Characterisation of the dip-bump structure observed in proton–proton elastic scattering at $\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

The TOTEM collaboration Antchev, G. ; Aspell, P. ; Atanassov, I. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 82 (2022) 263, 2022.
Inspire Record 1974042 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.127942

The TOTEM collaboration at the CERN LHC has measured the differential cross-section of elastic proton-proton scattering at $\sqrt{s} = 8\ {\rm TeV}$ in the squared four-momentum transfer range $0.2\ {\rm GeV^{2}} < |t| < 1.9\ {\rm GeV^{2}}$. This interval includes the structure with a diffractive minimum ("dip") and a secondary maximum ("bump") that has also been observed at all other LHC energies, where measurements were made. A detailed characterisation of this structure for $\sqrt{s} = 8\ {\rm TeV}$ yields the positions, $|t|_{\rm dip} = (0.521 \pm 0.007)\ {\rm GeV^2}$ and $|t|_{\rm bump} = (0.695 \pm 0.026)\ {\rm GeV^2}$, as well as the cross-section values, ${{\rm d}\sigma/{\rm d} t}_{\rm dip} = (15.1 \pm 2.5)\ {\rm{\mu b/GeV^2}}$ and ${{\rm d}\sigma/{\rm d} t}_{\rm bump} = (29.7 \pm 1.8)\ {\rm{\mu b/GeV^2}}$, for the dip and the bump, respectively.

1 data table

Differential cross-section.


Version 2
First search for exclusive diphoton production at high mass with tagged protons in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} =$ 13 TeV

The (TOTEM Collaboration)‡ & (CMS Collaboration)† & TOTEM & CMS collaborations Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Bergauer, Thomas ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 129 (2022) 011801, 2022.
Inspire Record 1942141 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.113659

A search for exclusive two-photon production via photon exchange in proton-proton collisions, pp $\to$ p$\gamma\gamma$p with intact protons, is presented. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 9.4 fb$^{-1}$ collected in 2016 using the CMS and TOTEM detectors at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV at the LHC. Events are selected with a diphoton invariant mass above 350 GeV and with both protons intact in the final state, to reduce backgrounds from strong interactions. The events of interest are those where the invariant mass and rapidity calculated from the momentum losses of the forward-moving protons matches the mass and rapidity of the central, two-photon system. No events are found that satisfy this condition. Interpreting this result in an effective dimension-8 extension of the standard model, the first limits are set on the two anomalous four-photon coupling parameters. If the other parameter is constrained to its standard model value, the limits at 95% CL are $\lvert\zeta_1\rvert$ $\lt$ 2.9 $\times$ 10$^{-13}$ GeV$^{-4}$ and $\lvert\zeta_2\rvert$ $\lt$ 6.0 $\times$ 10$^{-13}$ GeV$^{-4}$.

12 data tables

Cut flow for the diphoton selection stages defined in the text (signal contribution is magnified by a factor 5000).

Cut flow for the diphoton selection stages defined in the text (signal contribution is magnified by a factor 5000).

Invariant mass distribution of the diphoton pairs for the elastic selection region with events satisfying a < 0.005 (signal contribution is magnified by a factor 5000).

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Measurement of single-diffractive dijet production in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV with the CMS and TOTEM experiments

The CMS & TOTEM collaborations Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 80 (2020) 1164, 2020.
Inspire Record 1782637 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.94257

