Low-$p_T$ direct-photon production in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=39$ and 62.4 GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2057344 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133218

The measurement of direct photons from Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=39$ and 62.4 GeV in the transverse-momentum range $0.4<p_T<3$ Gev/$c$ is presented by the PHENIX collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. A significant direct-photon yield is observed in both collision systems. A universal scaling is observed when the direct-photon $p_T$ spectra for different center-of-mass energies and for different centrality selections at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=62.4$ GeV is scaled with $(dN_{\rm ch}/d\eta)^{\alpha}$ for $\alpha=1.21{\pm}0.04$. This scaling also holds true for direct-photon spectra from Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV measured earlier by PHENIX, as well as the spectra from Pb$+$Pb at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=2760$ GeV published by ALICE. The scaling power $\alpha$ seems to be independent of $p_T$, center of mass energy, and collision centrality. The spectra from different collision energies have a similar shape up to $p_T$ of 2 GeV/$c$. The spectra have a local inverse slope $T_{\rm eff}$ increasing with $p_T$ of $0.174\pm0.018$ GeV/$c$ in the range $0.4<p_T<1.3$ GeV/$c$ and increasing to $0.289\pm0.024$ GeV/$c$ for $0.9<p_T<2.1$ GeV/$c$. The observed similarity of low-$p_T$ direct-photon production from $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}= 39$ to 2760 GeV suggests a common source of direct photons for the different collision energies and event centrality selections, and suggests a comparable space-time evolution of direct-photon emission.

12 data tables

$R_{\gamma}$ for minimum bias (0-86%) Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62.4$ GeV (a) and $39$ GeV (b). For $62.4$ GeV also centrality bins of 0-20% (c) and 20-40% (d) are shown. Data points are shown with statistical (bar) and systematic uncertainties (box)

$R_{\gamma}$ for minimum bias (0-86%) Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62.4$ GeV (a) and $39$ GeV (b). For $62.4$ GeV also centrality bins of 0-20% (c) and 20-40% (d) are shown. Data points are shown with statistical (bar) and systematic uncertainties (box)

Direct photon spectra for minimum bias (0-86%) Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62.4$ GeV (a) and $39$ GeV (b). For $62.4$ GeV also centrality bins of 0-20% (c) and 20-40% (d) are shown. Data points are shown with statistical and systematic uncertainties, unless the central value is negative (arrows) or is consistent with zero within the statistical uncertainties (arrows with data point). In these cases upper limit with CL = 95$%$ are given.

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Jet energy spectrum and substructure in e$^{+}$e$^{−}$ collisions at 91.2 GeV with ALEPH Archived Data

Chen, Yi ; Badea, Anthony ; Baty, Austin ; et al.
JHEP 06 (2022) 008, 2022.
Inspire Record 1972346 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.129778

The first measurements of energy spectra and substructure of anti-$k_{T}$ jets in hadronic $Z^0$ decays in $e^+e^-$ collisions are presented. The archived $e^+e^-$ annihilation data at a center-of-mass energy of 91.2 GeV were collected with the ALEPH detector at LEP in 1994. In addition to inclusive jet and leading dijet energy spectra, various jet substructure observables are analyzed as a function of jet energy which includes groomed and ungroomed jet mass to jet energy ratios, groomed momentum sharing, and groomed jet radius. The results are compared with perturbative QCD calculations and predictions from the SHERPA, HERWIG v7.1.5, PYTHIA 6, PYTHIA 8, and PYQUEN event generators. The jet energy spectra agree with perturbative QCD calculations which include the treatment of logarithms of the jet radius and threshold logarithms. None of the event generators give a fully satisfactory description of the data.

