Strangeness in nuclear collisions

Gazdzicki, Marek ; Rohrich, Dieter ;
Z.Phys.C 71 (1996) 55-64, 1996.
Inspire Record 420462 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.13638

Data on the mean multiplicity of strange hadrons produced in minimum bias proton--proton and central nucleus--nucleus collisions at momenta between 2.8 and 400 GeV/c per nucleon have been compiled. The multiplicities for nucleon--nucleon interactions were constructed. The ratios of strange particle multiplicity to participant nucleon as well as to pion multiplicity are larger for central nucleus--nucleus collisions than for nucleon--nucleon interactions at all studied energies. The data at AGS energies suggest that the latter ratio saturates with increasing masses of the colliding nuclei. The strangeness to pion multiplicity ratio observed in nucleon--nucleon interactions increases with collision energy in the whole energy range studied. A qualitatively different behaviour is observed for central nucleus--nucleus collisions: the ratio rapidly increases when going from Dubna to AGS energies and changes little between AGS and SPS energies. This change in the behaviour can be related to the increase in the entropy production observed in central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the same energy range. The results are interpreted within a statistical approach. They are consistent with the hypothesis that the Quark Gluon Plasma is created at SPS energies, the critical collision energy being between AGS and SPS energies.

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Pion multiplicity in nuclear collisions

Gazdzicki, M. ; Roehrich, D. ;
Z.Phys.C 65 (1995) 215-223, 1995.
Inspire Record 398172 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.14107

Data on the mean multiplicity ofπ- produced in minimum bias proton-proton, proton-neutron and proton-nucleus interactions as well as central nucleus-nucleus collisions at momenta of 1.4–400 GeV/c per nucleon have been compiled and studied. The results for neutron-neutron and nucleon-nucleon interactions were then constructed. The dependence of the mean pion multiplicity in proton-nucleus interactions and central collisions of identical nuclei are studied as a function of the collision energy and the nucleus mass number. The number of produced pions per participant nucleon in central collisions of identical nuclei is found to be independent of the number of participants at a fixed incident momentum per nucleon. The mean multiplicity of negatively charged hadrons per participant nucleon for central nucleus-nucleus collisions is lower by about 0.12 than the corresponding multiplicity for nucleon-nucleon interactions atpLAB≲15 A·GeV/c, whereas the result at 200 A·GeV/c is above the corresponding nucleon-nucleon multiplicity. This may indicate change of the collision dynamics at high energy.

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Charged particle multiplicities in nuclear collisions at 200-GeV/N

The NA35 collaboration Bächler, J. ; Bartke, J. ; Bialkowska, H. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 51 (1991) 157-162, 1991.
Inspire Record 320907 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.14983

Data on multiplicities of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon are presented. It is shown that the mean multiplicity of negative particles is proportional to the mean number of nucleons participating in the collision both for nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions. The apparent consistency of pion multiplicity data with the assumption of an incoherent superposition of nucleon-nucleon collisions is critically discussed.

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Strangeness enhancement in central S + S collisions at 200-GeV/nucleon

The NA35 collaboration Baechler, J. ; Bartke, J. ; Bialkowska, H. ; et al.
Nucl.Phys.A 525 (1991) 221C-226C, 1991.
Inspire Record 328899 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.36820
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Energy dependence of pion and kaon production in central Pb + Pb collisions

The NA49 collaboration Afanasiev, S.V. ; Anticic, T. ; Barna, D. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 66 (2002) 054902, 2002.
Inspire Record 586383 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.31729

Measurements of charged pion and kaon production in central Pb+Pb collisions at 40, 80 and 158 AGeV are presented. These are compared with data at lower and higher energies as well as with results from p+p interactions. The mean pion multiplicity per wounded nucleon increases approximately linearly with s_NN^1/4 with a change of slope starting in the region 15-40 AGeV. The change from pion suppression with respect to p+p interactions, as observed at low collision energies, to pion enhancement at high energies occurs at about 40 AGeV. A non-monotonic energy dependence of the ratio of K^+ to pi^+ yields is observed, with a maximum close to 40 AGeV and an indication of a nearly constant value at higher energies.The measured dependences may be related to an increase of the entropy production and a decrease of the strangeness to entropy ratio in central Pb+Pb collisions in the low SPS energy range, which is consistent with the hypothesis that a transient state of deconfined matter is created above these energies. Other interpretations of the data are also discussed.

