Investigations of Anisotropic Flow Using Multiparticle Azimuthal Correlations in pp, p-Pb, Xe-Xe, and Pb-Pb Collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adhya, Souvik Priyam ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 123 (2019) 142301, 2019.
Inspire Record 1723697 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.90955

Measurements of anisotropic flow coefficients ($v_n$) and their cross-correlations using two- and multi-particle cumulant methods are reported in collisions of pp at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV, p-Pb at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} = 5.02$ TeV, Xe-Xe at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} = 5.44$ TeV, and Pb-Pb at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} = 5.02$ TeV recorded with the ALICE detector. The multiplicity dependence of $v_n$ is studied in a very wide range from 20 to 3000 particles produced in the mid-rapidity region $|\eta|<0.8$ for the transverse momentum range $0.2 < p_{\rm T} < 3.0$ GeV/$c$. An ordering of the coefficients $v_2 > v_3 > v_4$ is found in pp and p-Pb collisions, similar to that seen in large collision systems, while a weak $v_2$ multiplicity dependence is observed relative to nucleus-nucleus collisions in the same multiplicity range. Using a novel subevent method, $v_{2}$ measured with four-particle cumulants is found to be compatible with that from six-particle cumulants in pp and p-Pb collisions. The magnitude of the correlation between $v_n^2$ and $v_m^2$, evaluated with the symmetric cumulants SC$(m,n)$ is observed to be positive at all multiplicities for $v_2$ and $v_4$, while for $v_2$ and $v_3$ it is negative and changes sign for multiplicities below 100, which may indicate a different $v_n$ fluctuation pattern in this multiplicity range. The observed long-range multi-particle azimuthal correlations in high multiplicity pp and p-Pb collisions can neither be described by PYTHIA 8 nor by IP-Glasma+MUSIC+UrQMD model calculations, and hence provide new insights into the understanding of collective effects in small collision systems.

43 data tables

$v_2\{2\}$ with $|\Delta \eta| > 1.4$ in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV.

$v_3\{2\}$ with $|\Delta \eta| > 1.0$ in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV.

$v_4\{2\}$ with $|\Delta \eta| > 1.0$ in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV.

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Direct photon elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Torales - Acosta, Fernando ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 789 (2019) 308-322, 2019.
Inspire Record 1672789 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.88050

The elliptic flow of inclusive and direct photons was measured at mid-rapidity in two centrality classes 0-20% and 20-40% in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV by ALICE. Photons were detected with the highly segmented electromagnetic calorimeter PHOS and via conversions in the detector material with the $e^{+}e^{-}$ pairs reconstructed in the central tracking system. The results of the two methods were combined and the direct photon elliptic flow was extracted in the transverse momentum range $0.9 < p_{\rm T} < 6.2$ GeV/$c$. A comparison to RHIC data shows a similar magnitude of the measured direct-photon elliptic flow. Hydrodynamic and transport model calculations are systematically lower than the data, but are found to be compatible.

8 data tables

Ratio V2{GAMMA,INCLUSIVE,PCM}/V2{GAMMA,INCLUSIVE,COMBINED} as function of $p_\text{T}$, collision centrality 0-20%, for Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV.

Ratio V2{GAMMA,INCLUSIVE,PHOS}/V2{GAMMA,INCLUSIVE,COMBINED} as function of $p_\text{T}$, collision centrality 20-40%, for Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV.

V2{GAMMA,DECAY} as function of $p_\text{T}$, collision centrality 0-20%, for Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV.

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Energy dependence and fluctuations of anisotropic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02 $ and 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, S. ; Torales - Acosta, Fernando ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
JHEP 07 (2018) 103, 2018.
Inspire Record 1666817 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.83737