Measurements are presented of the single-diffractive dijet cross section and the diffractive cross section as a function of the proton fractional momentum loss $\xi$ and the four-momentum transfer squared $t$. Both processes pp$\to$pX and pp$\to$Xp, ie with the proton scattering to either side of the interaction point, are measured, where X includes at least two jets; the results of the two processes are averaged. The analyses are based on data collected simultaneously with the CMS and TOTEM detectors at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$= 8 TeV during a dedicated run with $\beta^{\ast} =$ 90 m at low instantaneous luminosity and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 37.5 nb$^{-1}$. The single-diffractive dijet cross section $\sigma^\mathrm{pX}_{\mathrm{jj}}$, in the kinematic region $\xi \lt$ 0.1, 0.03 $\lt |$t$| \lt 1$ GeV$^2$, with at least two jets with transverse momentum $p_\mathrm{T} >$ 40 GeV, and pseudorapidity $|\eta| \lt$ 4.4, is 21.7$\pm$0.9 (stat)$^{+3.0}_{-3.3}$ (syst) $\pm$ 0.9 (lum) nb. The ratio of the single-diffractive to inclusive dijet yields, normalised per unit of $\xi$, is presented as a function of $x$, the longitudinal momentum fraction of the proton carried by the struck parton. The ratio in the kinematic region defined above, for $x$ values in the range $-$2.9 $\leq \log_{10} x \leq$$-$1.6, is $R = (\sigma^\mathrm{pX}_{\mathrm{jj}}/\Delta\xi)/\sigma_{\mathrm{jj}} =$ 0.025$\pm$0.001 (stat) $\pm$ 0.003 (syst), where $\sigma^\mathrm{pX}_{\mathrm{jj}}$ and $\sigma_{\mathrm{jj}}$ are the single-diffractive and inclusive dijet cross sections, respectively. The results are compared with predictions from models of diffractive and nondiffractive interactions. Monte Carlo predictions based on the HERA diffractive parton distribution functions agree well with the data when corrected for the effect of soft rescattering between the spectator partons.

3 data tables

Differential cross section as a function of $t$ for single-diffractive dijet production, in the kinematic region $\xi < 0.1$, $0.03 < \lvert t \rvert < 1\,\mathrm{GeV}^2$, with at least two jets with transverse momentum $p_{\mathrm{T}} > 40\,\mathrm{GeV}$, and pseudorapidity $\lvert \eta \rvert < 4.4$.

Differential cross section as a function of $\xi$ for single-diffractive dijet production, in the kinematic region $\xi < 0.1$, $0.03 < \lvert t \rvert < 1\,\mathrm{GeV}^2$, with at least two jets with transverse momentum $p_{\mathrm{T}} > 40\,\mathrm{GeV}$, and pseudorapidity $\lvert \eta \rvert < 4.4$.

Ratio per unit of $\xi$ of the single-diffractive and inclusive dijet cross sections in the region given by $\xi < 0.1$ and $0.03 < \lvert t \rvert < 1\,\mathrm{GeV}^2$, with at least two jets with transverse momentum $p_{\mathrm{T}} > 40\,\mathrm{GeV}$, and pseudorapidity $\lvert \eta \rvert < 4.4$.


Elastic differential cross-section ${\rm d}\sigma/{\rm d}t$ at $\sqrt{s}=$2.76 TeV and implications on the existence of a colourless 3-gluon bound state

The TOTEM collaboration Antchev, G. ; Aspell, P. ; Atanassov, I. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 80 (2020) 91, 2020.
Inspire Record 1710347 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.127943

The proton-proton elastic differential cross section ${\rm d}\sigma/{\rm d}t$ has been measured by the TOTEM experiment at $\sqrt{s}=2.76$ TeV energy with $\beta^{*}=11$ m beam optics. The Roman Pots were inserted to 13 times the transverse beam size from the beam, which allowed to measure the differential cross-section of elastic scattering in a range of the squared four-momentum transfer ($|t|$) from $0.36$ GeV$^{2}$ to $0.74$ GeV$^{2}$. The differential cross-section can be described with an exponential in the $|t|$-range between $0.36$ GeV$^{2}$ and $0.54$ GeV$^{2}$, followed by a diffractive minimum (dip) at $|t_{\rm dip}| = 0.61 \pm 0.03$ GeV$^{2}$ and a subsequent maximum (bump). The ratio of the ${\rm d}\sigma/{\rm d}t$ at the bump and at the dip is $1.7\pm 0.2$. When compared to the $\rm p\bar{p}$ measurement of the D0 experiment at $\sqrt s = 1.96$ TeV, a significant difference can be observed. Under the condition that the effects due to the energy difference between TOTEM and D0 can be neglected, the result provides evidence for a colourless 3-gluon bound state exchange in the $t$-channel of the proton-proton elastic scattering.

2 data tables

Differential cross-section.

Differential cross-section.


