We present results of measurements of the differential cross sections for the following elastic-scattering reactions: (i) π + p at 5.2 and 7.0 GeV/ c in the range −1 < u < 0.02 (GeV/ c ) 2 , (ii) π − p at 7.0 GeV/ c in the range −0.7 < u < 0.05 (GeV/ c ) 2 , (iii) K + p at 5.2 and 7.0 GeV/ c in the ranges −1 < t < −0.01 (GeV/ c ) 2 and −1 < u < 0 (GeV/ c ) 2 , and K − p at 7.0 GeV/ c in the range −1 < u < 0 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
We present differential cross-section data for the reaction π+p→π+p near 180° in the center-of-mass system at beam momenta between 3.25 GeVc and 10 GeVc.
The angular distribution of π + p elastic scattering has been measured at an incident momentum of 10 GeV/ c . Nearly the whole angular range was covered in one experimental set-up. The pronounced dip at − t = 2.8 (GeV/ c ) 2 , observed at lower momenta, has diminished and is essentially a shoulder at 10 GeV/ c . The other structure at larger momentum transfers are also different in detail from what we observed at 5 GeV/ c . In the 90° c.m. region the differential cross-section is approximately one nb/(GeV/ c ) 2 , which is more than two orders of magnitude lower than at 5 GeV/ c .
Backward elastic scattering has been measured for π + p at 2.85 and 3.30 GeV/ c and for π − p at 3.30 GeV/ c . The π + p angular distributions show steep backward peaks, whereas the π − p distribution is flatter. At 2.85 GeV/ c the π + p differential cross section close to 180° is more than twice that at 3.30 GeV/ c , supporting the assignment J P = 11 2 + for Δ δ (2420) resonance. The π + p data at 2.85 GeV/ c indicate the onset of a dip at cos θ c.m. ≈ −0.97.
Differential cross sections for π−p elastic scattering over the angular range 155° to 177° in the center-of-mass system have been measured at 33 incident pion momenta in the range 600 to 1280 MeV/c. The experiment, which was performed at the Bevatron at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, employed a liquid hydrogen target, a double-arm spectrometer, and standard counter techniques to detect the elastic events. The data from this experiment are compared to all other published data in this momentum region. The over-all agreement is good. The data of this experiment are also compared with the results of the recent phase-shift analysis by Almehed and Lovelace. In the momentum region between 700 and 900 MeV/c, the slope of the backward angular distribution goes rapidly through zero from negative to positive, and the magnitude of the differential cross section falls by more than a factor of 10. Momentum-dependent structure is seen in the extrapolated differential cross sections at 180°. Two prominent dips in the 180° differential cross sections appear at 880 and 1150 MeV/c. This structure is discussed in terms of a direct-channel resonance model that assumes only resonant partial waves are contributing to the cross sections for large scattering angles.
We have measured differential cross sections for K−p→Σ+π− and π−p→pπ− at 3.0 and 5.1 GeV/c near the backward direction. At 3.0 GeV/c both have a dip near −u∼0.1 (GeV/c)2. At 5.1 GeV/c, dσdu for π−p→pπ− falls exponentially with slope 3.8±0.1 (GeV/c)−2 whereas dudσ for K−p→Σ+π− exhibits a decreasing slope for larger |u|. These data are discussed in terms of SU(3), and the relative importance of the helicity-flip and -non-flip amplitudes is investigated.
K + p elastic scattering has been measured over nearly the whole angular range at an incident momentum of 10 GeV/ c . The differential cross-section is found to decrease smoothly in the forward direction to - t ≈ 2 (GeV/ c ) 2 , where there is a change in slope, followed by a further decrease to - t ≈ 6 (GeV/ c ) 2 . Around 90° c.m. the cross-section is approximately 1 nb/(GeV/ c ) 2 , which is more than two orders of magnitude lower than at 5 GeV/ c . The backward peak has no structure.
We have measured the cross section at 180° for K + p and K + n elastic scattering in the momentum range 1.0 to 1.5 GeV/ c . The K + n cross section was measured on deuterium and the K + p on hydrogen and deuterium. We were thus able to measure directly the difference between free nucleon (proton) scattering and bound nucleon (proton) scattering at large angles. This difference was found to be small and within our experimental accuracy the K + p(n) cross section should be equal to the K + p (free) cross section at 180°. We found no evidence for an s -channel resonance Z ∗ in either the K + p or K + n system. A comparison of our data and those of other groups with theoretical predictions is given.