7 data tables

The measured inclusive jet energy spectrum

The measured leading dijet energy spectrum

The measured leading dijet sum energy spectrum

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Version 2
Beam-Energy Dependence of Directed Flow of $\Lambda$, $\bar{\Lambda}$, $K^\pm$, $K^0_s$ and $\phi$ in Au+Au Collisions

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; Adkins, Kevin ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 120 (2018) 062301, 2018.
Inspire Record 1618747 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101750

Rapidity-odd directed flow measurements at midrapidity are presented for $\Lambda$, $\bar{\Lambda}$, $K^\pm$, $K^0_s$ and $\phi$ at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV in Au+Au collisions recorded by the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These measurements greatly expand the scope of data available to constrain models with differing prescriptions for the equation of state of quantum chromodynamics. Results show good sensitivity for testing a picture where flow is assumed to be imposed before hadron formation and the observed particles are assumed to form via coalescence of constituent quarks. The pattern of departure from a coalescence-inspired sum-rule can be a valuable new tool for probing the collision dynamics.

33 data tables

Directed flow $v_1$ as a function of rapidity $y$ for $K^{+}$ in 5%–10% central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV.

Directed flow $v_1$ as a function of rapidity $y$ for $K^{+}$ in 10%–40% central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV.

Directed flow $v_1$ as a function of rapidity $y$ for $K^{+}$ in 10%–40% central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 62.4 and 200 GeV.

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Version 2
Global $\Lambda$ hyperon polarization in nuclear collisions: evidence for the most vortical fluid

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Nature 548 (2017) 62-65, 2017.
Inspire Record 1510474 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77494

The extreme temperatures and energy densities generated by ultra-relativistic collisions between heavy nuclei produce a state of matter with surprising fluid properties. Non-central collisions have angular momentum on the order of 1000$\hbar$, and the resulting fluid may have a strong vortical structure that must be understood to properly describe the fluid. It is also of particular interest because the restoration of fundamental symmetries of quantum chromodynamics is expected to produce novel physical effects in the presence of strong vorticity. However, no experimental indications of fluid vorticity in heavy ion collisions have so far been found. Here we present the first measurement of an alignment between the angular momentum of a non-central collision and the spin of emitted particles, revealing that the fluid produced in heavy ion collisions is by far the most vortical system ever observed. We find that $\Lambda$ and $\overline{\Lambda}$ hyperons show a positive polarization of the order of a few percent, consistent with some hydrodynamic predictions. A previous measurement that reported a null result at higher collision energies is seen to be consistent with the trend of our new observations, though with larger statistical uncertainties. These data provide the first experimental access to the vortical structure of the "perfect fluid" created in a heavy ion collision. They should prove valuable in the development of hydrodynamic models that quantitatively connect observations to the theory of the Strong Force. Our results extend the recent discovery of hydrodynamic spin alignment to the subatomic realm.

2 data tables

Lambda and AntiLambda polarization as a function of collision energy. A 0.8% error on the alpha value used in the paper is corrected in this table. Systematic error bars include those associated with particle identification (negligible), uncertainty in the value of the hyperon decay parameter (2%) and reaction plane resolution (2%) and detector efficiency corrections (4%). The dominant systematic error comes from statistical fluctuations of the estimated combinatoric background under the (anti-)$\Lambda$ mass peak.

Lambda and AntiLambda polarization as a function of collision energy calculated using the new $\alpha_\Lambda=0.732$ updated on PDG2020. Systematic error bars include those associated with particle identification (negligible), uncertainty in the value of the hyperon decay parameter (2%) and reaction plane resolution (2%) and detector efficiency corrections (4%). The dominant systematic error comes from statistical fluctuations of the estimated combinatoric background under the (anti-)$\Lambda$ mass peak.


