A direct experimental reconstruction of the five complex pp elastic-scattering amplitudes has been performed at 447, 497, 517, 539, and 579 MeV. The reconstruction is done over the c.m. angles from 38° to 90° and is based on either 11 or 15 spin observables depending on the angular range. The reconstructed amplitudes are presented and compared to phase-shift analysis. A smooth energy behavior is observed for the amplitudes.
The polarization parameter Pn000, the two-spin parameters Dn0n0, Kn00n, Ds′0s0, Ds′0k0 and the three-spin parameters Ms′0sn and Ms′0kn have been measured for pp elastic scattering angles between 60° and 88° center of mass at 241 and 314 MeV incident kinetic energies, and between 38° c.m. and 98° c.m. at 341, 366, and 398 MeV. At 473 MeV, only Pn000 and Ds′0k0 were measured between 34° c.m. and 62° c.m. The experiment was performed at SIN using a polarized proton beam and a polarized butanol target. The polarization of the scattered proton was analyzed in a carbon polarimeter. The influence of these high-precision data on the Saclay-Geneva phase-shift analysis is discussed.
Statistical errors only.
Statistical errors only.
Statistical errors only.
The polarization parameter Pn000, the two-spin parameters Dn0n0, Kn00n, Ds0s0, Ds0k0, and the three-spin parameters Ms0sn and Ms0kn have been measured for pp elastic scattering between 34° and 118° center-of-mass scattering angle at six different incident kinetic energies 447, 473, 497, 517, 539, and 560 MeV. The experiment was performed at SIN using a polarized proton beam, a polarized butanol target, and a polarimeter for the measurement of the polarization of the scattered proton.
We have measured the spin-correlation parameters A00kk, A00ks, and A00ss in p−p scattering between 400 and 600 MeV using a longitudinally polarized beam and a butanol target polarized in the horizontal plane. Owing to the restrictive geometrical acceptance of the target, the polarization axis of the target was oriented at an angle α with respect to beam direction. The parameters A00kk and A00ks were therefore measured as a linear combination at 577, 536, 514, 494, and 445 MeV. These experiments were extended to the measurement of A00ks and A00ss by using a transversely polarized beam. We present the results, which are compared with phase-shift predictions.
The polarization parameter Pn000, the two-spin parameters Dn0n0, Kn00n, Ds0s0, and Ds0k0, and the three-spin parameters Ms0sn and Ms0kn have been measured for pp elastic scattering at 579 MeV between 34° and 118° center-of-mass scattering angle. The experiment was performed at SIN using a polarized proton beam, a polarized butanol target, and a polarimeter for the measurement of the polarization of the scattered proton. These data form the basis for a complete experimental determination of the scattering amplitudes.
We have made, for the first time, a direct reconstruction of the pp elastic-scattering matrix at 579 MeV from a series of experiments performed at the Schweizerisches Institut für Nuklearforschung polarized-beam line. Fifteen observables consisting of the polarization, two-spin correlation and transfer parameters, and three-spin parameters were measured at seven angles between 66° and 90° (c. m.). The experimental results and reconstructed amplitudes are presented and compared to phase shift analysis.
The ratio of π+p to pp elastic scattering is found to be smoothly varying over the range −t=0.03 to 0.4 GeV2. It is well fitted by a single exponential, indicating the forward behavior must be quite similar for the two reactions.
ACTUALLY THE DATA ARE THE EXPONENTIAL SLOPE OF THE RATIO OF D(SIG)/DT FOR THE TWO REACTIONS.
We have measured the elastic cross section for pp, p¯p, π+p, π−p, K+p, and K−p scattering at incident momenta of 70, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 GeV/c. The range of the four-momentum transfer squared t varied with the beam momentum from 0.0016≤−t≤0.36 (GeV/c)2 at 200 GeV/c to 0.0018≤−t≤0.0625 (GeV/c)2 at 70 GeV/c. The conventional parametrization of the t dependence of the nuclear amplitude by a simple exponential in t was found to be inadequate. An excellent fit to the data was obtained by a parametrization motivated by the additive quark model. Using this parametrization we determined the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the nuclear amplitude by the Coulomb-interference method.