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Hadron production in nucleon-nucleon collisions at 200-GeV/c: A Compilation

Gazdzicki, M. ; Hansen, O. ;
Nucl.Phys.A 528 (1991) 754-770, 1991.
Inspire Record 323125 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.36760

Data on stable hadron production in p + p and p + n interactions at 200 GeV/ c are reviewed. Methods to construct missing data in the p + p, p + n, and n + n interactions are derived from charge symmetry and charge, baryon and strangeness conservation, and used to yield nucleon-nucleon interaction results. These may be useful for evaluating nucleus-nucleus collision measurements in terms of enhancements and suppressions. Parameterizations of p t 2 and rapidity distributions are presented to provide yields in acceptance cuts for comparisons to nucleus-nucleus data. As an example the derived nucleon-nucleon multiplicities are reduced to the acceptances of the NA-35 CERN S + S experiment.

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Charged Particle Multiplicities and Interaction Cross-sections in High-energy Nuclear Collisions

The NA35 collaboration Bamberger, A. ; Bangert, D. ; Bartke, J. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 205 (1988) 583-589, 1988.
Inspire Record 262284 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.42035

Inelastic cross sections at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon are determined in a streamer chamber for 16 O on several nuclear targets. Charged particle multiplicity distributions for inelastic and central collisions are studied and compared with theoretical predictions. The inelastic cross section exhibit a geometrical dependence on nuclear radii. The multiplicity data are governed by the collision geometry. They are consistent with a picture of superposition of independent nucleon-nucleus interactions.

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Elliptic flow in Au + Au collisions at (S(NN))**(1/2) = 130 GeV

The STAR collaboration Ackermann, K.H. ; Adams, N. ; Adler, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 86 (2001) 402-407, 2001.
Inspire Record 533414 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.93232

Elliptic flow from nuclear collisions is a hadronic observable sensitive to the early stages of system evolution. We report first results on elliptic flow of charged particles at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=130 GeV using the STAR TPC at RHIC. The elliptic flow signal, v_2, averaged over transverse momentum, reaches values of about 6% for relatively peripheral collisions and decreases for the more central collisions. This can be interpreted as the observation of a higher degree of thermalization than at lower collision energies. Pseudorapidity and transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow are also presented.

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Neutral strange particle production in sulphur sulphur and proton sulphur collisions at 200-GeV/nucleon

The NA35 collaboration Bartke, J. ; Bialkowska, H. ; Bock, R. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 48 (1990) 191-200, 1990.
Inspire Record 304994 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.15177

The production of Λ,\(\bar \Lambda\) andKs0 has been studied in 200 GeV/nucleonp+S and S+S collisions in the streamer chamber of the NA35 experiment at the CERN SPS. Significant enhancement of the multiplicities of all observed strange particles relative to negative hadrons was observed in central S+S collisions, as compared top+p andp+S collisions. The latter collisions show no overall (relative) strangeness enhancement overp+p, but the rapidity distributions and hadron multiplicities indicate some secondary cascading production of Λ particles in thep+S andp+Au collisions. The Λ polarization in central S+S collisions was found to be compatible with zero up topT=2 GeV/c.

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Inclusive production of charged pions in p+p collisions at 158-GeV/c beam momentum

The NA49 collaboration Alt, C. ; Anticic, T. ; Baatar, B. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 45 (2006) 343-381, 2006.
Inspire Record 694016 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.43114

New results on the production of charged pions in p+p interactions are presented. The data come from a sample of 4.8 million inelastic events obtained with the NA49 detector at the CERN SPS at 158 GeV/c beam momentum. Pions are identified by energy loss measurement in a large TPC tracking system which covers a major fraction of the production phase space. Inclusive invariant cross sections are given on a grid of nearly 300 bins per charge over intervals from 0 to 2 GeV/c in transverse momentum and from 0 to 0.85 in Feynman x. The results are compared to existing data in overlapping energy ranges.