Measurements of anisotropic flow coefficients with two- and multi-particle cumulants for inclusive charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{{\textit s}_\text{NN}} = 5.02$ and 2.76 TeV are reported in the pseudorapidity range $|\eta| < 0.8$ and transverse momentum $0.2 < p_\text{T} < 50$ GeV/$c$. The full data sample collected by the ALICE detector in 2015 (2010), corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 12.7 (2.0) $\mu$b$^{-1}$ in the centrality range 0-80%, is analysed. Flow coefficients up to the sixth flow harmonic ($v_6$) are reported and a detailed comparison among results at the two energies is carried out. The $p_\text{T}$ dependence of anisotropic flow coefficients and its evolution with respect to centrality and harmonic number $n$ are investigated. An approximate power-law scaling of the form $v_n(p_\text{T}) \sim p_\text{T}^{n/3}$ is observed for all flow harmonics at low $p_\text{T}$ ($0.2 < p_\text{T} < 3$ GeV/$c$). At the same time, the ratios $v_n/v_m^{n/m}$ are observed to be essentially independent of $p_\text{T}$ for most centralities up to about $p_\text{T} = 10$ GeV/$c$. Analysing the differences among higher-order cumulants of elliptic flow ($v_2$), which have different sensitivities to flow fluctuations, a measurement of the standardised skewness of the event-by-event $v_2$ distribution $P(v_2)$ is reported and constraints on its higher moments are provided. The Elliptic Power distribution is used to parametrise $P(v_2)$, extracting its parameters from fits to cumulants. The measurements are compared to different model predictions in order to discriminate among initial-state models and to constrain the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity to entropy-density ratio.

230 data tables

$v_2\{2,|\Delta\eta| > 1.\}$ as a function of centrality for Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV.

$v_2\{4\}$ as a function of centrality for Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV.

$v_3\{2,|\Delta\eta| > 1.\}$ as a function of centrality for Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV.

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Constraining the magnitude of the Chiral Magnetic Effect with Event Shape Engineering in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 777 (2018) 151-162, 2018.
Inspire Record 1623558 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.79482

In ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, the event-by-event variation of the elliptic flow $v_2$ reflects fluctuations in the shape of the initial state of the system. This allows to select events with the same centrality but different initial geometry. This selection technique, Event Shape Engineering, has been used in the analysis of charge-dependent two- and three-particle correlations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} =2.76$ TeV. The two-particle correlator $\langle \cos(\varphi_\alpha - \varphi_\beta) \rangle$, calculated for different combinations of charges $\alpha$ and $\beta$, is almost independent of $v_2$ (for a given centrality), while the three-particle correlator $\langle \cos(\varphi_\alpha + \varphi_\beta - 2\Psi_2) \rangle$ scales almost linearly both with the event $v_2$ and charged-particle pseudorapidity density. The charge dependence of the three-particle correlator is often interpreted as evidence for the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME), a parity violating effect of the strong interaction. However, its measured dependence on $v_2$ points to a large non-CME contribution to the correlator. Comparing the results with Monte Carlo calculations including a magnetic field due to the spectators, the upper limit of the CME signal contribution to the three-particle correlator in the 10-50% centrality interval is found to be 26-33% at 95% confidence level.

73 data tables

$v_2\{EP\}$ with $|\Delta\eta| > 2.0$ as a function of centrality for unbiased events in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV.

$v_2\{EP\}$ with $|\Delta\eta| > 2.0$ as a function of centrality for shape selected events (0-10% $q_2$) in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV.

$v_2\{EP\}$ with $|\Delta\eta| > 2.0$ as a function of centrality for shape selected events (10-20% $q_2$) in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV.

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Searches for transverse momentum dependent flow vector fluctuations in Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adolfsson, Jonatan ; et al.
JHEP 09 (2017) 032, 2017.
Inspire Record 1610453 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.80521

The measurement of azimuthal correlations of charged particles is presented for Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=$ 2.76 TeV and p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=$ 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. These correlations are measured for the second, third and fourth order flow vector in the pseudorapidity region $|\eta|<0.8$ as a function of centrality and transverse momentum $p_{\rm T}$ using two observables, to search for evidence of $p_{\rm T}$-dependent flow vector fluctuations. For Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV, the measurements indicate that $p_{\rm T}$-dependent fluctuations are only present for the second order flow vector. Similar results have been found for p-Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV. These measurements are compared to hydrodynamic model calculations with event-by-event geometry fluctuations in the initial state to constrain the initial conditions and transport properties of the matter created in Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions.

24 data tables

$v_2\{2\}$ with $|\eta| > 0.0$ for centrality class 0-5\% in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV.

$v_2\{2\}$ with $|\eta| > 0.0$ for centrality class 5-10\% in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV.

$v_2\{2\}$ with $|\eta| > 0.0$ for centrality class 10-20\% in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV.