THE ERRORS INCLUDE THE UNCERTAINTIES IN THE FIT PARAMETERS SLOPE AND SIG, WHILE THE PURELY STATISTICAL ERRORS ARE ALSO GIVEN.
INCLUDING DATA FROM PREVIOUS WORK OF THIS GROUP.
The slope b(s) of the forward diffraction peak of p−p elastic scattering has been measured in the momentum-transfer-squared range 0.005≲|t|≲0.09 (GeV/c)2 and at incident proton energies from 8 to 400 GeV. We find that b(s) increases with s, and in the interval 100≲s≲750 (GeV)2 it can be fitted by the form b(s)=b0+2α′lns with b0=8.23±0.27, α′=0.278±0.024 (GeV/c)−2.
MOMENTUM BINS ARE APPROX 20 GEV WIDE CENTRED AT THE GIVEN PLAB EXCEPT FOR THE 9 AND 12 GEV POINTS WHICH HAVE WIDTHS OF APPROX 1 AND 4 GEV RESPECTIVELY.
From measurements of proton-proton elastic scattering at very small momentum transfers where the nuclear and Coulomb amplitudes interfere, we have deduced values of ρ, the ratio of the real to the imaginary forward nuclear amplitude, for energies from 50 to 400 GeV. We find that ρ increases from -0.157 ± 0.012 at 51.5 GeV to +0.039 ± 0.012 at 393 GeV, crossing zero at 280 ± 60 GeV.
Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured over the angular range 7 to 16 mrad at centre-of-mass energies of 31, 45 and 53 GeV using the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. The results indicate that the diffraction peak has continued to shrink with increasing energy, but not as fast as suggested by the results at lower energies.
The results presented in this paper were obtained from a 105 000 frame exposure of the FNAL Hybrid Proportional Wire Chamber-30 inch Bubble Chamber System, in a tagged beam of 147 GeV/ c negative particles. Elastic, total and topological cross sections were obtained for both π − p and K − p interactions. Comparisons with other data, taken with various beam particles over large momentum intervals, show good agreement with KNO scaling, and similarity in the scaling behavior of σ n for the different beam particles.
THESE CROSS SECTIONS ARE NOT NORMALIZED TO ANY OTHER ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT. THE ERRORS INCLUDE SOME SYSTEMATIC ERRORS.
THE FORWARD CROSS SECTION AGREES WELL WITH THE OPTICAL POINT FROM TOTAL CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS.
THESE CROSS SECTIONS ARE NOT NORMALIZED TO ANY OTHER ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT.
The angular dependence of the pp elastic scattering analyzing power was measured at SATURNE II with an unpolarized proton beam and the Saclay polarized proton target. The energy region in the vicinity of the accelerator depolarizing resonance Gγ = 6 at Tkin = 2.202 GeV was studied. Measurements were carried out at seven energies between 2.16 and 2.28 GeV from 17° to 55°CM. No significant anomaly was observed in the angular and energy dependence of the results presented, whereas the existing data sets differ in this energy range.
Additional random-like systematic error of 1.1 PCT.
Additional random-like systematic error of 9.9PCT.
Additional random-like systematic error of 0.2PCT.
Excitation functions AN(pp,Θc.m.) of the analyzing power in pp→ elastic scattering have been measured with a polarized atomic hydrogen target for projectile momenta pp between 1000 and 3300 MeV/ c. The experiment was performed for scattering angles 30°≤Θc.m.≤90° using the recirculating beam of the proton storage ring COSY during acceleration. The resulting excitation functions and angular distributions of high internal consistency have significant impact on the recent phase shift solution SAID SP99, in particular, on the spin triplet phase shifts between 1000 and 1800 MeV, and demonstrate the limited predictive power of single-energy phase shift solutions at these energies.
The analyzing power AN of proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region has been measured using the 200-GeV/c Fermilab polarized proton beam. A theoretically predicted interference between the hadronic non-spin-flip amplitude and the electromagnetic spin-flip amplitude is shown for the first time to be present at high energies in the region of 1.5 × 10−3 to 5.0 × 10−2 (GeV/c)2 four-momentum transfer squared, and our results are analyzed in connection with theoretical calculations. In addition, the role of possible contributions of the hadronic spin-flip amplitude is discussed.
