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A Study of the energy evolution of event shape distributions and their means with the DELPHI detector at LEP

The DELPHI collaboration Abdallah, J. ; Abreu, P. ; Adam, W. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J. C29 (2003) 285-312, 2003.
Inspire Record 620250 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.13029

Infrared and collinear safe event shape distributions and their mean values are determined in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies between 45 and 202 GeV. A phenomenological analysis based on power correction models including hadron mass effects for both differential distributions and mean values is presented. Using power corrections, alpha_s is extracted from the mean values and shapes. In an alternative approach, renormalisation group invariance (RGI) is used as an explicit constraint, leading to a consistent description of mean values without the need for sizeable power corrections. The QCD beta-function is precisely measured using this approach. From the DELPHI data on Thrust, including data from low energy experiments, one finds beta_0 = 7.86 +/- 0.32 for the one loop coefficient of the beta-function or, assuming QCD, n_f = 4.75 +/- 0.44 for the number of active flavours. These values agree well with the QCD expectation of beta_0=7.67 and n_f=5. A direct measurement of the full logarithmic energy slope excludes light gluinos with a mass below 5 GeV.

71 data tables

1-THRUST distribution.

THRUST-MAJOR distribution.

THRUST-MINOR distribution.

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Particle multiplicity of unbiased gluon jets from $e^{+} e^{-}$ three jet events

The OPAL collaboration
Eur.Phys.J. C23 (2002) 597-613, 2002.
Inspire Record 565517 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.49742

The charged particle multiplicities of two- and three-jet events from the reaction e+e- -> Z0 -> hadrons are measured for Z0 decays to light quark (uds) flavors. Using recent theoretical expressions to account for biases from event selection, results corresponding to unbiased gluon jets are extracted over a range of jet energies from about 11 to 30 GeV. We find consistency between these results and direct measurements of unbiased gluon jet multiplicity from upsilon and Z0 decays. The unbiased gluon jet data including the direct measurements are compared to corresponding results for quark jets. We perform fits based on analytic expressions for particle multiplicity in jets to determine the ratio r = Ng/Nq of multiplicities between gluon and quark jets as a function of energy. We also determine the ratio of slopes, r(1) = (dNg/dy)/(dNq/dy), and of curvatures, r(2) = (d2Ng/dy2)/(d2Nq/dy2), where y specifies the energy scale. At 30 GeV, we find r = 1.422 +/- 0.051, r(1) = 1.761 +/- 0.071 and r(2) = 1.98 +/- 0.13, where the uncertainties are the statistical and systematic terms added in quadrature. These results are in general agreement with theoretical predictions. In addition, we use the measurements of the energy dependence of Ng and Nq to determine an effective value of the ratio of QCD color factors, CA/CF. Our result, CA/CF = 2.23 +/- 0.14 (total), is consistent with the QCD value of 2.25.

4 data tables

Measurements of the mean charged particle multiplicity of biased two-jet uds flavour events from Z0 decays as a function of the transverse momentum cutoff PT(C=LU) used to separate two- and three-jet events.

Measurements of the mean charged particle multiplicity of three-jet uds flavour 'Y events' from Z0 decays, as a function of the angle THETA1 between the lowest two energy jets. The results for the quark jet scale SQRT(S(C=QQBAR)) and the gluon jet scales PT(C=LU) and PT(C=LE) are also given.

Measurements of the unbiased gluon multiplicity as a function of the energy scale Q=PT(C=LU). The corresponding bins of THETA1 in 'Y events' are also indicated.

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Measurements of the structure of quark and gluon jets in hadronic Z decays

The ALEPH collaboration Barate, R. ; Buskulic, D. ; Decamp, D. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J. C17 (2000) 1-18, 2000.
Inspire Record 467225 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.49549
6 data tables

The measured jet broadening distributions (B) in quark and gluon jets seperately.

Measured distributions of -LN(Y2), where Y2 is the differential one-subjet rate, that is the value of the subjet scale parameter where 2 jets appear from the single jet.

The mean subjet multiplicity (-1) for gluon jets and quark jets for different values of the subject resolution parameter Y0.

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A Measurement of the b quark mass from hadronic Z decays

The ALEPH collaboration Barate, R. ; Decamp, D. ; Ghez, Philippe ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J. C18 (2000) 1-13, 2000.
Inspire Record 531468 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.49909

Hadronic Z decay data taken with the ALEPH detector at LEP1 are used to measure the three-jet rate as well as moments of various event-shape variables. The ratios of the observables obtained from b-tagged events and from an inclusive sample are determined. The mass of the b quark is extracted from a fit to the measured ratios using a next-to-leading order prediction including mass effects. Taking the first moment of the y3 distribution, which is the observable with the smallest hadronization corrections and systematic uncertainties, the result is: mb(MZ) = [3.27+-0.22(stat) +-0.22(exp)+-0.38(had)+-0.16(theo)] GeV/c2. The measured ratio is alternatively employed to test the flavour independence of the strong coupling constant for b and light quarks.

