detector efficiency in $\phi$; not corrected for the absolute detection efficiency) vs. azimuthal angle difference between forward ($2.6<\eta<4.0$) $\pi^{0}$s in $p$+$p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{_{NN}}}}=200$ GeV at low $p_{T}$ ($p^{trig}_{T}$=2-2.5 GeV/c, $p^{asso}_{T}$=1-1.5 GeV/c)

The correlation functions (corrected for nonuniform detector efficiency in $\phi$; not corrected for the absolute detection efficiency) vs. azimuthal angle difference between forward ($2.6<\eta<4.0$) $\pi^{0}$s in $p+$Al collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{_{NN}}}}=200$ GeV at low $p_{T}$ ($p^{trig}_{T}$=2-2.5 GeV/c, $p^{asso}_{T}$=1-1.5 GeV/c)

The correlation functions (corrected for nonuniform detector efficiency in $\phi$; not corrected for the absolute detection efficiency) vs. azimuthal angle difference between forward ($2.6<\eta<4.0$) $\pi^{0}$s in $p+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{_{NN}}}}=200$ GeV at low $p_{T}$ ($p^{trig}_{T}$=2-2.5 GeV/c, $p^{asso}_{T}$=1-1.5 GeV/c)

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Longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for inclusive jet and dijet production in polarized proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 105 (2022) 092011, 2022.
Inspire Record 1949588 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.114778

We report measurements of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, $A_{LL}$, for inclusive jet and dijet production in polarized proton-proton collisions at midrapidity and center-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s}$ = 510 GeV, using the high luminosity data sample collected by the STAR experiment in 2013. These measurements complement and improve the precision of previous STAR measurements at the same center-of-mass energy that probe the polarized gluon distribution function at partonic momentum fraction 0.015 $\lesssim x \lesssim$ 0.25. The dijet asymmetries are separated into four jet-pair topologies, which provide further constraints on the $x$ dependence of the polarized gluon distribution function. These measurements are in agreement with previous STAR measurements and with predictions from current next-to-leading order global analyses. They provide more precise data at low dijet invariant mass that will better constraint the shape of the polarized gluon distribution function of the proton.

20 data tables

Parton jet $p_T$ vs $A_{LL}$ values with associated uncertainties.

Parton dijet $M_{inv}$ vs $A_{LL}$ values with associated uncertainties, for topology A.

Parton dijet $M_{inv}$ vs $A_{LL}$ values with associated uncertainties, for topology B.

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Disappearance of partonic collectivity in $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 3 GeV Au+Au collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 827 (2022) 137003, 2022.
Inspire Record 1897294 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.110656

We report on the measurements of directed flow $v_1$ and elliptic flow $v_2$ for hadrons ($\pi^{\pm}$, $K^{\pm}$, $K_{S}^0$, $p$, $\phi$, $\Lambda$ and $\Xi^{-}$) from Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 3 GeV and $v_{2}$ for ($\pi^{\pm}$, $K^{\pm}$, $p$ and $\overline{p}$) at 27 and 54.4 GeV with the STAR experiment. While at the two higher energy midcentral collisions the number-of-constituent-quark (NCQ) scaling holds, at 3 GeV the $v_{2}$ at midrapidity is negative for all hadrons and the NCQ scaling is absent. In addition, the $v_1$ slopes at midrapidity for almost all observed hadrons are found to be positive, implying dominant repulsive baryonic interactions. The features of negative $v_2$ and positive $v_1$ slope at 3 GeV can be reproduced with a baryonic mean-field in transport model calculations. These results imply that the medium in such collisions is likely characterized by baryonic interactions.

32 data tables

Event plane resolution as a function of collision centrality from Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=3 (a), 27 and 54.4 GeV (b). In case of the 3 GeV collisions, $\Psi_{1}$ is used to determine the event plane resolutions for the first and second harmonic coefficients shown as $R_{11}$ and $R_{12}$ in left panel. In the 27 and 54.4 GeV collisions, $\Psi_{2}$ is used to evaluate the second order event plane resolution, see right panel. In all cases, the statistic uncertainties are smaller than symbol sizes.

