Seventeen differential cross sections of the pion-nucleon charge-exchange reaction have been measured at total center-of-mass energies of 1245, 1337, and 1363 MeV. Most measurements are based on the neutron-photon coincidence method, using carefully calibrated neutron counters and an efficient, large-area photon detector. The results are used to test the predictions of charge independence, with which they agree. The results also confirm the Ayed-Bareyre-Sonderegger phase-degeneracy hypothesis at θ̃π0=180°.
Results are presented on the exclusive production of four-prong final states in photon-photon collisions from the TPC/Two-Gamma detector at the SLAC e+e− storage ring PEP. Measurement of dE/dx and momentum in the time-projection chamber (TPC) provides identification of the final states 2π+2π−, K+K−π+π−, and 2K+2K−. For two quasireal incident photons, both the 2π+2π− and K+K−π+π− cross sections show a steep rise from threshold to a peak value, followed by a decrease at higher mass. Cross sections for the production of the final states ρ0ρ0, ρ0π+π−, and φπ+π− are presented, together with upper limits for φρ0, φφ, and K*0K¯ *0. The ρ0ρ0 contribution dominates the four-pion cross section at low masses, but falls to nearly zero above 2 GeV. Such behavior is inconsistent with expectations from vector dominance but can be accommodated by four-quark resonance models or by t-channel factorization. Angular distributions for the part of the data dominated by ρ0ρ0 final states are consistent with the production of JP=2+ or 0+ resonances but also with isotropic (nonresonant) production. When one of the virtual photons has mass (mγ2=-Q2≠0), the four-pion cross section is still dominated by ρ0ρ0 at low final-state masses Wγγ and by 2π+2π− at higher mass. Further, the dependence of the cross section on Q2 becomes increasingly flat as Wγγ increases.
The pion electromagnetic form factor has been measured at the VEPP-2M collider in the c.m. energy range 360 MeV–1400 MeV with the detectors OLYA and CMD. On the basis of all available data for the pion form factor collected in the timelike region, the following values for ρ-meson parameters were obtained: m ρ = 775.9 ± 1.1 MeV, σ ρ = 150.5 ± 3.0 MeV. The ω-meson branching ratio into π + π − pair, electromagnetic radius of the pion, ππ scattering length in the P-wave and the strong interaction contribution to the muon ( g − 2) value were found to be B ωππ = (2.3 ± 0.4)%, 〈 r π 2 〉 = 0.422 ± 0.013 fm 2 , a 1 1 = 0.033 ± 0.033m π −3 , a H = (68.4 ± 1.1) × 10 −9 .
The differential cross section has been measured for the reaction γ +p→p+ π o at the Bonn 2.5 GeV electron synchrotron in the energy range from 0.4 to 2.2 GeV for a c.m. angle of 150 degrees. The protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer system. The excitation curve shows a distinct resonance structure. The total corrections to the counting rate are about 3%. The contribution of the process γ +p→p+2 π was separated. The uncertainty of this separation leads to an error of about 4% in the cross section.
To complete data on resonance electroproduction we constructed an electron spectrometer with large angular and momentum acceptance. As a first result inclusive cross sections for an invariant hadronic mass 1.2<W<1.7 GeV and a four momentum transfer squared 0.5<Q2<1.5 (GeV/c)2 and for values of the polarization parameter 0.1<ɛ<0.25 are presented. Combining our results with the SLAC 4°-data we obtain σL/σT in the specified kinematical range.
The process γγ→π+π− was measured using the detector MD-1 at VEPP-4. The two-photon reactionse+e−, μ+ μ− and π+ π− pair production were separated using scintillation counters, Cherenkov counters and shower-range chambers. A radiation widthГγγ(f2(1270))=3.1±0.35±0.35 keV was obtained.
The differential cross section for the reaction γ+p→π++n was measured using the Caltech 1.5-GeV electron synchrotron. The positive pions were detected and momentum analyzed in a multichannel magnetic spectrometer and the data were recorded in the memory of a pulse-height analyzer. The energy resolution was improved over previous experiments and an attempt was made to minimize systematic errors. The data are presented in the form of energy distributions at 12 lab angles from 34° to 155°, and the range of lab proton energies extended from 500 to 1350 MeV. Data were not taken at all energies for each angle, since the maximum useful momentum of the spectrometer, 600 MeVc, restricted the maximum energy for lab angles less than or equal to 74°.
We present new high statistics data on hadron production in photon-photon reactions. The data are analyzed in terms of an electron-photon scattering formalism. The dependence of the total cross section of Q 2 , the four-momentum transfer squared of the scattered electron, and on the mass W of the hadronic system is investigated. The data are compared to predictions from Vector-Meson Dominance and the quark model.
The structure and size of the proton have been studied by means of high-energy electron scattering. The elastic scattering of electrons from protons in polyethylene has been investigated at the following energies in the laboratory system: 200, 300, 400, 500, and 550 Mev. The range of laboratory angles examined has been 30° to 135°. At the largest angles and the highest energy, the cross section for scattering shows a deviation below that expected from a point proton by a factor of about nine. The magnitude and variation with angle of the deviations determine a structure factor for the proton, and thereby determine the size and shape of the charge and magnetic-moment distributions within the proton. An interpretation, consistent at all energies and angles and agreeing with earlier results from this laboratory, fixes the rms radius at (0.77±0.10) ×10−13 cm for each of the charge and moment distributions. The shape of the density function is not far from a Gaussian with rms radius 0.70×10−13 cm or an exponential with rms radius 0.80×10−13 cm. An equivalent interpretation of the experiments would ascribe the apparent size to a breakdown of the Coulomb law and the conventional theory of electromagnetism.