1 data table

No description provided.


Experimental properties of gluon and quark jets from a point source

The OPAL collaboration Abbiendi, G. ; Ackerstaff, K. ; Alexander, G. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J. C11 (1999) 217-238, 1999.
Inspire Record 496755 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.49193

Gluon jets are identified in hadronic Z0 decays as all the particles in a hemisphere opposite to a hemisphere containing two tagged quark jets. Gluon jets defined in this manner are equivalent to gluon jets produced from a color singlet point source and thus correspond to the definition employed for most theoretical calculations. In a separate stage of the analysis, we select quark jets in a manner to correspond to calculations, as the particles in hemispheres of flavor tagged light quark (uds) events. We present the distributions of rapidity, scaled energy, the logarithm of the momentum, and transverse momentum with respect to the jet axes, for charged particles in these gluon and quark jets. We also examine the charged particle multiplicity distributions of the jets in restricted intervals of rapidity. For soft particles at large transverse momentum, we observe the charged particle multiplicity ratio of gluon to quark jets to be 2.29 +- 0.09 +- 0.15 in agreement with the prediction that this ratio should approximately equal the ratio of QCD color factors, CA/CF = 2.25. The intervals used to define soft particles and large transverse momentum for this result, p<4 GeV/c and 0.8<p_t<3.0 GeV/c, are motivated by the predictions of the Herwig Monte Carlo multihadronic event generator. Additionally, our gluon jet data allow a sensitive test of the phenomenon of non-leading QCD terms known as color reconnection. We test the model of color reconnection implemented in the Ariadne Monte Carlo multihadronic event generator and find it to be disfavored by our data.

9 data tables

(C=GLUON) and (C=QUARK) stand for jets originated from gluon and any light quark (Q=u, d, s), correspondingly. The ratio of gluon to quark jets are evaluated for 40.1 GeV jet energy.

(C=GLUON) and (C=QUARK) stand for jets originated from gluon and any light quark (Q=u, d, s), correspondingly. The ratio of gluon to quark jets are evaluated for 40.1 GeV jet energy.

(C=GLUON) and (C=QUARK) stand for jets originated from gluon and any light quark (Q=u, d, s), correspondingly. The ratio of gluon to quark jets are evaluated for 40.1 GeV jet energy.

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The Scale dependence of the hadron multiplicity in quark and gluon jets and a precise determination of C(A) / C(F)

The DELPHI collaboration Abreu, P. ; Adam, W. ; Adye, T. ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B449 (1999) 383-400, 1999.
Inspire Record 495414 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.49173

Data collected at the Z resonance using the DELPHI detector at LEP are used to determine the charged hadron multiplicity in gluon and quark jets as a function of a transverse momentum-like scale. The colour factor ratio, \cacf, is directly observed in the increase of multiplicities with that scale. The smaller than expected multiplicity ratio in gluon to quark jets is understood by differences in the hadronization of the leading quark or gluon. From the dependence of the charged hadron multiplicity on the opening angle in symmetric three-jet events the colour factor ratio is measured to be: C_A/C_F = 2.246 \pm 0.062 (stat.) \pm 0.080 (syst.) \pm 0.095 (theo.)

3 data tables

Charged multiplicity in events with a hard photon, as a function of the apparent centre-of-mass energy (SQRT(S)) of the hadronic system. The errors shown are statistical only.

Charged multiplicity in symmetric three jet events as function of the opening angle between the low energetic jets, THETA1. Jets are defined from charged and neutral particles using the DURHAM algorithm. The errors shown are statistical only.

Twice the difference of the multiplicity in three jet events and in qqbar events of comparable scale 2(N_3jet-N_qqbar). The three-jet event multiplicity isequal to the data of Fig. 3c), the qqbar-multiplicity is taken from a fit of th e e+e- data corrected for the varying b-quark contribution. This multiplicity can be identified with the multiplicity of a hypothetical gluon-gluon event. Thereis a normalization uncertainty (i.e. a scale independent constant) of the gluon -gluon event multiplicity which should not influence the slope of the gg-multiplicity with scale (see paper). The errors shown are statistical only.


Investigation of the splitting of quark and gluon jets

The DELPHI collaboration Abreu, P. ; Adam, W. ; Adye, T. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J. C4 (1998) 1-17, 1998.
Inspire Record 467927 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.49547
14 data tables

Scaled energy distribution of charged hadrons produced in Quark jets in 'Y'topology 3-JET events.