Elastic differential cross-section measurement at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV by TOTEM

The TOTEM collaboration Antchev, G. ; Aspell, P. ; Atanassov, I. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 79 (2019) 861, 2019.
Inspire Record 1710340 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.127944

The TOTEM collaboration has measured the elastic proton-proton differential cross section ${\rm d}\sigma/{\rm d}t$ at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV LHC energy using dedicated $\beta^{*}=90$ m beam optics. The Roman Pot detectors were inserted to 10$\sigma$ distance from the LHC beam, which allowed the measurement of the range $[0.04$ GeV$^{2};4 $GeV$^{2}] $ in four-momentum transfer squared $|t|$. The efficient data acquisition allowed to collect about 10$^{9}$ elastic events to precisely measure the differential cross-section including the diffractive minimum (dip), the subsequent maximum (bump) and the large-$|t|$ tail. The average nuclear slope has been found to be $B=(20.40 \pm 0.002^{\rm stat} \pm 0.01^{\rm syst})~$GeV$^{-2}$ in the $|t|$-range $0.04~$GeV$^{2}$ to $0.2~$GeV$^{2}$. The dip position is $|t_{\rm dip}|=(0.47 \pm 0.004^{\rm stat} \pm 0.01^{\rm syst})~$GeV$^{2}$. The differential cross section ratio at the bump vs. at the dip $R=1.77\pm0.01^{\rm stat}$ has been measured with high precision. The series of TOTEM elastic pp measurements show that the dip is a permanent feature of the pp differential cross-section at the TeV scale.

1 data table

Differential cross-section.


First determination of the $\rho $ parameter at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV -- probing the existence of a colourless three-gluon bound state

The TOTEM collaboration Antchev, G. ; Aspell, P. ; Atanassov, I. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 79 (2019) 785, 2019.
Inspire Record 1654549 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.127945

The TOTEM experiment at the LHC has performed the first measurement at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV of the $\rho$ parameter, the real to imaginary ratio of the nuclear elastic scattering amplitude at $t=0$, obtaining the following results: $\rho = 0.09 \pm 0.01$ and $\rho = 0.10 \pm 0.01$, depending on different physics assumptions and mathematical modelling. The unprecedented precision of the $\rho$ measurement, combined with the TOTEM total cross-section measurements in an energy range larger than 10 TeV (from 2.76 to 13 TeV), has implied the exclusion of all the models classified and published by COMPETE. The $\rho$ results obtained by TOTEM are compatible with the predictions, from alternative theoretical models both in the Regge-like framework and in the QCD framework, of a colourless 3-gluon bound state exchange in the $t$-channel of the proton-proton elastic scattering. On the contrary, if shown that the 3-gluon bound state $t$-channel exchange is not of importance for the description of elastic scattering, the $\rho$ value determined by TOTEM would represent a first evidence of a slowing down of the total cross-section growth at higher energies. The very low-$|t|$ reach allowed also to determine the absolute normalisation using the Coulomb amplitude for the first time at the LHC and obtain a new total proton-proton cross-section measurement $\sigma_{tot} = 110.3 \pm 3.5$ mb, completely independent from the previous TOTEM determination. Combining the two TOTEM results yields $\sigma_{tot} = 110.5 \pm 2.4$ mb.

1 data table

Differential cross-section.


Measurement of Elastic pp Scattering at $\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV in the Coulomb-Nuclear Interference Region - Determination of the $\rho$-Parameter and the Total Cross-Section

The TOTEM collaboration Antchev, G. ; Aspell, P. ; Atanassov, I. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 76 (2016) 661, 2016.
Inspire Record 1489188 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.127946

The TOTEM experiment at the CERN LHC has measured elastic proton-proton scattering at the centre-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV and four-momentum transfers squared, |t|, from 6 x $10^{-4}$ GeV$^2$ to 0.2 GeV$^2$. Near the lower end of the |t|-interval the differential cross-section is sensitive to the interference between the hadronic and the electromagnetic scattering amplitudes. This article presents the elastic cross-section measurement and the constraints it imposes on the functional forms of the modulus and phase of the hadronic elastic amplitude. The data exclude the traditional Simplified West and Yennie interference formula that requires a constant phase and a purely exponential modulus of the hadronic amplitude. For parametrisations of the hadronic modulus with second- or third-order polynomials in the exponent, the data are compatible with hadronic phase functions giving either central or peripheral behaviour in the impact parameter picture of elastic scattering. In both cases, the $\rho$-parameter is found to be 0.12 $\pm$ 0.03. The results for the total hadronic cross-section are $\sigma_{tot}$ = (102.9 $\pm$ 2.3) mb and (103.0 $\pm$ 2.3) mb for central and peripheral phase formulations, respectively. Both are consistent with previous TOTEM measurements.

