Strangeness in nuclear collisions

Gazdzicki, Marek ; Rohrich, Dieter ;
Z.Phys.C 71 (1996) 55-64, 1996.
Inspire Record 420462 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.13638

Data on the mean multiplicity of strange hadrons produced in minimum bias proton--proton and central nucleus--nucleus collisions at momenta between 2.8 and 400 GeV/c per nucleon have been compiled. The multiplicities for nucleon--nucleon interactions were constructed. The ratios of strange particle multiplicity to participant nucleon as well as to pion multiplicity are larger for central nucleus--nucleus collisions than for nucleon--nucleon interactions at all studied energies. The data at AGS energies suggest that the latter ratio saturates with increasing masses of the colliding nuclei. The strangeness to pion multiplicity ratio observed in nucleon--nucleon interactions increases with collision energy in the whole energy range studied. A qualitatively different behaviour is observed for central nucleus--nucleus collisions: the ratio rapidly increases when going from Dubna to AGS energies and changes little between AGS and SPS energies. This change in the behaviour can be related to the increase in the entropy production observed in central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the same energy range. The results are interpreted within a statistical approach. They are consistent with the hypothesis that the Quark Gluon Plasma is created at SPS energies, the critical collision energy being between AGS and SPS energies.

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$J/\psi$ polarization in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Abrahantes Quintana, Arian ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 108 (2012) 082001, 2012.
Inspire Record 944730 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73005

We have studied J/psi production in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV at the LHC through its muon pair decay. The polar and azimuthal angle distributions of the decay muons were measured, and results on the J/$\psi$ polarization parameters $\lambda_{\theta}$ and $\lambda_\phi$ were obtained. The study was performed in the kinematic region 2.5<y<4, 2<$p_{\rm T}$<8 GeV/$c$, in the helicity and Collins-Soper reference frames. In both frames, the polarization parameters are compatible with zero, within uncertainties.

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Multiplicity dependence of two-particle azimuthal correlations in pp collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
JHEP 09 (2013) 049, 2013.
Inspire Record 1241570 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.62319

We present the measurements of particle pair yields per trigger particle obtained from di-hadron azimuthal correlations in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 0.9$, $2.76$, and $7$ TeV recorded with the ALICE detector. The yields are studied as a function of the charged particle multiplicity. Taken together with the single particle yields the pair yields provide information about parton fragmentation at low transverse momenta, as well as on the contribution of multiple parton interactions to particle production. Data are compared to calculations using the PYTHIA6, PYTHIA8, and PHOJET event generators.

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Net-Charge Fluctuations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s}_{NN} = 2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 110 (2013) 152301, 2013.
Inspire Record 1123802 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.60476

We report the first measurement of the net-charge fluctuations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV, measured with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The dynamical fluctuations per unit entropy are observed to decrease when going from peripheral to central collisions. An additional reduction in the amount of fluctuations is seen in comparison to the results from lower energies. We examine the dependence of fluctuations on the pseudorapidity interval, which may account for the dilution of fluctuations during the evolution of the system. We find that the fluctuations at LHC are smaller compared to the measurements at the Relativistic heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and as such, closer to what has been theoretically predicted for the formation of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP).

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Centrality determination of Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with ALICE

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 88 (2013) 044909, 2013.
Inspire Record 1215085 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66916

This publication describes the methods used to measure the centrality of inelastic Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per colliding nucleon pair with ALICE. The centrality is a key parameter in the study of the properties of QCD matter at extreme temperature and energy density, because it is directly related to the initial overlap region of the colliding nuclei. Geometrical properties of the collision, such as the number of participating nucleons and number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, are deduced from a Glauber model with a sharp impact parameter selection, and shown to be consistent with those extracted from the data. The centrality determination provides a tool to compare ALICE measurements with those of other experiments and with theoretical calculations.

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Multi-strange baryon production in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with ALICE

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 712 (2012) 309-318, 2012.
Inspire Record 1097057 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.60477

A measurement of the multi-strange $\Xi^-$ and $\Omega^-$ baryons and their antiparticles by the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is presented for inelastic proton-proton collisions at centre of mass energy of 7 TeV. The transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) distributions were studied at mid-rapidity (|y| < 0.5) in the range of 0.6 < $p_{\rm T}$ < 8.5 GeV/$c$ for $\Xi^-$ and $\Xi^+$ baryons, and in the range of 0.8 < $p_{\rm T}$ < 5 GeV/$c$ for $\Omega^-$ and $\Omega^+$. Baryons and antibaryons were measured as separate particles and we find that the baryon to antibaryon ratio of both particle species is consistent with unity over the entire range of the measurement. The statistical precision of the current LHC data has allowed us to measure a difference between the mean $p_{\rm T}$ of $\Xi^-$ ($\Xi^+$) and $\Omega^-$ ($\Omega^+$). Particle yields, mean $p_{\rm T}$, and the spectra in the intermediate $p_{\rm T}$ range are not well described by the PYTHIA Perugia 2011 tune Monte Carlo event generator, which has been tuned to reproduce the early LHC data. The discrepancy is largest for $\Omega^-$ ($\Omega^+$). This PYTHIA tune approaches the $p_{\rm T}$ spectra of $\Xi^-$ and $\Xi^+$ baryons below $p_{\rm T}$ < 0.85 GeV/$c$ and describes the $\Xi^-$ and $\Xi^+$ spectra above $p_{\rm T}$ > 6.0 GeV/$c$. We also illustrate the difference between the experimental data and model by comparing the corresponding ratios of ($\Omega^{-}+\Omega^+)/(\Xi^-+\Xi^+)$ as a function of transverse mass.