Scaled energy distribution of charged hadrons produced in Gluon jets in 'Y'topology 3-JET events.

Scaled energy distribution of charged hadrons produced in Quark jets in 'Mercedes' topology 3-JET events.

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Production of K0(S) and Lambda in quark and gluon jets from Z0 decay

The OPAL collaboration Ackerstaff, K. ; Alexander, G. ; Allison, John ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J. C8 (1999) 241-254, 1999.
Inspire Record 470732 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.49497

The production of K^0_S mesons and Lambda baryons in quark and gluon jets has been investigated using two complementary techniques. In the first approach, which provides high statistical accuracy, jets were selected using different jet finding algorithms and ordered according to their energy. Production rates were determined taking into account the dependences of quark and gluon compositions as a function of jet energy as predicted by Monte Carlo models. Selecting three-jet events with the k_perp (Durham) jet finder (y_cut = 0.005), the ratios of K^0_S and Lambda production rates in gluon and quark jets relative to the mean charged particle multiplicity were found to be 1.10 +/- 0.02 +/- 0.02 and 1.41 +/- 0.04 +/- 0.04, respectively, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. In the second approach, a new method of identifying quark jets based on the collimation of energy flow around the jet axis is introduced and was used to anti-tag gluon jets in symmetric (Y-shaped) three-jet events. Using the cone jet finding algorithm with a cone size of 30 degrees, the ratios of relative production rates in gluon and quark jets were determined to be 0.94 +/- 0.07 +/- 0.07 for K^0_S and 1.18 +/- 0.10 +/- 0.17 for Lambda. The results of both analyses are compared to the predictions of Monte Carlo models.

2 data tables

Ratios of relative yields.

Ratios of absolute rates.


Quark and gluon jet properties in symmetric three jet events

The ALEPH collaboration Buskulic, D. ; Casper, D. ; De Bonis, I. ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B384 (1996) 353-364, 1996.
Inspire Record 404562 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.48015
2 data tables

B-jets are identified with the lepton-tag analysis.

The same kinematics as in the table 1.


Energy dependence of the differences between the quark and gluon jet fragmentation

The DELPHI collaboration Abreu, P. ; Adam, W. ; Adye, T. ; et al.
Z.Phys. C70 (1996) 179-196, 1996.
Inspire Record 403254 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.48064
2 data tables

No description provided.

Durham and JADE algoritms were used.


Identified particles in quark and gluon jets

The DELPHI collaboration Abreu, P. ; Adam, W. ; Adye, T. ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B401 (1997) 118-130, 1997.
Inspire Record 428228 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.47615
2 data tables

Y events.

Mercedes events.


A Study of differences between quark and gluon jets using vertex tagging of quark jets

The OPAL collaboration Acton, P.D. ; Alexander, G. ; Allison, John ; et al.
Z.Phys. C58 (1993) 387-404, 1993.
Inspire Record 352789 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.48418
1 data table

No description provided.


Measurement of event shape and inclusive distributions at S**(1/2) = 130-GeV and 136-GeV

The DELPHI collaboration Abreu, P. ; Adam, W. ; Adye, T. ; et al.
Z.Phys. C73 (1997) 229-242, 1997.
Inspire Record 424629 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.47715
26 data tables

mean values for event shape variables.

Integral of event shape distribution over the specified interval.

Integral of event shape distribution over the specified interval.

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A Test of QCD based on three jet events from Z0 decays

The L3 collaboration Adeva, B. ; Adriani, O. ; Aguilar-Benitez, M. ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B263 (1991) 551-562, 1991.
Inspire Record 315954 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.38291
1 data table

Jets are ordered according their energy: E1 > E2 > E3.


A Direct observation of quark - gluon jet differences at LEP

The OPAL collaboration Alexander, G. ; Allison, J. ; Allport, P.P. ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B265 (1991) 462-474, 1991.
Inspire Record 316872 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.48454
1 data table

QUARK means QUARK or QUARKBAR.


Measurement of alpha-s in hadronic Z decays using all orders resummed predictions

The ALEPH collaboration Decamp, D. ; Deschizeaux, B. ; Goy, C. ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B284 (1992) 163-176, 1992.
Inspire Record 333334 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.48421
1 data table

Three different methods are used for extraction Alphas value (see text for details). Systematical errors with C=HADR and C=THEOR are due to hadronization correction and theoretical uncertainties.