Version 2
Energy and system-size dependence of two- and four-particle $v_2$ measurements in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and their implications on flow fluctuations and nonflow

The STAR collaboration Agakishiev, G. ; Aggarwal, M.M. ; Ahammed, Z. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 86 (2012) 014904, 2012.
Inspire Record 955160 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101341

We present STAR measurements of azimuthal anisotropy by means of the two- and four-particle cumulants $v_2$ ($v_2\{2\}$ and $v_2\{4\}$) for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at center of mass energies $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}} = 62.4$ and 200 GeV. The difference between $v_2\{2\}^2$ and $v_2\{4\}^2$ is related to $v_{2}$ fluctuations ($\sigma_{v_2}$) and nonflow $(\delta_{2})$. We present an upper limit to $\sigma_{v_2}/v_{2}$. Following the assumption that eccentricity fluctuations $\sigma_{\epsilon}$ dominate $v_2$ fluctuations $\frac{\sigma_{v_2}}{v_2} \approx \frac{\sigma_{\epsilon}}{\epsilon}$ we deduce the nonflow implied for several models of eccentricity fluctuations that would be required for consistency with $v_2\{2\}$ and $v_2\{4\}$. We also present results on the ratio of $v_2$ to eccentricity.

14 data tables

The two-particle cumulant $v_2\{2\}^2$ for Au+Au collisions at 200 and 62.4 GeV. Results are shown with like-sign combinations (LS) and charge-independent results (CI) for $0.15 < p_T < 2.0$ GeV/$c$.

The same as the left but for Cu+Cu collisions. The systematic errors are shown as thin lines with wide caps at the ends and statistical errors are shown as thick lines with small caps at the end. Statistical and systematic errors are very small.

The difference of charge-independent (CI) v2{2} and like-sign (LS) $v_2\{2\}$ for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at 200 (top panel) and 62.4 (bottom panel) GeV vs. the log of $\langle dN_{ch}/d\eta\rangle$.The statistical errors are smaller than the marker size and not visible for most of the data.

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Scaling properties at freeze-out in relativistic heavy ion collisions

The STAR collaboration Aggarwal, M.M. ; Ahammed, Z. ; Alakhverdyants, A.V. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 83 (2011) 034910, 2011.
Inspire Record 865572 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.104504

Identified charged pion, kaon, and proton spectra are used to explore the system size dependence of bulk freeze-out properties in Cu+Cu collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=200 and 62.4 GeV. The data are studied with hydrodynamically-motivated Blast-wave and statistical model frameworks in order to characterize the freeze-out properties of the system. The dependence of freeze-out parameters on beam energy and collision centrality is discussed. Using the existing results from Au+Au and $pp$ collisions, the dependence of freeze-out parameters on the system size is also explored. This multi-dimensional systematic study furthers our understanding of the QCD phase diagram revealing the importance of the initial geometrical overlap of the colliding ions. The analysis of Cu+Cu collisions, which expands the system size dependence studies from Au+Au data with detailed measurements in the smaller system, shows that the bulk freeze-out properties of charged particles studied here scale with the total charged particle multiplicity at mid-rapidity, suggesting the relevance of initial state effects.

26 data tables

Negatively charged pion spectra from Cu+Cu collisions 200 GeV as a function of pT for different centralities.

Negatively charged pion spectra from Cu+Cu collisions 62.4 GeV as a function of pT for different centralities.

Negatively charged kaon spectra from Cu+Cu collisions 200 GeV as a function of pT for different centralities.

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Version 2
Global polarization measurement in Au+Au collisions

The STAR collaboration Abelev, B.I. ; Aggarwal, M.M. ; Ahammed, Z. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 76 (2007) 024915, 2007.
Inspire Record 750410 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.98581

The system created in non-central relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions possesses large orbital angular momentum. Due to spin-orbit coupling, particles produced in such a system could become globally polarized along the direction of the system angular momentum. We present the results of Lambda and anti-Lambda hyperon global polarization measurements in Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_NN}=62.4 GeV and 200 GeV performed with the STAR detector at RHIC. The observed global polarization of Lambda and anti-Lambda hyperons in the STAR acceptance is consistent with zero within the precision of the measurements. The obtained upper limit, |P_{Lambda,anti-Lambda}| <= 0.02, is compared to the theoretical values discussed recently in the literature.

11 data tables

(Color online) Invariant mass distribution for the $\Lambda$ (filled circles) and $\overline{\Lambda}$ (open squares) candidates after the quality cuts for Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=62.4 GeV (centrality region 0-80%).