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Production of charged kaons in central S + S and O + Au collisions at 200-GeV/nucleon

The NA35 collaboration Kowalski, M. ; Bachler, J. ; Bartke, J. ; et al.
Nucl.Phys.A 544 (1992) 609C-614C, 1992.
Inspire Record 343256 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.36667

Product of charged kaons in central S + S and O + Au collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon has been studied in the NA 35 Streamer Chamber experiment. Mean multiplicities and transverse mass distributions were obtained. They were compared with nucleon-nucleon data and with model predictions.

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Charged particle production in proton, deuteron, oxygen and sulphur nucleus collisions at 200-GeV per nucleon

The NA35 collaboration Alber, T. ; Appelshauser, H. ; Bachler, J. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 2 (1998) 643-659, 1998.
Inspire Record 450611 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.34289

The transverse momentum and rapidity distributions of net protons and negatively charged hadrons have been measured for minimum bias proton-nucleus and deuteron-gold interactions, as well as central oxygen-gold and sulphur-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon. The rapidity density of net protons at midrapidity in central nucleus-nucleus collisions increases both with target mass for sulphur projectiles and with the projectile mass for a gold target. The shape of the rapidity distributions of net protons forward of midrapidity for d+Au and central S+Au collisions is similar. The average rapidity loss is larger than 2 units of rapidity for reactions with the gold target. The transverse momentum spectra of net protons for all reactions can be described by a thermal distribution with `temperatures' between 145 +- 11 MeV (p+S interactions) and 244 +- 43 MeV (central S+Au collisions). The multiplicity of negatively charged hadrons increases with the mass of the colliding system. The shape of the transverse momentum spectra of negatively charged hadrons changes from minimum bias p+p and p+S interactions to p+Au and central nucleus-nucleus collisions. The mean transverse momentum is almost constant in the vicinity of midrapidity and shows little variation with the target and projectile masses. The average number of produced negatively charged hadrons per participant baryon increases slightly from p+p, p+A to central S+S,Ag collisions.

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Study of the Energy Flow in $^{16}$O Nucleus Collisions at 60-{GeV}/nucleon and 200-{GeV}/nucleon

The NA35 collaboration Heck, W. ; Bamberger, A. ; Bangert, D. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 38 (1988) 19, 1988.
Inspire Record 262285 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.37151

We report a systematic study of mid-rapidityET production and forward energy flow in the interaction of16O projectiles on Al, Cu, Ag and Au at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon. First results onET production with32S projectiles are presented.

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EXPERIMENTAL DATA ON AVERAGE NUMBER OF INTERACTED PROTONS IN INELASTIC AND CENTRAL NUCLEUS-NUCLEUS COLLISIONS AT 3.6-GeV/ N

Anikina, M.Kh. ; Abdurakhimov, A.U. ; Avramenko, S.A. ; et al.
Yad.Fiz. 45 (1987) 1680, 1987.
Inspire Record 235082 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.38968
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Study of the energy flow in sulphur and oxygen nucleus collisions at 60-GeV/nucleon and 200-GeV/nucleon

The NA35 collaboration Bächler, J. ; Bartke, J. ; Bialkowska, H. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 52 (1991) 239-263, 1991.
Inspire Record 323583 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.1434

We report on a systematic study of midrapidity transverse energy production and forward energy flow in interactions of16O and32S projectiles with S, Cu, Ag and Au targets at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon. The variation of the shape of theET distributions with target and projectile mass can be understood from collision geometry. AverageET values determined for central collisions show an increasing stopping power for heavier target nuclei. A higher relative stopping is observed at 60 GeV/nucleon than at 200 GeV/nucleon. Bjorken estimates of the energy density reach approximately 3 GeV/fm3 in highET events at 200 GeV/nucleon with16O and32S projectiles. The systematics of the data and the shapes ofET and pseudorapidity distributions are well described by the Lund model Fritiof.

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Energy dependence of phi meson production in central Pb+Pb collisions at s(NN)**(1/2) = 6 to 17 GeV

The NA49 collaboration Alt, C. ; Anticic, T. ; Baatar, B. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 78 (2008) 044907, 2008.
Inspire Record 787913 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.25063

Phi meson production is studied by the NA49 collaboration in central Pb+Pb collisions at 20A, 30A, 40A, 80A and 158A GeV beam energy. The data are compared to measurements at lower and higher energies and to microscopic and thermal models. The energy dependence of yields and spectral distributions is compatible with the assumption that partonic degrees of freedom set in at low SPS energies.