We have measured the polarization for elastic scattering in the reaction π−p→π−p at 2.93 and 3.25 GeV/c using a polarized proton target and multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC's) with emphasis on large-angle scattering. Events were selected by fast scintillation-counter logic. Beam trajectories were measured with four MWPC's and the scattered-particle angles were measured with one or two MWPC's; elastic events were determined by coplanarity and angle-angle correlations. The polarization is in agreement with previous measurements below |t|=2.0 (GeV/c)2, and crosses from negative to positive near the secondary dip in the differential cross section dσdt. In the backward region, an energy dependence appears with the polarization being large and negative at 2.93 GeV/c and consistent with zero at 3.25 GeV/c.
Data are presented on the polarization parameter in pp and pn elastic scattering at 11.8 GeV/c for four-momentum transfers −t=0.15 to 0.9 GeV2. In contrast to lower energies where the pn polarization is positive, it is slightly negative at 11.8 GeV/c; averaging the data from −t=0.18 to 0.5 GeV2 we find P(pn)=(−0.9±0.5)%, to be compared with P(pp)=(5.6±0.8)%. These data, combined with our previous data at lower energies, show that the I=0 single-flip exchange amplitude has an anomalously rapid energy dependence.
Polarization in π−p elastic scattering, with emphasis in the region around the secondary dip and also θc.m.=90°, has been measured at 2.93 and 3.25 GeV/c. We observe an interesting sign change in this angular region.
Left-right asymmetries from a deuterium target in a polarized-proton beam were observed with the Argonne National Laboratory effective-mass spectrometer. Results were obtained for both pp and pn elastic scattering from −t=0.15 to 1.0 GeV2 at 2, 3, 4, and 6 GeV/c. For −t≲0.6 GeV2 the pn polarization was found to have the same sign as for pp, but with faster energy dependence, the ratio P(pn)P(pp) at −t=0.3 GeV2 falling from 0.78±0.02 at 2 GeV/c to 0.22±0.03 at 6 GeV/c.
Analyzing powers for π−p elastic scattering have been measured at TRIUMF using the CHAOS spectrometer and a spin-polarized target. These data were collected at a bombarding energy of Tπ=279MeV and cover an angular range of 53<~θc.m.π<~180°. There is good agreement between these data and the latest partial wave analysis from the VPI/GWU group.
Analysing power measurement.
Analyzing powers for πp elastic scattering at bombarding energies below the Δ(1232) resonance were measured at TRIUMF using the CHAOS spectrometer and a polarized spin target. This work presents π− data at six incident energies of 57, 67, 87, 98, 117, and 139 MeV, and a single π+ data set at 139 MeV. The higher energy measurements cover an angular range of 72°<~θc.m.<~180° while the lower energies were limited to 101°<~θc.m.<~180°. There is a high degree of consistency between this work and the predictions of the VPI/GWU group’s SM95 partial wave analysis.
Analysing power measurements for a 139 GeV PI+ beam (standard track).
Analysing power measurements for a 139 GeV PI- beam (standard track).
Analysing power measurements for a 117 GeV PI- beam (standard track).
Experimental results are presented for the pp elastic-scattering single spin observable Aoono=Aooon=AN=P, or the analyzing power, at 19 beam kinetic energies between 1795 and 2235 MeV. The typical c.m. angular range is 60–100°. The measurements were performed at Saturne II with a vertically polarized beam and target (transverse to the beam direction and scattering plane), a magnetic spectrometer and a recoil detector, both instrumented with multiwire proportional chambers, and beam polarimeters.
Measurement values of the P P analysing power at kinetic energy 1.795 GeV. The relative and additive systematic errors are +- 0.106 and 0.003.
Measurement values of the P P analysing power at kinetic energy 1.845 GeV. The relative and additive systematic errors are +- 0.068 and 0.001.
Measurement values of the P P analysing power at kinetic energy 1.935 GeV. The relative and additive systematic errors are +- 0.091 and 0.003.