Data on 6.2 GeV/ c π − p and K − p elastic scattering cross sections are presented in the range 0.3 < − t < 10.7 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
The differential cross section for π+p elastic scattering has been measured at 13.8 GeVc for 0.7<|t|<3.8(GeVc)2. The cross section is found to be equal to that previously obtained for π−p elastic scattering, except in the region |t|=2.8 (GeVc)2, where the π+p data do not show the prominent dip observed in π−p scattering. Data have also been obtained for 13.8−GeVc K+p elastic scattering for 0.8<|t|<2.2 (GeVc)2.
We present results of measurements of the differential cross sections for the following elastic-scattering reactions: (i) π + p at 5.2 and 7.0 GeV/ c in the range −1 < u < 0.02 (GeV/ c ) 2 , (ii) π − p at 7.0 GeV/ c in the range −0.7 < u < 0.05 (GeV/ c ) 2 , (iii) K + p at 5.2 and 7.0 GeV/ c in the ranges −1 < t < −0.01 (GeV/ c ) 2 and −1 < u < 0 (GeV/ c ) 2 , and K − p at 7.0 GeV/ c in the range −1 < u < 0 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
The differential cross sections for π + p elastic scattering at0.6, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, GeV/ c for π - p at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 GeV/ c , for K - p at 1.2, 1.8, 2.6 GeV/ c and for K - p at 0.9, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.6 GeV/ c have been measured with an overall accuracy ofthe order of 1 to 2% in an electronics experiment over the angular region corresponding to momentum transfer t between 0.0005 and 0.10 GeV 2 . Making use of the interference effects between the Coulomb and the nuclear interaction, we have determined the magnitude and sign of the real part of the scattering amplitude near t = 0. The K ± p real parts have been used in a dispersion relation to derive the value of the KNΛ coupling constant.
Data are presented on elastic πp and Kp scattering for values of −t up to 2.5 and 3.5 (GeV/c)2 at incident momenta of 100 and 200 GeV/c, respectively. All of the cross sections are found to be nearly identical, although there is some momentum dependence of the π+p data; a small systematic difference observed between pion and kaon data cannot be explained by geometrical scaling.
Angular distributions of π + and K + p elastic scattering have been measured for an incident beam momentum of 10.0 GeV/ c . For π + p elastic scattering almost the complete angular distribution was measured. The angular distribution of proton-proton elastic scattering was measured for an incident momentum of 9.0 GeV/ c in the interval of the four-momentum transfer squared from 0.7 (GeV/ c ) 2 to 5.0 (GeV/ v ) 2 . For π + p elastic scattering the structures at − t = 2.8 (GeV/ c ) 2 and − t = 4.8 (GeV/ c ) 2 are less pronounced than at lower momenta. The cross section for scattering at 90° in the c.m. system is of the order of 1 nb/GeV/ c ) 2 . For K + p elastic scattering is a break in the angular distribution around − t = 3 (GeV/ c ) 2 . The differential cross sections for proton-proton elastic scattering decrease smoothly with increasing momentum transfers.
Differential cross sections for π − p and pp elastic scattering have been measured at incident momenta ranging from 30 to 345 GeV and in the t range 0.002 (GeV/ c ) 2 ⩽ | t | ⩽ 0.04 (GeV/ c ) 2 . From the analysis of the data, the ratio ϱ ( t = 0) of the real to the imaginary parts of the forward scattering amplitude was determined together with the logarithmic slope b of the diffraction cone.
A comprehensive measurement of the differential cross section for π±p and pp elastic scattering has been made at large center-of-mass angles. π−p and pp scattering were measured with incident laboratory momenta ranging from 2 to 9.5 GeV/c. π+p scattering was measured with momenta from 2 to 6.3 GeV/c. Scattering angles were in the range −0.3≲cosθc.m.≲0.4. The results of the experiment are compared to constituent models and statistical models.
The K − p differential and total elastic cross-sections have been measured at 14.25 GeV/ c . The results have been compared with various Regge models.