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Energy dependence of kaon-to-proton ratio fluctuations in central Pb+Pb collisions from $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 6.3 to 17.3~GeV

The NA49 collaboration Anticic, T. ; Baatar, B. ; Barna, D. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 83 (2011) 061902, 2011.
Inspire Record 884686 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.58492

Kaons and protons carry large parts of two conserved quantities, strangeness and baryon number. It is argued that their correlation and thus also fluctuations are sensitive to conditions prevailing at the anticipated parton-hadron phase boundary. Fluctuations of the $(\mathrm{K}^+ + \mathrm{K}^-)/(\mathrm{p}+\bar{\mathrm{p}})$ and $\mathrm{K}^+/\mathrm{p}$ ratios have been measured for the first time by NA49 in central Pb+Pb collisions at 5 SPS energies between $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 6.3 GeV and 17.3 GeV. Both ratios exhibit a change of sign in $\sigma_{\mathrm{dyn}}$, a measure of non-statistical fluctuations, around $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 8 GeV. Below this energy, $\sigma_{\mathrm{dyn}}$ is positive, indicating higher fluctuation compared to a mixed event background sample, while for higher energies, $\sigma_{\mathrm{dyn}}$ is negative, indicating correlated emission of kaons and protons. The results are compared to UrQMD calculations which which give a good description at the higher SPS energies, but fail to reproduce the transition to positive values.

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Pion and kaon production in central Pb + Pb collisions at 20-A and 30-A-GeV: Evidence for the onset of deconfinement

The NA49 collaboration Alt, C. ; Anticic, T. ; Baatar, B. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 77 (2008) 024903, 2008.
Inspire Record 762554 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.25169

Results on charged pion and kaon production in central Pb+Pb collisions at 20A and 30A GeV are presented and compared to data at lower and higher energies. A rapid change of the energy dependence is observed around 30A GeV for the yields of pions and kaons as well as for the shape of the transverse mass spectra. The change is compatible with the prediction that the threshold for production of a state of deconfined matter at the early stage of the collisions is located at low SPS energies.

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EXPERIMENTAL DATA ON MULTIPLICITIES IN CENTRAL COLLISIONS C-12 + C-12, F-19 + MG-24, MG-24 + MG-24 AT 3.7-GEV/NUCLEON. (IN RUSSIAN)

Anikina, M.Kh. ; Abdurakhimov, A.U. ; Avramenko, S.A. ; et al.
DUBNA JINR - 1(34)-89 (89,REC.APR.) 12-19, 1989.
Inspire Record 282227 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.38295
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A Study of $K^0_S$, $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ Production in 60-{GeV} and 200-{GeV} Per Nucleon O Au and $p$ Au Collisions With a Streamer Chamber Detector at the {CERN} {SPS}

The NA35 collaboration Bamberger, A. ; Bartke, J. ; Bialkowska, H. ; et al.
Z.Phys.C 43 (1989) 25, 1989.
Inspire Record 276686 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.15456

The production of neutral strange particlesKso, Λ and\(\bar \Lambda \) has been studied in 60 and 200 GeV per nucleon OAu and pAu collisions with the streamer chamber vertex spectrometer of the NA35 experiment at the CERN-SPS accelerator. Ratios of neutral strange particle production to negatively charged particle production in selected regions of phase space were measured to be the same in OAu and pAu reactions. The rates of strange particle production in central OAu collisions are about a factor of 16 higher than in pAu collisions when compared in the same regions of phase space. If an enhancement of strange particle production in OAu collisions relative to pAu collisions is considered to be a signature for quark-gluon plasma formation, no evidence supporting it is observed. The experimental results are compared to the Lund FRITIOF model.

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(Anti-)deuteron production in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13 \ \text {TeV}$

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, S. ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 80 (2020) 889, 2020.
Inspire Record 1784203 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.97183

The study of (anti-)deuteron production in pp collisions has proven to be a powerful tool to investigate the formation mechanism of loosely bound states in high energy hadronic collisions. In this paper the production of (anti-)deuterons is studied as a function of the charged particle multiplicity in inelastic pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV using the ALICE experiment. Thanks to the large number of accumulated minimum bias events, it has been possible to measure (anti-)deuteron production in pp collisions up to the same charged particle multiplicity ($\rm{d} N_{ch}/\rm{d}\eta\sim26$) as measured in p-Pb collisions at similar centre-of-mass energies. Within the uncertainties, the deuteron yield in pp collisions resembles the one in p-Pb interactions, suggesting a common formation mechanism behind the production of light nuclei in hadronic interactions. In this context the measurements are compared with the expectations of coalescence and Statistical Hadronisation Models (SHM).