Rapidity($y$) dependence of $v_1$ (top panels) and $v_2$ (bottom panels) of proton and $\Lambda$ baryons (left panels), pions (middle panels) and kaons (right panels) in 10-40% centrality for the $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 3GeV Au+Au collisions. Statistical and systematic uncertainties are shown as bars and gray bands, respectively. Some uncertainties are smaller than the data points. The UrQMD and JAM results are shown as bands:golden, red and blue bands stand for JAM mean-field, UrQMD mean-field and UrQMD cascade mode, respectively. The value of the incompressibility $\kappa$ = 380 MeV is used in the mean-field option. More detailed model descriptions and data comparisons can be found in Supplemental Material.

Rapidity($y$) dependence of $v_1$ (top panels) and $v_2$ (bottom panels) of proton and $\Lambda$ baryons (left panels), pions (middle panels) and kaons (right panels) in 10-40% centrality for the $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 3GeV Au+Au collisions. Statistical and systematic uncertainties are shown as bars and gray bands, respectively. Some uncertainties are smaller than the data points. The UrQMD and JAM results are shown as bands:golden, red and blue bands stand for JAM mean-field, UrQMD mean-field and UrQMD cascade mode, respectively. The value of the incompressibility $\kappa$ = 380 MeV is used in the mean-field option. More detailed model descriptions and data comparisons can be found in Supplemental Material.

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Probing Strangeness Canonical Ensemble with $K^{-}$, $\phi(1020)$ and $\Xi^{-}$ Production in Au+Au Collisions at ${\sqrt{s_{NN}} = {3\,GeV}}$

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 831 (2022) 137152, 2022.
Inspire Record 1897327 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.110657

We report the first multi-differential measurements of strange hadrons of $K^{-}$, $\phi$ and $\Xi^{-}$ yields as well as the ratios of $\phi/K^-$ and $\phi/\Xi^-$ in Au+Au collisions at ${\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = \rm{3\,GeV}}$ with the STAR experiment fixed target configuration at RHIC. The $\phi$ mesons and $\Xi^{-}$ hyperons are measured through hadronic decay channels, $\phi\rightarrow K^+K^-$ and $\Xi^-\rightarrow \Lambda\pi^-$. Collision centrality and rapidity dependence of the transverse momentum spectra for these strange hadrons are presented. The $4\pi$ yields and ratios are compared to thermal model and hadronic transport model predictions. At this collision energy, thermal model with grand canonical ensemble (GCE) under-predicts the $\phi/K^-$ and $\phi/\Xi^-$ ratios while the result of canonical ensemble (CE) calculations reproduce $\phi/K^-$, with the correlation length $r_c \sim 2.7$ fm, and $\phi/\Xi^-$, $r_c \sim 4.2$ fm, for the 0-10% central collisions. Hadronic transport models including high mass resonance decays could also describe the ratios. While thermal calculations with GCE work well for strangeness production in high energy collisions, the change to CE at $\rm{3\,GeV}$ implies a rather different medium property at high baryon density.

12 data tables

$K^-$ (a), invariant yields as a function of $m_T-m_0$ for various rapidity regions in 0--10\% central Au+Au collisions at ${\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = \mathrm{3\,GeV}}$. Statistics and systematic uncertainties are added quadratic here for plotting. Solid and dashed black lines depict $m_T$ exponential function fits to the measured data points with arbitrate scaling factors in each rapidity windows.

$\phi$ meson (b) invariant yields as a function of $m_T-m_0$ for various rapidity regions in 0--10\% central Au+Au collisions at ${\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = \mathrm{3\,GeV}}$. Statistics and systematic uncertainties are added quadratic here for plotting. Solid and dashed black lines depict $m_T$ exponential function fits to the measured data points with arbitrate scaling factors in each rapidity windows.

$\Xi^-$ (c) invariant yields as a function of $m_T-m_0$ for various rapidity regions in 0--10\% central Au+Au collisions at ${\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = \mathrm{3\,GeV}}$. Statistics and systematic uncertainties are added quadratic here for plotting. Solid and dashed black lines depict $m_T$ exponential function fits to the measured data points with arbitrate scaling factors in each rapidity windows.