The differential cross sections for elastic π − p, K − p , p p and π + p, pp scattering at 39 and 44.5 GeV/ c , respectively, have been measured in the interval of momentum transfer squared 0.15 ≤ ovbt | ≤ 2 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
Differential cross sections for π±p, K±p, pp, and p¯p elastic scattering were measured at 3, 3.65, 5, and 6 GeVc for momentum transfers from 0.03 to 1.5 GeV2 using the Argonne effective mass spectrometer. Particular attention was paid to the relative particle-antiparticle normalization. The crossover points are consistent with no energy dependence, average values being 0.14 ± 0.03, 1.190 ± 0.005, and 0.160 ± 0.007 GeV2 for π's, K's, and protons, respectively.
Results are presented from experiment WA7 at the CERN SPS, which has measured the elastic differential cross sections of π ± p, K ± p, p p and pp at incident momen ta of 20, 30 and 50 GeV/ c . The measurements cover the momentum transfer range 0.5 < | t | < 8 (GeV/ c ) 2 , corresponding to c.m. scattering angles between 10° and 50°. The experimental set-up, trigger logic and data analysis are described. The experimental results are compared with existing meson-proton and nucleon-proton data at lower and higher energies covering the medium- and large-| t | region. Some prominent models and their predictions for elastic scattering at WA7 energies and beyond are reviewed, with emphasis on geometrical scaling, factorizing eikonal models, lowest-order QCD and other dynamical exchange-type models. Results for p p two-body annihilation into π − π + and K − K + at 30 and 50 GeV/ c , obtained in parallel with the elastic p p data, are also presented.
The differential cross section for π±, K±, and p± on hydrogen have been measured in the range 0.07<−t<1.6 (GeV/c)2. The dependence on momentum, momentum, transfer, and particle type are discussed.
Elastic scattering of hadrons on protons has been measured at momenta of 50, 100, and 200 GeV/c. The meson-proton scattering is found to be independent of momentum and meson type for −t>0.8 (GeV/c)2. The momentum dependence of the pp dip at −t=1.4 (GeV/c)2 was investigated. Slope parameters are given.
The differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of π+, π−, K+, K−, p, and p¯ on protons have been measured in the t interval -0.04 to -0.75 GeV2 at five momenta: 50, 70, 100, 140, and 175 GeV/c. The t distributions have been parametrized by the quadratic exponential form dσdt=Aexp(B|t|+C|t|2) and the energy dependence has been described in terms of a single-pole Regge model. The pp and K+p diffraction peaks are found to shrink with α′∼0.20 and ∼0.15 GeV−2, respectively. The p¯p diffraction peak is antishrinking while π±p and K−p are relatively energy-independent. Total elastic cross sections are calculated by integrating the differential cross sections. The rapid decline in σel observed at low energies has stopped and all six reactions approach relatively constant values of σel. The ratio of σelσtot approaches a constant value for all six reactions by 100 GeV, consistent with the predictions of the geometric-scaling hypothesis. This ratio is ∼0.18 for pp and p¯p, and ∼0.12-0.14 for π±p and K±p. A crossover is observed between K+p and K−p scattering at |t|∼0.19 GeV2, and between pp and p¯p at |t|∼0.11 GeV2. Inversion of the cross sections into impact-parameter space shows that protons are quite transparent to mesons even in head-on collisions. The probability for a meson to pass through a proton head-on without interaction inelastically is ∼20% while it is only ∼6% for an incident proton or antiproton. Finally, the results are compared with various quark-model predictions.
Results are presented on π±p, K±p, and p±p elastic scattering measured with an apparatus having acceptance of 0.5<−t<2.5 (GeV/c)2 and 0.9<−t<11 (GeV/c)2 at 100 and 200 GeV/c, respectively. A diffractionlike dip is seen for the first time in the π−p t distribution at −t=4 (GeV/c)2. All meson-proton cross sections are found to be similar in the range 1<−t<2.5 (GeV/c)2, although some small systematic differences are observed. Cross sections for pp and p―p are compared with previous data.
We report on a measurement of elastic differential cross sections for p±p, π±p, and K±p at 100 and 200 GeV/c in the range 0.03<|t|<0.10 (GeV/c)2. Our data display a simple exponential dependence which is consistent with other measurements in this t region or with extrapolations from higher t.