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Transverse momentum distributions of deuterons in the INEL>0 pp collisions

Transverse momentum distributions of deuterons in the INEL pp collisions

Transverse momentum distributions of anti-deuterons in the INEL>0 pp collisions

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Evidence for collectivity in pp collisions at the LHC

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 765 (2017) 193-220, 2017.
Inspire Record 1471287 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.76506

Measurements of two- and multi-particle angular correlations in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 5, 7, and 13 TeV are presented as a function of charged-particle multiplicity. The data, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 1.0 inverse picobarn (5 TeV), 6.2 inverse picobarns (7 TeV), and 0.7 inverse picobarns (13 TeV), were collected using the CMS detector at the LHC. The second-order (v[2]) and third-order (v[3]) azimuthal anisotropy harmonics of unidentified charged particles, as well as v[2] of K0 short and Lambda/anti-Lambda particles, are extracted from long-range two-particle correlations as functions of particle multiplicity and transverse momentum. For high-multiplicity pp events, a mass ordering is observed for the v[2] values of charged hadrons (mostly pions), K0 short, and Lambda/anti-Lambda, with lighter particle species exhibiting a stronger azimuthal anisotropy signal below pt of about 2 GeV/c. For 13 TeV data, the v[2] signals are also extracted from four- and six-particle correlations for the first time in pp collisions, with comparable magnitude to those from two-particle correlations. These observations are similar to those seen in pPb and PbPb collisions, and support the interpretation of a collective origin for the observed long-range correlations in high-multiplicity pp collisions.

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Observation of top quark production in proton-nucleus collisions

The CMS collaboration Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 119 (2017) 242001, 2017.
Inspire Record 1624694 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.79668

The first observation of top quark production in proton-nucleus collisions is reported using proton-lead data collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of sqrt(s[NN]) = 8.16 TeV. The measurement is performed using events with exactly one isolated electron or muon and at least four jets. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 174 inverse nanobarns. The significance of the tt-bar signal against the background-only hypothesis is above five standard deviations. The measured cross section is sigma[tt-bar] = 45 +/- 8 nb, consistent with predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics.

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Evidence for Top Quark Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

The CMS collaboration Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 125 (2020) 222001, 2020.
Inspire Record 1802092 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.93878

Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions recreate in the laboratory the thermodynamical conditions prevailing in the early universe up to 10$^{-6}$ seconds, thereby allowing the study of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a state of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) matter with deconfined partons. The top quark, the heaviest elementary particle known, is accessible in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN LHC, and constitutes a novel probe of the QGP. Here, we report the first-ever evidence for the production of top quarks in nucleus-nucleus collisions, using lead-lead collision data at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV recorded by the CMS experiment. Two methods are used to measure the cross section for top quark pair production ($\sigma_\mathrm{t\bar{t}}$) via the decay into charged leptons (electrons or muons) and bottom quarks. One method relies on the leptonic information alone, and the second one exploits, in addition, the presence of bottom quarks. The measured cross sections, $\sigma_\mathrm{t\bar{t}} = $ 2.54 $^{+0.84}_{-0.74}$ and 2.03 $^{+0.71}_{-0.64}$ $\mu$b, respectively, are compatible with expectations from scaled proton-proton data and QCD predictions.

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$J/\psi$ polarization in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Abrahantes Quintana, Arian ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 108 (2012) 082001, 2012.
Inspire Record 944730 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73005

We have studied J/psi production in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV at the LHC through its muon pair decay. The polar and azimuthal angle distributions of the decay muons were measured, and results on the J/$\psi$ polarization parameters $\lambda_{\theta}$ and $\lambda_\phi$ were obtained. The study was performed in the kinematic region 2.5<y<4, 2<$p_{\rm T}$<8 GeV/$c$, in the helicity and Collins-Soper reference frames. In both frames, the polarization parameters are compatible with zero, within uncertainties.

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