1 data table

Differential cross-section.


Evidence for Non-Exponential Elastic Proton-Proton Differential Cross-Section at Low |t| and sqrt(s) = 8 TeV by TOTEM

The TOTEM collaboration Antchev, G. ; Aspell, P. ; Atanassov, I. ; et al.
Nucl.Phys.B 899 (2015) 527-546, 2015.
Inspire Record 1356731 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73431

The TOTEM experiment has made a precise measurement of the elastic proton-proton differential cross-section at the centre-of-mass energy sqrt(s) = 8 TeV based on a high-statistics data sample obtained with the beta* = 90 optics. Both the statistical and systematic uncertainties remain below 1%, except for the t-independent contribution from the overall normalisation. This unprecedented precision allows to exclude a purely exponential differential cross-section in the range of four-momentum transfer squared 0.027 < |t| < 0.2 GeV^2 with a significance greater than 7 sigma. Two extended parametrisations, with quadratic and cubic polynomials in the exponent, are shown to be well compatible with the data. Using them for the differential cross-section extrapolation to t = 0, and further applying the optical theorem, yields total cross-section estimates of (101.5 +- 2.1) mb and (101.9 +- 2.1) mb, respectively, in agreement with previous TOTEM measurements.

1 data table

The elastic differential cross-section as determined in this analysis using the ''optimised'' binning.


Measurement of the forward charged particle pseudorapidity density in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV using a displaced interaction point

The TOTEM collaboration Antchev, G. ; Aspell, P. ; Atanassov, I. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 75 (2015) 126, 2015.
Inspire Record 1328627 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72847

The the pseudorapidity density of charged particles dN$_{ch}$/d$\eta$ is measured by the TOTEM experiment in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV within the range 3.9 < $\eta$ < 4.7 and −6.95 < $\eta$ < −6.9. Data were collected in a low intensity LHC run with collisions occurring at a distance of 11.25 m from the nominal interaction point. The data sample is expected to include 96-97% of the inelastic proton-proton interactions. The measurement reported here considers charged particles with $P_T$ > 0 MeV/c, produced in inelastic interactions with at least one charged particle in −7 < $\eta$ < −6 or 3.7< $\eta$ < 4.8. The dN$_{ch}$/d$\eta$ has been found to decrease with |$\eta$|, from 5.11 ± 0.73 at $\eta$ =3.95 to 1.81 ± 0.56 at $\eta$ = −6.925. Several MC generators are compared to the data and are found to be within the systematic uncertainty of the measurement.

1 data table

The TOTEM dNch/deta measurement for inelastic pp events with displaced interaction point at 8 TeV.


Measurement of pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV by the CMS and TOTEM experiments

The CMS & TOTEM collaborations Chatrchyan, Serguei ; Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 74 (2014) 3053, 2014.
Inspire Record 1294140 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66893

Pseudorapidity (eta) distributions of charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV are measured in the ranges abs(eta) < 2.2 and 5.3 < abs(eta) < 6.4 covered by the CMS and TOTEM detectors, respectively. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 45 inverse microbarns. Measurements are presented for three event categories. The most inclusive category is sensitive to 91-96% of the total inelastic proton-proton cross section. The other two categories are disjoint subsets of the inclusive sample that are either enhanced or depleted in single diffractive dissociation events. The data are compared to models used to describe high-energy hadronic interactions. None of the models considered provide a consistent description of the measured distributions.

3 data tables

Charged particle multiplicity (Inclusive) -- syst -- BB: bin-by-bin uncertainty.

Charged particle multiplicity (Non Single Diffractive dissociation (NSD) enhanced) -- syst -- BB: bin-by-bin uncertainty.

Charged particle multiplicity (Single Diffractive dissociation (SD) enhanced) -- syst -- BB: bin-by-bin uncertainty.