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Pseudorapidity density of charged particles in $p$ + Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 110 (2013) 032301, 2013.
Inspire Record 1190545 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.60099

The charged-particle pseudorapidity density measured over 4 units of pseudorapidity in non-single-diffractive (NSD) p-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV is presented. The average value at midrapidity is measured to be $16.81 \pm 0.71$ (syst.), which corresponds to $2.14 \pm 0.17$ (syst.) per participating nucleon. This is 16% lower than in NSD pp collisions interpolated to the same collision energy, and 84% higher than in d-Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 0.2$ TeV. The measured pseudorapidity density in p-Pb collisions is compared to model predictions, and provides new constraints on the description of particle production in high-energy nuclear collisions.

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J/Psi Elliptic Flow in Pb-Pb Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abbas, Ehab ; Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 111 (2013) 162301, 2013.
Inspire Record 1225273 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.61768

We report on the first measurement of inclusive J/$\psi$ elliptic flow, $v_2$, in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The measurement is performed with the ALICE detector in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV in the rapidity range $2.5 < y < 4.0$. The dependence of the J/$\psi$ $v_2$ on the collision centrality and on the J/$\psi$ transverse momentum is studied in the range $0 < p_{\rm T} < 10$ GeV/$c$. For semi-central Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV, an indication of non-zero $v_2$ is observed with a maximum value of $v_2 = 0.116 \pm 0.046 {\rm (stat.)} \pm 0.029 {\rm (syst.)}$ for J/$\psi$ in the transverse momentum range $2 < p_{\rm T} < 4$ GeV/$c$. The elliptic flow measurement complements the previously reported ALICE results on the inclusive J/$\psi$ nuclear modification factor and favors the scenario of a significant fraction of J/$\psi$ production from charm quarks in a deconfined partonic phase.

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Measurement of electrons from beauty hadron decays in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 721 (2013) 13-23, 2013.
Inspire Record 1126962 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.61625

The production cross section of electrons from semileptonic decays of beauty hadrons was measured at mid-rapidity (|y| < 0.8) in the transverse momentum range $1 < p_{\rm T} < 8$ Gev/$c$ with the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC in pp collisions at a center of mass energy $\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV using an integrated luminosity of 2.2 nb$^{-1}$. Electrons from beauty hadron decays were selected based on the displacement of the decay vertex from the collision vertex. A perturbative QCD calculation agrees with the measurement within uncertainties. The data were extrapolated to the full phase space to determine the total cross section for the production of beauty quark-antiquark pairs.

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Production of $K^*(892)^0$ and $\phi(1020)$ in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 72 (2012) 2183, 2012.
Inspire Record 1182213 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.59933

The production of K$^{*}$(892)$^{0}$ and $\phi$(1020) in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV was measured by the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The yields and the transverse momentum spectra d$^{2}$N/d$y$d$p_{\rm T}$ at midrapidity $|y|<0.5$ in the range $0<p_{\rm T}<6$ GeV/$c$ for K$^{*}$(892)$^{0}$ and $0.4<p_{\rm T}<6$ GeV/$c$ for $\phi$(1020) are reported and compared to model predictions. Using the yield of pions, kaons, and Omega baryons measured previously by ALICE at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV, the ratios K$^{*}$/K$^{-}$, $\phi$/K$^{*}$, $\phi$/K$^{-}$, $\phi/\pi^{-}$, and ($\Omega$ + $\overline{\Omega}$)/$\phi$ are presented. The values of the K$^{*}$/K$^{-}$, $\phi$/K$^{*}$ and $\phi$/K$^{-}$ ratios are similar to those found at lower centre-of-mass energies. In contrast, the $\phi/\pi^{-}$ ratio, which has been observed to increase with energy, seems to saturate above 200 GeV. The ($\Omega$ + $\overline{\Omega}$)/$\phi$ ratio in the $p_{\rm T}$ range $1$-$5$ GeV/$c$ is found to be in good agreement with the prediction of the HIJING/BB v2.0 model with a strong colour field.

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