We have made measurements of polarization in π−p elastic scattering, with emphasis over the backward region, at 1.60 to 2.28 GeVc. The results indicate the absence of u-channel dominance in the backward region, as was observed in the case of π+p scattering. Comparisons have been made with predictions of various phase-shift analyses which show that the agreement is generally very poor in the backward region.
We report measurements of the polarization parameters in π+p and π−p elastic scattering at an incident momentum of 100 GeV/c. The results cover the range 0.18<~−t<~1.4 GeV2 and are in agreement with current Regge-model predictions.
The polarization parameter P(t) for the reaction π−p→π0n has been measured at 3.5 and 5.0 GeV/c over the range 0.2<~−t<~1.8 (GeV/c)2. The two γ rays from the π0 decay were detected in a large lead-glass hodoscope. The results agree with the positive polarization values found in earlier Argonne National Laboratory data at −t<0.35 (GeV/c)2. P(t) drops to a small value near t=−0.6 (GeV/c)2 and remains the same out to t=−1.8 (GeV/c)2.
Measurements of polarization in π+p elastic scattering have been made at 1.60, 1.80, 2.11, and 2.31 GeVc. The data cover the entire angular range, with emphasis on the backward region. Comparisons have been made with both u-channel and t-channel models, as well as with predictions of phase-shift analyses. While the agreement is generally poor in all cases, the best agreement is with some t-channel predictions.
The polarization parameter for K + p elastic scattering has been measured at 1.60, 1.80, 2.11 and 3.31 GeV/ c incident momenta over the entire angular range with an emphasis on the backward region. The results in the extreme backward region appear to be small and consistent with zero.
Full angular distributions of the polarization parameter in elastic K+p scattering at 1.37, 1.45, 1.60, 1.71, 1.80, 1.89, 2.11, and 2.31 GeV/c are presented. These data were obtained in an experiment at the Zero Gradient Synchrotron using a polarized proton target with arrays of scintillation and Čerenkov counters to detect the scattered particles.
Measurements of the polarization parameters and angular distributions are reported for π±p elastic scattering at 100 GeV/c and for pp elastic scattering at 100- and 300-GeV/c incident momentum. The π±p data cover the kinematic range 0.18≤−t≤1.10 GeV2 and are in agreement with current Regge-model predictions. The pp data cover the kinematic range 0.15≤−t≤1.10 GeV2 and 0.15≤−t≤2.00 GeV2 at 100 and 300 GeV/c, respectively, and are found to be consistent with absorption-model predictions.
The analyzing power A N of proton-proton, proton-hydrocarbon, and antiproton-hydrocarbon, scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region has been measured using thhe 185 GeV/ c Fermilab polarized-proton and -antiproton beams. The results are found to be consistent with theoretical predictions within statistical uncertainties.
Inclusive single-particle spectra for π± production are presented for data from π±p interactions at 100 GeV/c. The spectra for the four reactions π±p→π±+anything are compared as a function of laboratory longitudinal momentum, Feynman x, center-of-mass (c.m.) rapidity, and transverse momentum squared. Comparisons are also made between these data and analogous data from 16 and 18.5 GeV/c π±p interactions and the energy dependence is discussed. Average values of the transverse momentum are given as a function of the longitudinal momentum and charged-particle multiplicity. A comparison of the charge distributions is presented as a function of rapidity and c.m. energy.
We report a search for the production of light quark vector bosons in hadron-nucleus collisions at 100 GeV bombarding energy. We find surprisingly few of these resonances produced. The lack of these particles is though to be due to the absorption by the many modestly energetic nucleons and the few anti-nucleons in the final state.
An experiment has been performed with the Fermilab 30-inch bubble chamber and Downstream Particle Identifier to study inclusive charged pion production in the high energy interactions of π±,K+,p and\(\bar p\) with thin foils of magnesium, silver and gold. The laboratory rapidity and transverse momentum distributions are presented separately for π+ and π− production. Comparisons are made with data from hadron-proton interactions and theA dependence of the cross sections in the different kinematic regions is discussed. We investigate the dependence of the cross sections on the number of observed protons ejected from the nucleus. By using our π−A data from two different beam energies, we study the energy dependence of these spectra. Comparisons are made with the VENUS string model Monte Carlo.
The spin asymmetryAN for inclusive π0 production by 200-GeV transversely-polarized protons on a liquid hydrogen target has been measured at Fermilab over a wide range ofxF, with 0.5<pT<2 GeV/c. AtxF>0.3, the asymmetry rises with increasingxF and reaches a value ofAN=0.15±0.03 in the region 0.6<xF<0.8. This result provides new input regarding the question of the internal spin structure of transversely-polarized protons.
The highest-energy measurement of ΔσL(pp) and the first ever measurement of ΔσL(p¯p), the differences between proton-proton and antiproton-proton total cross sections for pure longitudinal spin states, are described. Data were taken using 200-GeV/c polarized beams incident on a polarized-proton target. The results are measured to be ΔσL(pp)=−42±48(stat)±53(syst) μb and ΔσL(p¯p)=−256±124(stat)±109(syst) μb. Many tests of systematic effects were investigated and are described, and a comparison to theoretical predictions is also given. Measurements of parity nonconservation at 200 GeV/c in proton scattering and the first ever of antiproton scattering have also been derived from these data. The values are consistent with zero at the 10−5 level.
Surprisingly large polarizations in hyperon production by unpolarized protons have been known for a long time. The spin dynamics of the production process can be further investigated with polarized beams. Recently, a negative asymmetry AN was found in inclusive Λ0 production with a 200GeV/c transversely polarized proton beam. The depolarization DNN in p↑+p→Λ0+X has been measured with the same beam over a wide xF range and at moderate pT. DNN reaches positive values of about 30% at high xF and pT∼1.0GeV/c. This result shows a sizable spin transfer from the incident polarized proton to the outgoing Λ0.
