Evidence of Mass Ordering of Charm and Bottom Quark Energy Loss in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 82 (2022) 1150, 2022.
Inspire Record 1978766 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115424

Partons traversing the strongly interacting medium produced in heavy-ion collisions are expected to lose energy depending on their color charge and mass. We measure the nuclear modification factors for charm- and bottom-decay electrons, defined as the ratio of yields, scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, in $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions to $p$+$p$ collisions ($R_{\rm AA}$), or in central to peripheral Au+Au collisions ($R_{\rm CP}$). We find the bottom-decay electron $R_{\rm AA}$ and $R_{\rm CP}$ to be significantly higher than that of charm-decay electrons. Model calculations including mass-dependent parton energy loss in a strongly coupled medium are consistent with the measured data. These observations provide clear evidence of mass ordering of charm and bottom quark energy loss when traversing through the strongly coupled medium created in heavy-ion collisions.

12 data tables

Fit to the $\rm log_{10}(DCA/cm)$ of candidate electrons with $p_{\rm T}$ $\in$ [3.5,4.5] GeV/$c$ in 0-80% Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=200$ GeV, where the DCA is defined as the 3D distance-of-closest approach of the track to the primary vertex. The solid blue line shows the full template fit, and the various other lines show the individual components. The bottom panel shows the residual distribution of the template fit scaled by the statistical uncertainties.

Invariant yield of the electrons from decays of prompt $J/\psi$, $\Upsilon$, Drell-Yan and light vector mesons in 0-80% Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV.

Invariant yield of heavy flavor hadron decayed electrons in 0-80% Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV.

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Measurements of azimuthal anisotropies of jet production in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abbott, Dale ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 105 (2022) 064903, 2022.
Inspire Record 1967021 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132663

The azimuthal variation of jet yields in heavy-ion collisions provides information about the path-length dependence of the energy loss experienced by partons passing through the hot, dense nuclear matter known as the quark-gluon plasma. This paper presents the azimuthal anisotropy coefficients $v_2$, $v_3$, and $v_4$ measured for jets in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 5.02 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measurement uses data collected in 2015 and 2018, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 nb$^{-1}$. The $v_n$ values are measured as a function of the transverse momentum of the jets between 71 GeV and 398 GeV and the event centrality. A nonzero value of $v_2$ is observed in all but the most central collisions. The value of $v_2$ is largest for jets with lower transverse momentum, with values up to 0.05 in mid-central collisions. A smaller, nonzero value of $v_3$ of approximately 0.01 is measured with no significant dependence on jet $p_T$ or centrality, suggesting that fluctuations in the initial state play a small but distinct role in jet energy loss. No significant deviation of $v_4$ from zero is observed in the measured kinematic region.

44 data tables

The JES for R = 0.2 jets in Pb+Pb collisions as a function of $p_T^{truth}$ for centrality selections of 0-5%, 5-10%, 10-20%, 20-40% and 40-60%.

The JER for R = 0.2 jets in Pb+Pb collisions as a function of $p_T^{truth}$ for centrality selections of 0-5%, 5-10%, 10-20%, 20-40% and 40-60%.

The JES for R = 0.2 jets in Pb+Pb collisions as a function of $2|\Psi_2-\phi^{reco}|$ for centrality selections of 0-5%, 5-10%, 10-20%, 20-40% and 40-60%.

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Observation of Global Spin Alignment of $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ Vector Mesons in Nuclear Collisions

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Nature (2023), 2023.
Inspire Record 2063245 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.129067

Notwithstanding decades of progress since Yukawa first developed a description of the force between nucleons in terms of meson exchange, a full understanding of the strong interaction remains a major challenge in modern science. One remaining difficulty arises from the non-perturbative nature of the strong force, which leads to the phenomenon of quark confinement at distances on the order of the size of the proton. Here we show that in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, where quarks and gluons are set free over an extended volume, two species of produced vector (spin-1) mesons, namely $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$, emerge with a surprising pattern of global spin alignment. In particular, the global spin alignment for $\phi$ is unexpectedly large, while that for $K^{*0}$ is consistent with zero. The observed spin-alignment pattern and magnitude for the $\phi$ cannot be explained by conventional mechanisms, while a model with a connection to strong force fields, i.e. an effective proxy description within the Standard Model and Quantum Chromodynamics, accommodates the current data. This connection, if fully established, will open a potential new avenue for studying the behaviour of strong force fields.

