We present results of measurements of the differential cross sections for the following elastic-scattering reactions: (i) π + p at 5.2 and 7.0 GeV/ c in the range −1 < u < 0.02 (GeV/ c ) 2 , (ii) π − p at 7.0 GeV/ c in the range −0.7 < u < 0.05 (GeV/ c ) 2 , (iii) K + p at 5.2 and 7.0 GeV/ c in the ranges −1 < t < −0.01 (GeV/ c ) 2 and −1 < u < 0 (GeV/ c ) 2 , and K − p at 7.0 GeV/ c in the range −1 < u < 0 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
The angular distributions of K + p and π + p backward elastic scattering have been measured at 5.2 and 6.9 GeV/ c . Backward π - p and K - p elastic scattering were studied at 6.9 GeV/ c . Backward peaks are observed in K + p scattering with an energy dependence of the form s −4 .
Backward elastic scattering has been measured for π + p at 2.85 and 3.30 GeV/ c and for π − p at 3.30 GeV/ c . The π + p angular distributions show steep backward peaks, whereas the π − p distribution is flatter. At 2.85 GeV/ c the π + p differential cross section close to 180° is more than twice that at 3.30 GeV/ c , supporting the assignment J P = 11 2 + for Δ δ (2420) resonance. The π + p data at 2.85 GeV/ c indicate the onset of a dip at cos θ c.m. ≈ −0.97.
The backward elastic scattering reaction π − p → p π − at momenta 25 and 38 GeV/ c have been measured using a magnetic spectrometer with hybrid chambers. The experimental data on the dependence of the cross section d σ /d u on the momentum transfer u as well as the energy dependence d σ /d u at u = 0 are given.
The energy dependence of backward π+p elastic scattering has been measured for incident π momenta 2.0-6.0 GeV/c in steps of typically 100 MeV/c. Values are presented for both the differential cross section extrapolated to 180° and the slope of the backward peak as a function of momentum. In the s channel we see the effects of the established Δ++ resonances and evidence for the Δ(3230). Also, the data show the existence of a negative-parity Δ resonance with mass ∼2200 MeV/c2.
Measurements of π±p backward elastic scattering have been made for incident pion momenta between 30 and 90 GeV/c and for 0<−u<0.5 (GeV/c)2. The momentum dependence of the cross sections is of a form expected from a simple Regge model, and the u dependence of the cross sections is similar to that observed at lower momenta.
The differential cross section of π+p elastic scattering has been measured in two high-statistics bubble-chamber exposures at laboratory beam momenta of 3.7 and 7.1 GeV/c. A new feature suggested by these data is a dip in dσdu at −u≃3 GeV2. This dip corresponds well to the third zero of J0(b−u′), where ℏcb=1 fm. The effective u-channel Regge trajectory computed for these two energies has a slope of 0.22 ± 0.26.
We present differential cross-section data for the reaction π+p→π+p near 180° in the center-of-mass system at beam momenta between 3.25 GeVc and 10 GeVc.
The backward angular distributions obtained in an experiment at the Zero Gradient Synchrotron of Argonne National Laboratory were used to systematically study the energy dependence of the 180° differential cross section for π+p elastic scattering in the center-of-mass energy region from 2159 to 3487 MeV. At each of 38 incident pion momenta between 2.0 and 6.0 GeV/c, a focusing spectrometer and scintillation counter hodoscopes were used to obtain differential cross sections for typically five pion scattering angles from 141° to 173° in the laboratory. Values for dσdΩ at 180° were then obtained by extrapolation. A resonance model and an interference model were used to perform fits to the energy dependence of dσdΩ (180°). Both models led to good fits to our data and yielded values for the masses, widths, parities, and the product of spin and elasticity for the Δ(2200), Δ(2420), Δ(2850), and Δ(3230) resonances. Our data confirm the existence of the Δ(3230) and require the negative-parity Δ(2200).
We have measured dσ du for π − p elastic scattering at 3 and 4 GeV c in the ranges −0.119⩽ u ⩽0.113 and −0.233⩽ u ⩽0.088, respectively. A fit of the form d σ /d u = A exp ( Bu + Cu 2 ) gives B = 4.34±0.42 and C = 7.0±3.5 at 4 GeV c with χ 2 = 5.7 for 9 degrees of freedom; the simpler form d σ /d u = A exp( Bu ) gives B = 3.7 ± 0.3 with χ 2 = 9.6. At 3 GeV c we confirm with high statistics the structures already observed.
Backward elastic scattering of π± on protons has been measured for incident pion momenta between 30 and 90 GeV/c and 0≤−u≤0.5 (GeV/c)2. The u dependence of the cross sections is similar to that observed at lower momenta, and Regge models give acceptable fits to the data.
The angular distribution of π + p elastic scattering has been measured at an incident momentum of 10 GeV/ c . Nearly the whole angular range was covered in one experimental set-up. The pronounced dip at − t = 2.8 (GeV/ c ) 2 , observed at lower momenta, has diminished and is essentially a shoulder at 10 GeV/ c . The other structure at larger momentum transfers are also different in detail from what we observed at 5 GeV/ c . In the 90° c.m. region the differential cross-section is approximately one nb/(GeV/ c ) 2 , which is more than two orders of magnitude lower than at 5 GeV/ c .