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Linear and non-linear flow modes in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} =$ 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adolfsson, Jonatan ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 773 (2017) 68-80, 2017.
Inspire Record 1599396 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.89395

The second and the third order anisotropic flow, $V_{2}$ and $V_3$, are mostly determined by the corresponding initial spatial anisotropy coefficients, $\varepsilon_{2}$ and $\varepsilon_{3}$, in the initial density distribution. In addition to their dependence on the same order initial anisotropy coefficient, higher order anisotropic flow, $V_n$ ($n > 3$), can also have a significant contribution from lower order initial anisotropy coefficients, which leads to mode-coupling effects. In this Letter we investigate the linear and non-linear modes in higher order anisotropic flow $V_n$ for $n=4$, $5$, $6$ with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurements are done for particles in the pseudorapidity range $|\eta| < 0.8$ and the transverse momentum range $0.2 < p_{\rm T} < 5.0$ GeV/$c$ as a function of collision centrality. The results are compared with theoretical calculations and provide important constraints on the initial conditions, including initial spatial geometry and its fluctuations, as well as the ratio of the shear viscosity to entropy density of the produced system.

21 data tables

Study of relationship between linear and non-linear modes in higher order anisotropic flow in Pb–Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV.

Study of relationship between linear and non-linear modes in higher order anisotropic flow in Pb–Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV.

Study of relationship between linear and non-linear modes in higher order anisotropic flow in Pb–Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV.

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Higher harmonic flow coefficients of identified hadrons in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
JHEP 09 (2016) 164, 2016.
Inspire Record 1471285 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.74447

The elliptic, triangular, quadrangular and pentagonal anisotropic flow coefficients for $\pi^{\pm}$, $\mathrm{K}^{\pm}$ and p+$\overline{\mathrm{p}}$ in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{{NN}}} = 2.76$ TeV were measured with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The results were obtained with the Scalar Product method, correlating the identified hadrons with reference particles from a different pseudorapidity region. Effects not related to the common event symmetry planes (non-flow) were estimated using correlations in pp collisions and were subtracted from the measurement. The obtained flow coefficients exhibit a clear mass ordering for transverse momentum ($p_{\mathrm{T}}$) values below $\approx$ 3 GeV/$c$. In the intermediate $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ region ($3 < p_{\mathrm{T}} < 6$ GeV/$c$), particles group at an approximate level according to the number of constituent quarks, suggesting that coalescence might be the relevant particle production mechanism in this region. The results for $p_{\mathrm{T}} < 3$ GeV/$c$ are described fairly well by a hydrodynamical model (iEBE-VISHNU) that uses initial conditions generated by A Multi-Phase Transport model (AMPT) and describes the expansion of the fireball using a value of 0.08 for the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density ($\eta/s$), coupled to a hadronic cascade model (UrQMD). Finally, expectations from AMPT alone fail to quantitatively describe the measurements for all harmonics throughout the measured transverse momentum region. However, the comparison to the AMPT model highlights the importance of the late hadronic rescattering stage to the development of the observed mass ordering at low values of $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ and of coalescence as a particle production mechanism for the particle type grouping at intermediate values of $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ for all harmonics.

228 data tables

pion <uQ>2 as a function of pT in pp collision.

kaon <uQ>2 as a function of pT in pp collision.

proton <uQ>2 as a function of pT in pp collision.

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Multiplicity and transverse momentum evolution of charge-dependent correlations in pp, p–Pb, and Pb–Pb collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 76 (2016) 86, 2016.
Inspire Record 1394672 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72546

We report on two-particle charge-dependent correlations in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions as a function of the pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle difference, $\mathrm{\Delta}\eta$ and $\mathrm{\Delta}\varphi$ respectively. These correlations are studied using the balance function that probes the charge creation time and the development of collectivity in the produced system. The dependence of the balance function on the event multiplicity as well as on the trigger and associated particle transverse momentum ($p_{\mathrm{T}}$) in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = 7$, 5.02, and 2.76 TeV, respectively, are presented. In the low transverse momentum region, for $0.2 < p_{\mathrm{T}} < 2.0$ GeV/$c$, the balance function becomes narrower in both $\mathrm{\Delta}\eta$ and $\mathrm{\Delta}\varphi$ directions in all three systems for events with higher multiplicity. The experimental findings favor models that either incorporate some collective behavior (e.g. AMPT) or different mechanisms that lead to effects that resemble collective behavior (e.g. PYTHIA8 with color reconnection). For higher values of transverse momenta the balance function becomes even narrower but exhibits no multiplicity dependence, indicating that the observed narrowing with increasing multiplicity at low $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ is a feature of bulk particle production.

79 data tables

Balance function in $\Delta\eta$ 0_5%.

Balance function in $\Delta\eta$ 30_40%.

Balance function in $\Delta\eta$ 70_80%.