38 data tables

Global spin alignment of $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. The measured matrix element $\rho_{00}$ as a function of beam energy for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons within the indicated windows of centrality, transverse momentum ($p_T$) and rapidity ($y$). The open symbols indicate ALICE results for Pb+Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV at $p_{T}$ values of 2.0 and 1.4 GeV/c for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ mesons, respectively, corresponding to the $p_{T}$ bin nearest to the mean $p_{T}$ for the 1.0 – 5.0 GeV/$c$ range assumed for each meson in the present analysis. The red solid curve is a fit to data in the range of $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 19.6$ to 200 GeV, based on a theoretical calculation with a $\phi$-meson field. Parameter sensitivity of $\rho_{00}$ to the $\phi$-meson field is shown in Ref.5. The red dashed line is an extension of the solid curve with the fitted parameter $G_s^{(y)}$. The black dashed line represents $\rho_{00}=1/3.$

Global spin alignment of $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. The measured matrix element $\rho_{00}$ as a function of beam energy for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons within the indicated windows of centrality, transverse momentum ($p_T$) and rapidity ($y$). The open symbols indicate ALICE results for Pb+Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV at $p_{T}$ values of 2.0 and 1.4 GeV/c for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ mesons, respectively, corresponding to the $p_{T}$ bin nearest to the mean $p_{T}$ for the 1.0 – 5.0 GeV/$c$ range assumed for each meson in the present analysis. The red solid curve is a fit to data in the range of $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 19.6$ to 200 GeV, based on a theoretical calculation with a $\phi$-meson field. Parameter sensitivity of $\rho_{00}$ to the $\phi$-meson field is shown in Ref.5. The red dashed line is an extension of the solid curve with the fitted parameter $G_s^{(y)}$. The black dashed line represents $\rho_{00}=1/3.$

Example of combinatorial background subtracted invariant mass distributions and the extracted yields as a function of $\cos \theta^*$ for $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ mesons. \textbf{a)} example of $\phi \rightarrow K^+ + K^-$ invariant mass distributions, with combinatorial background subtracted, integrated over $\cos \theta^*$; \textbf{b)} example of $K^{*0} (\overline{K^{*0}}) \rightarrow K^{-} \pi^{+} (K^{+} \pi^{-})$ invariant mass distributions, with combinatorial background subtracted, integrated over $\cos \theta^*$; \textbf{c)} extracted yields of $\phi$ as a function of $\cos \theta^*$; \textbf{d)} extracted yields of $K^{*0}$ as a function of $\cos \theta^*$.

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Version 3
Search for neutral long-lived particles in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV that decay into displaced hadronic jets in the ATLAS calorimeter

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abbott, Dale ; et al.
JHEP 06 (2022) 005, 2022.
Inspire Record 2043503 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115578

A search for decays of pair-produced neutral long-lived particles (LLPs) is presented using 139 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC in 2015-2018 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. Dedicated techniques were developed for the reconstruction of displaced jets produced by LLPs decaying hadronically in the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter. Two search regions are defined for different LLP kinematic regimes. The observed numbers of events are consistent with the expected background, and limits for several benchmark signals are determined. For a SM Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV, branching ratios above 10% are excluded at 95% confidence level for values of $c$ times LLP mean proper lifetime in the range between 20 mm and 10 m depending on the model. Upper limits are also set on the cross-section times branching ratio for scalars with a mass of 60 GeV and for masses between 200 GeV and 1 TeV.

49 data tables

CalRatio triggers which were available during the LHC Run 2 data-taking, and corresponding integrated luminosity collected in each period. The high-E<sub>T</sub> CalRatio trigger with E<sub>T</sub> > 60 GeV was disabled in 2017 for instantaneous luminosities higher than 1.4 &times; 10<sup>34</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>. Two versions of the low-E<sub>T</sub> CalRatio trigger were used, with slight differences in their algorithms. The details are reported in Section 4.

Trigger efficiency for simulated signal events as a function of the LLP p<sub>T</sub> for one of the low-E<sub>T</sub> signal samples for HLT CalRatio triggers seeded by the high-E<sub>T</sub> L1 triggers with E<sub>T</sub> thresholds of 60 GeV and 100 GeV and by the two versions of the low-E<sub>T</sub> L1 triggers. Only statistical uncertainties are shown.