Differential cross sections in the t -range between 0.02 and 1.5 GeV 2 have been measured for the elastic scattering of particles and antiparticles on protons at 6.4, 10.4 and 14 GeV for K ± p and 10.4 GeV for π ± p and p ± p . Large statistics have been achieved and systematic uncertainties have been minimized. The relative systematic uncertainty between particle and antiparticle data is less than 0.5%. Accurate measurements of the position of the first crossover between particle and antiparticle differential cross sections have been performed. As the energy increases from 6.4 to 14 GeV the K ± p crossover moves to smaller values by 0.010 GeV 2 with a statistical error of 0.006 GeV 2 and a systematic uncertainty of 0.005 GeV 2 . The crossover positions at 10.4 GeV for π ± , K ± and p ± scale approximately with the interaction radii.
Cross sections or upper limits are reported for 12 meson-baryon and two baryon-baryon reactions for an incident momentum of 9.9 GeV/c, near 90° c.m.: π±p→pπ±,pp±,π+°±,K+Σ±, (Λ0/Σ0)K0; K±p→pK±; p±p→pp. By studying the flavor dependence of the different reactions, we have been able to isolate the quark-interchange mechanism as dominant over gluon exchange and quark-antiquark annihilation.
Measurements of π±p, K±p, pp, and p¯p elastic scattering are presented for incident momenta of 3, 3.65, 5, and 6 GeVc and momentum transfers typically 0.03 to 1.8 GeV2. The angle and momentum of the scattered particle were measured with the Argonne Effective Mass Spectrometer for 300 000 events, yielding 930 cross-section values with an uncertainty in absolute normalization of ±4%. Only the K+ and proton data show any significant change in slope of the forward diffraction peak with incident momentum. The particle-antiparticle crossover positions are consistent with no energy dependence, average values being 0.14 ± 0.03, 0.190 ± 0.006, and 0.162 ± 0.004 GeV2 for π' s, K' s, and protons, respectively; these errors reflect both statistics and the ±1.5% uncertainty in particle-antiparticle relative normalization. Differences between particle and antiparticle cross sections isolate interference terms between amplitudes of opposite C parity in the t channel; these differences indicate that the imaginary part of the odd-C nonflip-helicity amplitude has a J0(r(−t)12) structure for −t<0.8 GeV2, as predicted by strong absorption models. The cross-section differences for K± and proton-antiproton are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of ω universality, the agreement improving with increasing energy. The corresponding quark-model predictions relating the π± and K± differences failed by more than a factor of 2. We have combined our π± cross sections with other data to better determine the πN amplitudes in a model-independent way; results of this analysis are presented.
Results are presented on π + p and K + p elastic scattering at 250 GeV/ c , the highest momentum so far reached for positive meson beams. The experiment (NA22) was performed with the european hybrid spectrometer. The π + p elastic cross section stays constant with energy while the K + p cross section increases.
Differential cross sections for elastic π±−p scattering have been measured at lab momenta of 8 and 12 GeV/c in a momentum-transfer region corresponding to 1.2≤−t≤6 (GeV/c)2. Also, differential cross sections near 180° were measured for 4 and 8 GeV/c pions. At momentum transfers greater than −t=2 (GeV/c)2, the π−p cross sections drop much faster with increasing angle than the corresponding p−p cross sections. Also, in the region −t≃1.3 (GeV/c)2, there is structure in the π−p angular distribution but not in the p−p angular distribution. At −t≃3 (GeV/c)2, the drop in cross section appears to stop and from then on the angular distribution is consistent with isotropy. But in the angular region 170° to 180°, the cross sections have become much larger, and sharp backward peaks are observed. Information is given on the energy and charge dependences and widths of these backward peaks.
A description is given of an experiment to study elastic scattering of π ± , K ± and p on protons at c.m. scattering angles from 45° to 100° at incident laboratory momenta 20 GeV/ c and 30 GeV/ c . The corresponding t range is from −6.2 (GeV/ c ) 2 to −28 (GeV/ c ) 2 . There are no previous observations for these reactions in this t range. High intensity and large geometrical acceptance were required in order to measure the low cross sections. The experiment used a double-arm spectrometer. MWPCs were used for reconstruction, and threshold and differential Čerenkov counters for identification. Scintillation counters, Čerenkov counters and a hadron calorimeter were used in the trigger. The trigger logic utilized specially designed matrices and a hard wired microprocessor. The π − p elastic scattering cross sections follow approximately the dimensional counting rule from 3.5 GeV/ c .and up to 30 GeV/ c . The cross sections decrease by seven orders of magnitude in this energy range. The data is compared to quark models. None of these models give a comprehensive description of the results. However, some modifications to these models improve their consistency with the data.