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Global $\Lambda$-hyperon polarization in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}=3$ GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 104 (2021) L061901, 2021.
Inspire Record 1897216 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.110658

Global hyperon polarization, $\overline{P}_\mathrm{H}$, in Au+Au collisions over a large range of collision energy, $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$, was recently measured and successfully reproduced by hydrodynamic and transport models with intense fluid vorticity of the quark-gluon plasma. While naïve extrapolation of data trends suggests a large $\overline{P}_\mathrm{H}$ as the collision energy is reduced, the behavior of $\overline{P}_\mathrm{H}$ at small $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}<7.7$ GeV is unknown. Operating the STAR experiment in fixed-target mode, we measured the polarization of $\Lambda$ hyperons along the direction of global angular momentum in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}=3$ GeV. The observation of substantial polarization of $4.91\pm0.81(\rm stat.)\pm0.15(\rm syst.)$% in these collisions may require a reexamination of the viscosity of any fluid created in the collision, of the thermalization timescale of rotational modes, and of hadronic mechanisms to produce global polarization.

6 data tables

The measured invariant-mass distributions of two classes of $\Lambda$-hyperon decays. The decay classes are defined using the scalar triple product $\left(\vec{p}_\Lambda\times\vec{p}_p^*\right)\cdot \vec{B}_{\rm STAR}$, which is positive for right decays and negative for left decays. The right decay class has a notably sharper invariant-mass distribution than the left decay class, and this is due to the effects of daughter tracks crossing in the STAR TPC with the STAR magnetic field anti-parallel to the lab frame's z direction. The opposite pattern is obtained by flipping the sign of the STAR magnetic field or by reconstructing $\bar{\Lambda}$ hyperons.

The signal polarizations extracted according to the restricted invariant-mass method as a function of $\phi_\Lambda - \phi_p^*$, for positive-rapidity $\Lambda$ hyperons. The sinusoidal behavior is driven by non-zero net $v_1$. The vertical shift corresponds to the vorticity-driven polarization; in collider mode, where the net $v_1$ is zero, this dependence on $\phi_\Lambda - \phi_p^*$ does not exist.

The integrated Global $\Lambda$-hyperon Polarization in mid-central collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=3$ GeV. The trend of increasing $\overline{P}_{\rm H}$ with decreasing $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ is maintained at this low collision energy. Previous experimental results are scaled by the updated $\Lambda$-hyperon decay parameter $\alpha_\Lambda=0.732$ for comparison with this result. Recent model calculations extended to low collision energy show disagreement between our data and AMPT and rough agreement with the 3-Fluid Dynamics (3FD) model. Previous measurements shown alongside our data can be found at: https://www.hepdata.net/record/ins750410?version=2; https://www.hepdata.net/record/ins1510474?version=1; https://www.hepdata.net/record/ins1672785?version=2; https://www.hepdata.net/record/ins1752507?version=2.

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Search for the chiral magnetic effect via charge-dependent azimuthal correlations relative to spectator and participant planes in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 128 (2022) 092301, 2022.
Inspire Record 1869023 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.127969

The chiral magnetic effect (CME) refers to charge separation along a strong magnetic field due to imbalanced chirality of quarks in local parity and charge-parity violating domains in quantum chromodynamics. The experimental measurement of the charge separation is made difficult by the presence of a major background from elliptic azimuthal anisotropy. This background and the CME signal have different sensitivities to the spectator and participant planes, and could thus be determined by measurements with respect to these planes. We report such measurements in Au+Au collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 200 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. It is found that the charge separation, with the flow background removed, is consistent with zero in peripheral (large impact parameter) collisions. Some indication of finite CME signals is seen in mid-central (intermediate impact parameter) collisions. Significant residual background effects may, however, still be present.

16 data tables

The centrality dependencies of the $v_{2}\{\psi_\mathrm{TPC}\}$ for Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$=200 GeV.

The centrality dependencies of the $v_{2}\{\psi_\mathrm{ZDC}\}$ for Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$=200 GeV.

The centrality dependencies of the $\Delta\gamma\{\psi_\mathrm{TPC}\}$ for Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$=200 GeV.

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