Trigger efficiency for simulated signal events as a function of the LLP p<sub>T</sub> for one of the high-E<sub>T</sub> signal samples for HLT CalRatio triggers seeded by the high-E<sub>T</sub> L1 triggers with E<sub>T</sub> thresholds of 60 GeV and 100 GeV and by the two versions of the low-E<sub>T</sub> L1 triggers. Only statistical uncertainties are shown.

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Version 2
Measurement of the $t\bar{t}$ production cross-section in the lepton+jets channel at $\sqrt{s}=13\;$TeV with the ATLAS experiment

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abbott, Dale Charles ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 810 (2020) 135797, 2020.
Inspire Record 1802524 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95748

The $t\bar{t}$ production cross-section is measured in the lepton+jets channel using proton$-$proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb$^{-1}$. Events with exactly one charged lepton and four or more jets in the final state, with at least one jet containing $b$-hadrons, are used to determine the $t\bar{t}$ production cross-section through a profile-likelihood fit. The inclusive cross-section is measured to be ${\sigma_{\text{inc}} = 830 \pm 0.4~ \text{(stat.)}\pm 36~\text{(syst.)}\pm 14~\text{(lumi.)}~\mathrm{pb}}$ with a relative uncertainty of 4.6 %. The result is consistent with theoretical calculations at next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. The fiducial $t\bar{t}$ cross-section within the experimental acceptance is also measured.

10 data tables

The results of fitted inclusive and fiducial ${t\bar{t}}$ cross-sections

The results of fitted inclusive and fiducial ${t\bar{t}}$ cross-sections

Ranking of the systematic uncertainties on the measured cross-section, normalised to the predicted value, in the inclusive fit to data. The impact of each nuisance parameter, $\Delta \sigma_{\text{inc}}/\sigma^{\text{pred.}}_{\text{inc}}$, is computed by comparing the nominal best-fit value of $\sigma_{\text{inc}}/\sigma^{\text{pred}}_{\text{inc}}$ with the result of the fit when fixing the considered nuisance parameter to its best-fit value, $\theta$, shifted by its pre-fit (post-fit) uncertainties $\pm \Delta \theta$ ($\pm \Delta \hat{\theta}$). The figure shows the effect of the ten most significant uncertainties.

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Net-proton number fluctuations and the Quantum Chromodynamics critical point

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 126 (2021) 092301, 2021.
Inspire Record 1850675 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101068

Non-monotonic variation with collision energy ($\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$) of the moments of the net-baryon number distribution in heavy-ion collisions, related to the correlation length and the susceptibilities of the system, is suggested as a signature for the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) critical point. We report the first evidence of a non-monotonic variation in kurtosis times variance of the net-proton number (proxy for net-baryon number) distribution as a function of \rootsnn with 3.1$\sigma$ significance, for head-on (central) gold-on-gold (Au+Au) collisions measured using the STAR detector at RHIC. Data in non-central Au+Au collisions and models of heavy-ion collisions without a critical point show a monotonic variation as a function of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$.

10 data tables

Event-by-event net-proton multiplicity distributions for central (0-5$\%$) Au+Au collisions from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 200 GeV. The distributions are normalised to total number of events. The distributions are not corrected for proton and antiproton detection efficiency.

Cumulants of net-proton distributions in Au+Au collisions for nine energies from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 200 GeV for 0-5$\%$ and 70-80$\%$ centrality.

Cumulant ratios C3/C2 and C4/C2 of net-proton distributions in Au+Au collisions for eight energies from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 62.4 GeV for 0-5$\%$ centrality. Also given are the derivative of the polynomial fits to the C3/C2 and C4/C2 vs energy at each energy and the Skellam baselines for the ratios.

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Search for type-III seesaw heavy leptons in leptonic final states in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abbott, Dale ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 82 (2022) 988, 2022.
Inspire Record 2027687 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.114228

A search for the pair production of heavy leptons as predicted by the type-III seesaw mechanism is presented. The search uses proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to 139 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity recorded by the ATLAS detector during Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider. The analysis focuses on final states with three or four electrons or muons from the possible decays of new heavy leptons via intermediate electroweak bosons. No significant deviations above the Standard Model expectation are observed; upper and lower limits on the heavy lepton production cross-section and masses are derived respectively. These results are then combined for the first time with the ones already published by ATLAS using the channel with two leptons in the final state. The observed lower limit on the mass of the type-III seesaw heavy leptons combining two, three and four lepton channels together is 910 GeV at the 95% confidence level.

25 data tables

Expected background yields and observed data after the background-only fit in the SRs.