Measurement of the strong coupling constant alpha-s for bottom quarks at the Z0 resonance

The L3 collaboration Adeva, B. ; Adriani, O. ; Aguilar-Benitez, M. ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B271 (1991) 461-467, 1991.
Inspire Record 318981 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.38288
1 data table

No description provided.


QCD studies with e+ e- annihilation data at 130-GeV and 136-GeV

The OPAL collaboration Alexander, G. ; Allison, John ; Altekamp, N. ; et al.
Z.Phys. C72 (1996) 191-206, 1996.
Inspire Record 418007 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.47564
23 data tables

Determination of alpha_s.

Multiplicity and high moments.

Tmajor distribution.

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Measurement of eta production in two and three jet events from hadronic Z decays at LEP

The L3 collaboration Acciarri, M. ; Adam, A. ; Adriani, O. ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B371 (1996) 126-136, 1996.
Inspire Record 404602 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.48038
6 data tables

No description provided.

No description provided.

No description provided.

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First measurement of the t odd correlation between the Z0 spin and the three jet plane orientation in polarized Z0 decays to three jets

The SLD collaboration Abe, K. ; Abt, I. ; Ahn, C.J. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 75 (1995) 4173-4177, 1995.
Inspire Record 400920 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.19601

We present the first measurement of the correlation between the $Z^0$ spin and the three-jet plane orientation in polarized $Z^0$ decays into three jets in the SLD experiment at SLAC utilizing a longitudinally polarized electron beam. The CP-even and T-odd triple product $\vec{S_Z}\cdot(\vec{k_1}\times \vec{k_2})$ formed from the two fastest jet momenta, $\vec{k_1}$ and $\vec{k_2}$, and the $Z^0$ polarization vector $\vec{S_Z}$, is sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model. We measure the expectation value of this quantity to be consistent with zero and set 95\% C.L. limits of $-0.022 &lt; \beta &lt; 0.039$ on the correlation between the $Z^0$-spin and the three-jet plane orientation.

1 data table

Asymmetry extracted from formula: (1/SIG(Q=3JET))*D(SIG)/D(COS(OMEGA)) = 9/16*[(1-1/3*(COS(OMEGA))**2) + ASYM*Az*(1-2*Pmis(ABS(COS(OMEGA))))*COS(OMEGA)], where OMEGA is polar angle of [k1,k2] vector (jet-plane normal), Pmis is the p robability of misassignment of of jet-plane normal, Az is beam polarization. Jets were reconstructed using the 'Durham' jet algorithm with a jet-resol ution parameter Yc = 0.005.


Measurement of the multiplicity of charm quark pairs from gluons in hadronic Z0 decays

The OPAL collaboration Akers, R. ; Alexander, G. ; Allison, J. ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B353 (1995) 595-605, 1995.
Inspire Record 395451 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.48158
1 data table

Axis error includes +- 8.4/8.4 contribution (Total generator error for the electron channel due to the uncertainties in parameters of Peterson model of fragmentation, LAMBDA_QCD, ALPHA_S, Lund fragmentation parameters and lepton decay model).


Measurement of three jet distributions sensitive to the gluon spin in e+ e- annihilations at S**(1/2) = 91-GeV

The OPAL collaboration Alexander, G. ; Allison, John ; Allport, P.P. ; et al.
Z.Phys. C52 (1991) 543-550, 1991.
Inspire Record 317142 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.14852
4 data tables

Data at Parton level.

Ratio data/(Monte Carlo) at Parton level.

Data at Parton level.. Distribution of Ellis-Karliner angle.

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A Comparison of jet production rates on the Z0 resonance to perturbative QCD

The DELPHI collaboration Abreu, P. ; Adam, W. ; Adami, F. ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B247 (1990) 167-176, 1990.
Inspire Record 297698 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.29653
2 data tables

Corrected jet rates.

Second systematic error is theoretical.


First Measurements of Hadronic Decays of the $Z$ Boson

The MARK-II collaboration Abrams, G.S. ; Adolphsen, Chris ; Aleksan, R. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 63 (1989) 1558, 1989.
Inspire Record 282670 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.20044
5 data tables

Corrected event shape distributions.

Corrected event shape distributions.

Corrected event shape distributions.

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Comparison of Inclusive Fractional Momentum Distributions of Quark and Gluon Jets Produced in $e^+ e^-$ Annihilation

The TASSO collaboration Braunschweig, W. ; Gerhards, R. ; Kirschfink, F.J. ; et al.
Z.Phys. C45 (1989) 1, 1989.
Inspire Record 277210 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.15299
3 data tables

2 JET data at sqrt(s) = 35 GeV.

3 JET data at sqrt(s) = 22 GeV.

Gluon jet data at sqrt(s) = 11.5 GeV.