The polarization of the recoil proton in π+p and π−p elastic scattering using a liquid-hydrogen target has been measured for backward angles at 547 and 625 MeV/c. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using the large-acceptance spectrometer to detect and analyze the momentum of the pions and the JANUS polarimeter to identify and measure the polarization of the protons. Results from this experiment agree with other measurements of the recoil polarization, with analyzing-power data previously taken by this group, and with predictions of partial-wave analyses.
The elastic differential cross section for the scattering of negative pions by hydrogen was measured at laboratory-system pion kinetic energies of 230, 290, 370, and 427 Mev. The elastically scattered pions were detected by a counter telescope which discriminated against recoil protons and inelastic pions on the basis of range. Differential cross sections were obtained at nine angles for each energy and were fitted by a least-squares program to a series of Legendre polynomials. At the three higher energies, D waves are required to give satisfactory fits to the data. The real parts of the forward-scattering amplitudes calculated from this experiment are in agreement with the predictions of dispersion theory. The results of this experiment, in conjunction with data from other pion-nucleon scattering experiments, support the hypothesis of charge independence at these higher energies.
The spin-rotation parameters A and R and the related spin-rotation angle β have been measured for π+p and π−p elastic scattering using protons polarized in the scattering plane. The pion-beam momenta are 427, 471, 547, 625, and 657 MeV/c and the angular range is −0.9≤cosΘc.m.≤0.3. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence, using a scintillator hodoscope for the pions, and the Large Acceptance Spectrometer combined with the JANUS polarimeter for the recoil protons. The results are compared with the four recent πN partial wave analyses (PWA's). Our data show that the major features of these PWA's are correct. The A and R measurements complete our program of pion-nucleon experiments, providing full data sets at three of the above beam momenta. Such sets can be used to test the constraints in the PWA's or to obtain a model-independent set of πN scattering amplitudes.
Differential cross sections have been measured for π+p and π−p elastic scattering at 378, 408, 427, 471, 509, 547, 586, 625, 657, and 687 MeV/c in the angular range -0.8<cosθc.m.<0.8. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using scintillation-counter hodoscopes. A liquid-hydrogen target was used except for measurements at forward angles, in which a CH2 target was used. Statistical uncertainties in the data are typically less than 1%. Systematic uncertainties in acceptance and detection efficiency are estimated to be 1%. Absolute normalization uncertainties are 2–3 % for most of the data. The measurements are compared with previous data and with the results of recent partial-wave analyses. The data are fit with Legendre expansions from which total elastic cross sections are obtained.
Differential cross sections for π ± p→ π ± p have been measured at P π between 378 and 687 MeV / c at 9 angles in the range −0.8⩽cos θ c.m. ⩽0.6. Scattered pions and recoil protons were detected in coincidence using scintillation counter hodoscopes. For almost all of the data the statistical and normalization uncertainties are each less than 2%. Our measurements are compared with existing data and the results of recent partial wave analyses.
The asymmetry parameter A in π−p elastic scattering at incident pion laboratory kinetic energies Tπ of 98, 238, and 2922 MeV and in π−p charge-exchange scattering π−p→π0n at Tπ=238, 292, and 310 MeV have been measured over a wide range of scattering angles (typically from about 60° to 130° c.m.) with a polarized proton target. The data have been used in an energy-independent phase-shift analysis to improve the precision of the pion-nucleon phase shifts, to set new limits on violation of isospin conservation in the pion-nucleon S wave, and to confirm significant charge dependence in the P32 wave.
The polarization parameter in elastic π−p scattering has been measured, at the Berkeley 184-in. synchrocyclotron, with the use of a polarized proton target. At 318-, 337-, and 390-MeV incident pion kinetic energy, the angular range from 70° to 180° in the center-of-mass system was covered. At 229 MeV, polarization measurements were made in the angular range 150° to 180°. Phase-shift analyses, using these and other published data, were made at the two lowest energies.
The differential cross section and recoil-proton polarization in π−−p elastic scattering at 310-MeV incident-pion energy has been measured. The differential cross section was measured at 28 angles in the angular region 25<~θlab<~160 deg. The fractional rms errors were typically 3%. The reaction was observed by counting the scattered pions emerging from a liquid-hydrogen target with a counter telescope consisting of scintillation and Čerenkov counters. Simultaneously, the recoil-proton polarization was measured at four angles in the angular region 114<θc.m.<146 deg. The recoil protons from the liquid-hydrogen target were scattered from a carbon target and the left-right asymmetry was measured. Scintillation counters were used throughout to detect the particles.
Differential cross sections for elastic π−p scattering were measured at eight energies for positive pions and seven energies for negative pions. Energies ranged from 310 to 650 MeV. These measurements were made at the 3-GeV proton synchrotron at Saclay, France. A beam of pions from an internal BeO target was directed into a liquid-hydrogen target. Fifty-one scintillation counters and a matrix-coincidence system were used to measure simultaneously elastic events at 21 angles and charged inelastic events at 78 π−p angle pairs. Events were detected by coincidence of pulses indicating the presence of an incident pion, scattered pion, and recoil proton, and the results were stored in the memory of a pulse-height analyzer. Various corrections were applied to the data and a least-squares fit was made to the results at each energy. The form of the fitting function was a power series in the cosine of the center-of-mass angle of the scattered pion. Integration under the fitted curves gave values for the total elastic cross sections (without charge exchange). The importance of certain angular-momentum states is discussed. The π−−p data are consistent with a D13 resonant state at 600 MeV, but do not necessarily require such a resonant state.
The elastic scattering of 300-Mev negative pions from hydrogen was studied with the aid of a hodoscopic system with pulse-fed counters. Equation (1) gives the angular distribution for the elastic scattering under the hypothesis that the fundamental contribution to the scattering comes from the S and P waves.
Results of measurements of differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of 11'- mesons of energies 240, 270, 307 and 333 Mev by hydrogen are given.
The results of a measurement of recoil proton polarization for π−p → π−p at 300 MeV are given, and a phase shift analysis is made with the help of other data.
The most recent total-cross-section data are used to calculate real parts of the forward elastic π±p scattering amplitudes from threshold to 240 GeV/c. Using statistical and systematic uncertainties of the total cross sections and their momenta, along with uncertainties of the subtraction and coupling constants, unphysical cuts, and cross-section extrapolations, we calculate the uncertainties of the real amplitudes. Our results are compared to experimental and other theoretical determinations of the π±p forward real amplitudes.
Measurements of π±p elastic differential cross-sections have been performed in the forward direction, using a missing-mass spark chamber spectrometer. The films have been seanned by an automatic apparatus. A phase-shift analysis of the experimental data has been done, leading to three solutions. Various experiments are proposed in order to resolve the ambiguities.