Distribution of $m_{\mathrm{T},3l}$ in the ZL SR after the background-only fit. The uncertainty on the expected number of background events includes all statistical and systematic post-fit uncertainties with the correlations between various background sources taken into account.

Distribution of $m_{\mathrm{T},3l}$ in the ZL Veto SR after the background-only fit. The uncertainty on the expected number of background events includes all statistical and systematic post-fit uncertainties with the correlations between various background sources taken into account.

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Search for dark matter in events with missing transverse momentum and a Higgs boson decaying into two photons in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abbott, Brad ; et al.
JHEP 10 (2021) 013, 2021.
Inspire Record 1860984 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.100534

A search for dark-matter particles in events with large missing transverse momentum and a Higgs boson candidate decaying into two photons is reported. The search uses $139$ fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data collected at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector at the CERN LHC between 2015 and 2018. No significant excess of events over the Standard Model predictions is observed. The results are interpreted by extracting limits on three simplified models that include either vector or pseudoscalar mediators and predict a final state with a pair of dark-matter candidates and a Higgs boson decaying into two photons.

25 data tables

The $E^{miss}_{T}$ distribution of data and MC after the diphoton selection.

The observed exclusion contor for the $Z^{\prime}_{B}$ model in the $m_{\chi}$-$m_{Z^{\prime}_{B}}$ plane.

The expected exclusion contor for the $Z^{\prime}_{B}$ model in the $m_{\chi}$-$m_{Z^{\prime}_{B}}$ plane.

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Version 4
Observation of B$^0$$\to$$\psi$(2S)K$^0_\mathrm{S}\pi^+\pi^-$ and B$^0_\mathrm{S}$$\to$$\psi$(2S)K$^0_\mathrm{S}$ decays

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 82 (2022) 499, 2022.
Inspire Record 2016388 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.114370

Using a data sample of $\sqrt{s} =$ 13 TeV proton-proton collisions collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2017 and 2018 with an integrated luminosity of 103 fb$^{-1}$, the B$^0$$\to$$\psi$(2S)K$^0_\mathrm{S}$ and B$^0_\mathrm{S}$$\to$$\psi$(2S)K$^0_\mathrm{S}\pi^+\pi^-$ decays are observed with significances exceeding 5 standard deviations. The resulting branching fraction ratios, measured for the first time, correspond to $\mathcal{B}$(B$^0_\mathrm{S}$$\to$$\psi$(2S)K$^0_\mathrm{S}$) / $\mathcal{B}$(B$^0$$\to$$\psi$(2S)K$^0_\mathrm{S}$) = (3.33 $\pm$ 0.69 (stat) $\pm$ 0.11 (syst) $\pm$ 0.34 ($f_\mathrm{s} / f_\mathrm{d}$)) $\times$ 10$^{-2}$ and $\mathcal{B}$(B$^0$$\to$$\psi$(2S)K$^0_\mathrm{S}\pi^+\pi^-$) / $\mathcal{B}$(B$^0$$\to$$\psi$(2S)K$^0_\mathrm{S}$) = 0.480 $\pm$ 0.013 (stat) $\pm$ 0.032 (syst), where the last uncertainty in the first ratio is related to the uncertainty in the ratio of production cross sections of B$^0_\mathrm{s}$ and B$^0$ mesons, $f_\mathrm{s} / f_\mathrm{d}$.

10 data tables

The measured branching fraction ratios

The measured branching fraction ratios

The measured branching fraction ratios

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Version 2
Charged-particle distributions at low transverse momentum in $\sqrt{s}$=13 TeV pp interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

The ATLAS collaboration Aaboud, Morad ; Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 76 (2016) 502, 2016.
Inspire Record 1467230 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73907

Measurements of distributions of charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 151 $\mu$b$^{-1}$. The particles are required to have a transverse momentum greater than 100 MeV and an absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.5. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the dependence of the mean transverse momentum on multiplicity are measured in events containing at least two charged particles satisfying the above kinematic criteria. The results are corrected for detector effects and compared to the predictions from several Monte Carlo event generators.

20 data tables

The average charged-particle muliplicity per unit of rapidity for ETARAP=0 as a function of the centre-of-mass energy.

The average charged-particle muliplicity per unit of rapidity for ETARAP=0 as a function of the centre-of-mass energy.

The extrapolated ($\tau > 30$ ps) average charged-particle muliplicity per unit of rapidity for ETARAP=0 as a function of the centre-of-mass energy.

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