The considerable polarization of hyperons produced at high xF has been known for a long time and has been interpreted with various theoretical models in terms of the constituents' spin. Recently, the analyzing power in inclusive Λ0 hyperon production has also been measured using the 200GeV/c Fermilab polarized proton beam. The covered kinematic range is 0.2≤xF≤1.0 and 0.1≤pT≤1.5GeV/c. The data indicate a negative asymmetry at large xF and moderate pT. These results can further test the current ideas on the underlying mechanisms for hyperon polarization.
The analyzing power AN of proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region has been measured using the 200-GeV/c Fermilab polarized proton beam. A theoretically predicted interference between the hadronic non-spin-flip amplitude and the electromagnetic spin-flip amplitude is shown for the first time to be present at high energies in the region of 1.5 × 10−3 to 5.0 × 10−2 (GeV/c)2 four-momentum transfer squared, and our results are analyzed in connection with theoretical calculations. In addition, the role of possible contributions of the hadronic spin-flip amplitude is discussed.
The analyzing power AN in inclusive π− and π+ production has been measured with a 200 GeV/c transversely polarized antiproton beam over a wide xF range (0.2≤xF≤0.9) and at moderate pT (0.2≤pT≤1.5GeV/c). The asymmetry AN increases with increasing xF from zero to large positive values for π−'s, and decreases from zero to large negative values for π+'s. A threshold for the onset of the asymmetry is observed about pT∼0.5GeV/c, below which AN is essentially zero and above which AN increases (decreases) with pT for π−'s ( π+'s) in the covered pT range.
The analyzing power AN in inclusive π0 production has been measured with use of the new 185-GeV/c Fermilab polarized proton beam. We obtain the value AN=0.10±0.03 for π0's in the kinematic region 0.2<xF<0.8 and 0.3<pT<1.2 GeV/c. In certain models of particle production this suggests that the spin of the proton is carried by its valence quarks.
The invariant double-differential cross section, E 1 E 2 d 6 σ / d p 3 1 d p 3 2 , and the double-spin asymmetry, A LL , for inclusive multi-γ pair production in which γ-rays came from neutral mesons were measured with a 200 GeV / c longitudinally-polarized proton beam and a longitudinally-polarized proton target. Most of the multi-γ pairs comes from two-jet type events which are sensitive to partonic interaction. The A LL values were found to be consistent with zero. The invariant double-differential cross section for inclusive π 0 π 0 production was also measured. These measured cross sections are consistent with LUND Monte Carlo simulations. Using the LUND Monte Carlo simulation package with the Carlitz-Kaur model of spin dependent distribution functions of valence quarks, the A LL values have been compared with theoretical predictions of gluon polarization, ΔG / G . The results put restrictions on the size of ΔG / G in the region of 0.05 ⪅ x ⪅ 0.35.
The single spin asymmetry for inclusive direct-photon production has been measured using a polarized proton beam of 200 GeV/c with an unpolarized proton target at −0.15 < xf < 0.15 and 2.5 < pt < 3.1 GeV/c at Fermilab. The data on the cross section for pp → γX at 2.5 < pt < 3.8 GeV/c are also provided. The measurement was done using lead-glass calorimeters and photon detectors which surrounded the fiducial area of the calorimeters. Background rejection has been done using these surrounding photon detectors. The cross section obtained is consistent with the results of previous measurements assuming a nuclear dependence of A 1.0 . The single spin asymmetry, A N , for the direct-photon production is consistent with zero within experimental uncertainty.
A measurement of the single-spin asymmetry A N in p↑ + p→ π 0 + X at 200 GeV with x F = 0 shows a transition in the production process from a “ low -x T ” regime with A N = 0, through an intermediate region of negative asymmetry, to a “ high -x T ” regime with A N > 0.3. This transition occurs at x T ≈ 0.4 and is consistent with x T -scaling of A N in pion production using polarized beams or targets from √− s =5.2 to 19.4 GeV. Results for A N in η production by polarized protons and in π 0 production by polarized antiprotons are also presented.
The analyzing power in inclusive charged pion production has been measured using the 200 GeV Fermilab polarized proton beam. A striking dependence in x F is observed in which A N increases from 0 to 0.42 with increasing x F for the π + data and decreases from 0 to −0.38 with increasing x F for π − data. The kinematic range covered is 0.2⩽ x F ⩽0.9 and 0.2⩽ p T ⩽2.0 GeV / c . In a simple model our data indicate that at large x F the transverse spin of the proton is correlated with that of its quark constituents.
The two-spin parameter A LL in inclusive π 0 productionby longitudinally-polarized protons and antiprotons on a longitudinally-polarized proton target has been measured at the 200 GeV Fermilab spin physics facility, for π 0 's at x F =0 with 1⩽ p t ⩽3 GeV/ c . The results exclude, at the 95% confidence level, values of A LL (pp) > 0.1 and < − 0.1 for π 0 's produced by protons, and values of A LL ( p p) > 0.1 and < −0.2 for incident antiprotons. The relevance of A LL (pp) for the gluon spin density is discussed. The data are in good agreement with “conventional”, small or zero, gluon polarization.
We present experimental results on measuring a single spin asymmetry in η-meson production in the interaction of transversely polarized protons and antiprotons at p lab = 200 GeV / c with a proton target in the region 0.2 < x F < 0.7 for p ↑ p , 0.3 < x F < 0.7 for p ̄ ↑p and 0.7 < p T < 2.0 GeV / c . A comparison of single spin asymmetries in π- and η-meson production is made.