Multiplicities of neutrons and light charged particles associated with central collisions have been measured in the energy range 27–77 MeV/u for the systems 40 Ar+ 197 Au, 232 Th. The experiments demonstrate the occurrence of a saturation of the thermal energy deposited in the system around 650 MeV, corresponding to a constant internal temperature close to 5 MeV.
The results of measured inclusive double differential cross section of α particles emitted in the interaction of 12C ions with 59Co and 93Nb at incident energies of 300 and 400 MeV are presented. The analysis of these data allows us to isolate the contributions of the different reaction mechanisms, thereby confirming previous conclusions of a comprehensive analysis of a large number of excitation function, forward recoil ranges and angular distributions of residues produced in the interaction of 12C with a target nucleus in the same mass range. In particular, the probabilities associated with α-particle reemission following incomplete fussion processes have been reaffirmed. Several refinements to the theoretical model proposed in earlier studies of the interaction of 12C with nuclei are presented.
NUCLEUS IS AVERAGE NUCLEUS OF EMULSION.
NUCLEUS IS AVERAGE NUCLEUS OF CNO.
NUCLEUS IS AVERAGE NUCLEUS OF AgBr.
Light-particle emission from Au+Au collisions has been studied in the bombarding-energy range 100-250 A·MeV, using DeltaE- ER telescopes in coincidence with the FOPI detector in its phase I configuration. Center-of-mass energy spectra have been measured for Z = 1,2 isotopes emitted in central collisions at CM polar angles between 60° and 90°. Evidence for a collective expansion is reported, on the basis of the mean kinetic energies of hydrogen isotopes. Comparison is presented with statistical calculations (WIX code). For CM kinetic energy spectra, fair agreement is found between data and a recently developed transport model.
Angular distributions of the α-particle production differential cross section from the breakup of 6Li and 7Li projectiles incident on a 208Pb target have been measured at seven projectile energies between 29 and 52 MeV. The α-breakup cross section of 6Li was found to be systematically greater than that of 7Li across the entire energy range. These data have been compared with previously reported results and with the predictions of continuum-discretized coupled channels (CDCC) calculations including resonant and nonresonant projectile breakup. The present data compare well with previous measurements, while the CDCC calculations provide a reasonable prediction of the relative α-breakup cross sections but underpredict their absolute values. The calculations confirm that a major factor in the enhancement of the 6Li to 7Li α-breakup cross section is the difference between the α-breakup thresholds of the two isotopes. These results have implications for structural studies of light exotic nuclei based on elastic scattering.
THE TOTAL CHARGE CHANGING CROSS-SECTION WAS DETERMINED FROM THE INTERACTION MEAN FREE PATH OF NUCLEAR INTERACTIONS IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE DENSITY OF ATOMS IN EMULSION.
A SAMPLE OF SEMICENTRAL EVENTS SUCH THAT THE PROJECTILE FRAGMENTS OF CHARGES 2<=Z<=17 WERE SURVIVED IN AN INTERACTION.
The results of intranuclear cascade calculations (ideal gas with two-body collisions and no mean field), complemented by a simple percolation procedure, are compared with experimental data on protons and light nuclear fragments (d, t, He3, and He4) measured in 400 and 800 MeV/nucleon Ne+Nb collisions using a large solid angle detector. The model reproduces quite well global experimental observables like nuclear fragment multiplicity distributions or production cross sections, and nuclear fragment to proton ratios. For rapidity distributions the best agreement occurs for peripheral reactions. Transverse momentum analysis confirms once again that the cascade, although being a microscopic approach, gives too small a collective flow, the best agreement being reached for Z=2 nuclear fragments. Nevertheless these comparisons are encouraging for further improvements of the model. Moreover, such an approach is easy to extend to any other models that could calculate the nucleon phase space distribution after the compression stage of the reaction, when light nuclear fragments emitted at large angles are constructed from percolation.
We report the measurements on partial production cross sections of the multiple helium fragments emitted in the interactions of Si28 ions at 14.5A GeV in nuclear emulsion. Interaction mean free paths of the helium fragments have been investigated on the basis of helium multiplicity and size of the target nucleus as a function of the distance from their production points. Multiplicity scaling in the produced helium fragments is also observed.
FIRST REACTION RESPECTS CENTRAL, SECOND - PERIPHERAL INELASTIC INTERACTION.
FIRST REACTION RESPECTS CENTRAL, SECOND - PERIPHERAL INTERACTION. THIRD REACTION RESPECT 0HE PRODUCTION.
MULT(FRAGT) IS AVERAGED NUMBER OF HEAVY TRACKS FROM THE TARGET NUCLEUS, MULT(SHOWER) IS AVERAGED NUMBER OF MINIMUM IONIZING SHOWER TRACKS WHICH INCLUDED THE NUMBER OF SINGLY CHARGED PROJECTILE PROTON TRACKS.
Inclusive energy spectra of protons, deuterons, and tritons were measured with a telescope of silicon and germanium detectors with a detection range for proton energies up to 200 MeV. Fifteen sets of data were taken using projectiles ranging from protons to Ar40 on targets from Al27 to U238 at bombarding energies from 240 MeV/nucleon to 2.1 GeV/nucleon. Particular attention was paid to the absolute normalization of the cross sections. For three previously reported reactions, He fragment cross sections have been corrected and are presented. To facilitate a comparison with theory the sum of nucleonic charges emitted as protons plus composite particles was estimated and is presented as a function of fragment energy per nucleon in the interval from 15 to 200 MeV/nucleon. For low-energy fragments at forward angles the protons account for only 25% of the nucleonic charges. The equal mass Ar40 plus Ca systems were examined in the center of mass. Here at 0.4 GeV/nucleon Ar40 plus Ca the proton spectra appear to be nearly isotropic in the center of mass over the region measured. Comparisons of some data with firestreak, cascade, and fluid dynamics models indicate a failure of the first and a fair agreement with the latter two. In addition, associated fast charged particle multiplicities (where the particles had energies larger than 25 MeV/nucleon) and azimuthal correlations were measured with an 80 counter array of plastic scintillators. It was found that the associated multiplicities were a smooth function of the total kinetic energy of the projectile. NUCLEAR REACTIONS U(Ne20,X), EA=240 MeV/nucleon; U(Ar40,X), Ca(Ar40,X), U(Ne20,X), Au(Ne20,X), Ag(Ne20,X), Al(Ne20,X), U(He4,X), Al(He4,X), EA=390 MeV/nucleon; U(Ar40,X), Ca(Ar40,X), U(Ne20,X), U(He4,X), U(p,X), EA=1.04 GeV/nucleon; U(Ne20,X), EA=2.1 GeV/nucleon; measured σ(E,θ), X=p,d,t.