(Color online) Global polarization of $\Lambda$–hyperons as a function of $\Lambda$ transverse momentum $p^{\Lambda}_{t}$. Filled circles show the results for Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=200 GeV (centrality region 20-70%) and open squares indicate the results for Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=62.4 GeV (centrality region 0-80%). Only statistical uncertainties are shown.

(Color online) Global polarization of $\Lambda$–hyperons as a function of $\Lambda$ pseudorapidity $\eta^{\Lambda}$. Filled circles show the results for Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=200 GeV (centrality region 20-70%). A constant line fit to these data points yields $P_{\Lambda}=(2.8\pm 9.6)\times 10^{-3}$ with $\chi^{2}/ndf=6.5/10$. Open squares show the results for Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=62.4 GeV (centrality region 0-80%). A constant line fit gives $P_{\Lambda}=(1.9\pm 8.0)\times 10^{-3}$ with $\chi^{2}/ndf=14.3/10$. Only statistical uncertainties are shown.

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System-size independence of directed flow at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider

The STAR collaboration Abelev, B.I. ; Aggarwal, M.M. ; Ahammed, Z. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 101 (2008) 252301, 2008.
Inspire Record 790350 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.102949

We measure directed flow ($v_1$) for charged particles in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 200 GeV and 62.4 GeV, as a function of pseudorapidity ($\eta$), transverse momentum ($p_t$) and collision centrality, based on data from the STAR experiment. We find that the directed flow depends on the incident energy but, contrary to all existing models, not on the size of the colliding system at a given centrality. We extend the validity of the limiting fragmentation concept to different collision systems, and investigate possible explanations for the observed sign change in $v_1(p_t)$.

11 data tables

Charged particle $v_1(\eta)$ for 0-5 % centrality in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV.

$<P_x>/<P_t>$ of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity, for centrality 0-5% in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV.

Charged particle $v_1(\eta)$ for 5-40 % centrality in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV.

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Inclusive charged hadron elliptic flow in Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7 - 39 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Agakishiev, G. ; Aggarwal, M.M. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 86 (2012) 054908, 2012.
Inspire Record 1119620 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.102951

A systematic study is presented for centrality, transverse momentum ($p_T$) and pseudorapidity ($\eta$) dependence of the inclusive charged hadron elliptic flow ($v_2$) at midrapidity($|\eta| < 1.0$) in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27 and 39 GeV. The results obtained with different methods, including correlations with the event plane reconstructed in a region separated by a large pseudorapidity gap and 4-particle cumulants ($v_2{4}$), are presented in order to investigate non-flow correlations and $v_2$ fluctuations. We observe that the difference between $v_2{2}$ and $v_2{4}$ is smaller at the lower collision energies. Values of $v_2$, scaled by the initial coordinate space eccentricity, $v_{2}/\varepsilon$, as a function of $p_T$ are larger in more central collisions, suggesting stronger collective flow develops in more central collisions, similar to the results at higher collision energies. These results are compared to measurements at higher energies at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider ($\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 62.4 and 200 GeV) and at the Large Hadron Collider (Pb + Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV). The $v_2(p_T)$ values for fixed $p_T$ rise with increasing collision energy within the $p_T$ range studied ($< 2 {\rm GeV}/c$). A comparison to viscous hydrodynamic simulations is made to potentially help understand the energy dependence of $v_{2}(p_{T})$. We also compare the $v_2$ results to UrQMD and AMPT transport model calculations, and physics implications on the dominance of partonic versus hadronic phases in the system created at Beam Energy Scan (BES) energies are discussed.

12 data tables

The event plane resolutions for Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27 and 39 GeV as a function of collision centrality.

The comparison of $v_2$ as a function of $p_T$ between GF-cumulant and Q-cumulant methods in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 39 GeV.

The $p_T$ (> 0.2 GeV/c) and $\eta$ ($∣\eta∣$ < 1) integrated $v_2$ as a function of collision centrality for Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7 GeV, 11.5 GeV, 19.6 GeV, 27 GeV and 39 GeV.