Differential cross sections for π−p elastic scattering over the angular range 155° to 177° in the center-of-mass system have been measured at 33 incident pion momenta in the range 600 to 1280 MeV/c. The experiment, which was performed at the Bevatron at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, employed a liquid hydrogen target, a double-arm spectrometer, and standard counter techniques to detect the elastic events. The data from this experiment are compared to all other published data in this momentum region. The over-all agreement is good. The data of this experiment are also compared with the results of the recent phase-shift analysis by Almehed and Lovelace. In the momentum region between 700 and 900 MeV/c, the slope of the backward angular distribution goes rapidly through zero from negative to positive, and the magnitude of the differential cross section falls by more than a factor of 10. Momentum-dependent structure is seen in the extrapolated differential cross sections at 180°. Two prominent dips in the 180° differential cross sections appear at 880 and 1150 MeV/c. This structure is discussed in terms of a direct-channel resonance model that assumes only resonant partial waves are contributing to the cross sections for large scattering angles.
We present differential cross-section measurements for π−p elastic scattering in the backward direction, with −0.94>cosθc.m.>−1.0, for eleven beam momenta from 2.15 to 6 GeV/c.
We have measured differential cross sections for K−p→Σ+π− and π−p→pπ− at 3.0 and 5.1 GeV/c near the backward direction. At 3.0 GeV/c both have a dip near −u∼0.1 (GeV/c)2. At 5.1 GeV/c, dσdu for π−p→pπ− falls exponentially with slope 3.8±0.1 (GeV/c)−2 whereas dudσ for K−p→Σ+π− exhibits a decreasing slope for larger |u|. These data are discussed in terms of SU(3), and the relative importance of the helicity-flip and -non-flip amplitudes is investigated.
Differential cross sections have been measured for p¯p→π−π+ (1) and its line-reversed partner π+p→pπ+ (2) in the range tmin>t>−1.5 (GeV/c)2 at 6 GeV/c. Clear structure is seen in the differential cross section for Reaction (1) at t∼−0.4 (GeV/c)2. However, this feature is quite different from the striking dip seen in (2) at t∼−0.15 (GeV/c)2, indicating a failure of line reversal and disagreement with simple Regge models.
We have measured the cross section at 180° for K + p and K + n elastic scattering in the momentum range 1.0 to 1.5 GeV/ c . The K + n cross section was measured on deuterium and the K + p on hydrogen and deuterium. We were thus able to measure directly the difference between free nucleon (proton) scattering and bound nucleon (proton) scattering at large angles. This difference was found to be small and within our experimental accuracy the K + p(n) cross section should be equal to the K + p (free) cross section at 180°. We found no evidence for an s -channel resonance Z ∗ in either the K + p or K + n system. A comparison of our data and those of other groups with theoretical predictions is given.
K + p elastic scattering has been measured over nearly the whole angular range at an incident momentum of 10 GeV/ c . The differential cross-section is found to decrease smoothly in the forward direction to - t ≈ 2 (GeV/ c ) 2 , where there is a change in slope, followed by a further decrease to - t ≈ 6 (GeV/ c ) 2 . Around 90° c.m. the cross-section is approximately 1 nb/(GeV/ c ) 2 , which is more than two orders of magnitude lower than at 5 GeV/ c . The backward peak has no structure.
From an experiment done with the CERN Omega spectrometer, triggered by a fast forward proton device, we present results on the differential cross section d σ d u for π − p backward elastic scattering. The d σ d u distribution agrees with an A e Bu law. The compilation of existing results shows a discrepancy between results but the ( d σ d u ) u=0 data fit perfectly an s 2 α 0 −2 dependence, as predicted by a single Δδ Regge trajectory exchange. A search for the reaction π − p → d p , with a fast forward deuteron, which can be produced by a double-baryon exchange mechanism, gives cross-section upper limits of ∼1% of the backward elastic cross section.
The reactions π − p → p π − and π − p → p ϱ − ( ϱ − → π − π 0 ) at 10 GeV/ c with the proton in the forward direction in the c.m.s. are discussed on the basis of 953 elastic scattering events and 2240 events of the reaction π − p → p π − π 0 . The total backward cross sections are 0.52±0.10 and 1.52±0.28 μ b, respectively. In both cases the production mechanism is compatible with the dominance of the baryonic Δ δ Regge trajectory exchange. The ϱ − decay angular distributions are studied in the u -channel helicity frame and the spin density matrix elements are presented as functions of u .
A streamer-chamber spectrometer is triggered by fast forward protons from 4-GeV/c π−p interactions at the Bevatron. Meson-resonance production in the backward, Iu=32 exchange reactions π−p→pM− are studied, where M− refers to π−, ρ−, A1−, A2−, and B−. Elastic scattering and ρ− production are observed and discussed in detail. No backward A1−, A2−, or B− production is observed at the level of approximately 5 βb.
Results of a high-statistics study of elastic scattering and meson resonances produced by π−p interactions at 8 GeV/c are presented. Large statistics and small systematic errors permit examination of the complete kinematic region. Total differential cross sections are given for ρ0,−, f0, g0,−, Δ±, Δ0, and N* resonances. Spin-density matrix elements and Legendre-polynomial moments are given for ρ, f, and Δ resonances. The results for ρ0 and f0 resonances are compared with the predictions of a Regge-pole-exchange model. Properties of the above resonances are compared and discussed. In particular, we present evidence that the ρ0 and f0 production mechanisms are similar. The similarity of the g0 t distribution to that of the ρ0 and f0 suggests a common production mechanism for all three resonances.