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Center of mass energy and system-size dependence of photon production at forward rapidity at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Abelev, B.I. ; Aggarwal, M.M. ; Ahammed, Z. ; et al.
Nucl.Phys.A 832 (2010) 134-147, 2010.
Inspire Record 822997 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101347

We present the multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions of photons produced in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at \sqrt{s_NN} = 62.4 and 200 GeV. The photons are measured in the region -3.7 < \eta < -2.3 using the photon multiplicity detector in the STAR experiment at RHIC. The number of photons produced per average number of participating nucleon pairs increases with the beam energy and is independent of the collision centrality. For collisions with similar average numbers of participating nucleons the photon multiplicities are observed to be similar for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at a given beam energy. The ratios of the number of charged particles to photons in the measured pseudorapidity range are found to be 1.4 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.1 for \sqrt{s_NN} = 62.4 GeV and 200 GeV, respectively. The energy dependence of this ratio could reflect varying contributions from baryons to charged particles, while mesons are the dominant contributors to photon production in the given kinematic region. The photon pseudorapidity distributions normalized by average number of participating nucleon pairs, when plotted as a function of \eta - ybeam, are found to follow a longitudinal scaling independent of centrality and colliding ion species at both beam energies.

14 data tables

Fig. 1. (Color online.) Top panel: Photon reconstruction efficiency $\left(\epsilon_{\gamma}\right)$ (solid symbols) and purity of photon sample $\left(f_{\mathrm{p}}\right)$ (open symbols) for PMD as a function of pseudorapidity $(\eta)$ for minimum bias $\mathrm{Au}+\mathrm{Au}$ and $\mathrm{Cu}+\mathrm{Cu}$ at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=$ $200 \mathrm{GeV}$. Bottom panel: Comparison between estimated $\epsilon_{\gamma}$ and $f_{\mathrm{p}}$ for PMD as a function of $\eta$ for minimum bias $\mathrm{Au}+\mathrm{Au}$ at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=62.4 \mathrm{GeV}$ using HIJING and AMPT models. The error bars on the AMPT data are statistical and those for HIJING are within the symbol size. NOTE: For points with invisible error bars, the point size was considered as an absolute upper limit for the uncertainty.

Fig. 1. (Color online.) Top panel: Photon reconstruction efficiency $\left(\epsilon_{\gamma}\right)$ (solid symbols) and purity of photon sample $\left(f_{\mathrm{p}}\right)$ (open symbols) for PMD as a function of pseudorapidity $(\eta)$ for minimum bias $\mathrm{Au}+\mathrm{Au}$ and $\mathrm{Cu}+\mathrm{Cu}$ at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=$ $200 \mathrm{GeV}$. Bottom panel: Comparison between estimated $\epsilon_{\gamma}$ and $f_{\mathrm{p}}$ for PMD as a function of $\eta$ for minimum bias $\mathrm{Au}+\mathrm{Au}$ at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=62.4 \mathrm{GeV}$ using HIJING and AMPT models. The error bars on the AMPT data are statistical and those for HIJING are within the symbol size. NOTE: For points with invisible error bars, the point size was considered as an absolute upper limit for the uncertainty.

Fig. 2. (Color online.) Event-by-event photon multiplicity distributions (solid circles) for $\mathrm{Au}+\mathrm{Au}$ and $\mathrm{Cu}+\mathrm{Cu}$ at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=62.4$ and $200 \mathrm{GeV} .$ The distributions for top $0-5 \%$ central $\mathrm{Au}+$ Au collisions and top $0-10 \%$ central $\mathrm{Cu}+\mathrm{Cu}$ collisions are also shown (open circles). The photon multiplicity distributions for central collisions are observed to be Gaussian (solid line). Only statistical errors are shown. NOTE: For points with invisible error bars, the point size was considered as an absolute upper limit for the uncertainty.

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