Data on the mean multiplicity of strange hadrons produced in minimum bias proton--proton and central nucleus--nucleus collisions at momenta between 2.8 and 400 GeV/c per nucleon have been compiled. The multiplicities for nucleon--nucleon interactions were constructed. The ratios of strange particle multiplicity to participant nucleon as well as to pion multiplicity are larger for central nucleus--nucleus collisions than for nucleon--nucleon interactions at all studied energies. The data at AGS energies suggest that the latter ratio saturates with increasing masses of the colliding nuclei. The strangeness to pion multiplicity ratio observed in nucleon--nucleon interactions increases with collision energy in the whole energy range studied. A qualitatively different behaviour is observed for central nucleus--nucleus collisions: the ratio rapidly increases when going from Dubna to AGS energies and changes little between AGS and SPS energies. This change in the behaviour can be related to the increase in the entropy production observed in central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the same energy range. The results are interpreted within a statistical approach. They are consistent with the hypothesis that the Quark Gluon Plasma is created at SPS energies, the critical collision energy being between AGS and SPS energies.
Data on the mean multiplicity ofπ- produced in minimum bias proton-proton, proton-neutron and proton-nucleus interactions as well as central nucleus-nucleus collisions at momenta of 1.4–400 GeV/c per nucleon have been compiled and studied. The results for neutron-neutron and nucleon-nucleon interactions were then constructed. The dependence of the mean pion multiplicity in proton-nucleus interactions and central collisions of identical nuclei are studied as a function of the collision energy and the nucleus mass number. The number of produced pions per participant nucleon in central collisions of identical nuclei is found to be independent of the number of participants at a fixed incident momentum per nucleon. The mean multiplicity of negatively charged hadrons per participant nucleon for central nucleus-nucleus collisions is lower by about 0.12 than the corresponding multiplicity for nucleon-nucleon interactions atpLAB≲15 A·GeV/c, whereas the result at 200 A·GeV/c is above the corresponding nucleon-nucleon multiplicity. This may indicate change of the collision dynamics at high energy.
Interactions between 4.15-Bev protons and the free hydrogen nuclei in nuclear emulsion are examined. The total elastic cross section from 27 events was determined to be 11.0±2.6 mb. On the basis of 113 interactions the total inelastic cross section was found to be 28.1±3.1 mb. The partial cross sections corresponding to inelastic collisions having two, four, six, and eight secondary particles were found to be respectively 16.3±2.4, 11.5±1.8, 0.2±0.1, and 0.1±0.1 mb. While the total inelastic cross section varies slowly with energy, the partial inelastic cross sections were found to be strongly energy dependent. The observed angular distribution of elastically scattered protons in the center-of-mass system was sharply peaked in the forward and backward directions, in fair agreement with calculations based on a simple optical model applicable for energies between 2 and 10 Bev. Particles produced in inelastic collisions were identified as pions or protons by measurements of energy loss and multiple scattering. For those particles identified, center-of-mass system distributions of energy, angle, and transverse momentum are presented.
The differential and total cross sections for kaon pair production in the pp->ppK+K- reaction have been measured at three beam energies of 2.65, 2.70, and 2.83 GeV using the ANKE magnetic spectrometer at the COSY-Juelich accelerator. These near-threshold data are separated into pairs arising from the decay of the phi-meson and the remainder. For the non-phi selection, the ratio of the differential cross sections in terms of the K-p and K+p invariant masses is strongly peaked towards low masses. This effect can be described quantitatively by using a simple ansatz for the K-p final state interaction, where it is seen that the data are sensitive to the magnitude of an effective K-p scattering length. When allowance is made for a small number of phi events where the K- rescatters from the proton, the phi region is equally well described at all three energies. A very similar phenomenon is discovered in the ratio of the cross sections as functions of the K-pp and K+pp invariant masses and the identical final state interaction model is also very successful here. The world data on the energy dependence of the non-phi total cross section is also reproduced, except possibly for the results closest to threshold.
The angular and energy distributions of pions produced by 650-MeV protons and pion-nucleon correlations were studied using a liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. The present investigation indicates that the experimental angular distributions of neutral and charged pions are consis- tent with the assumption of isotopic spin conservation. The contributions of rrN subsystem states with isospin T 11'N = 7' 2 and % are measured; the contribution of the latter is 72 ± 3%.
The cross section for inclusive multipion production in the pp->ppX reaction was measured at COSY-ANKE at four beam energies, 0.8, 1.1, 1.4, and 2.0 GeV, for low excitation energy in the final pp system, such that the diproton quasi-particle is in the 1S0 state. At the three higher energies the missing mass Mx spectra show a strong enhancement at low Mx, corresponding to an ABC effect that moves steadily to larger values as the energy is increased. Despite the missing-mass structure looking very different at 0.8 GeV, the variation with Mx and beam energy are consistent with two-pion production being mediated through the excitation of two Delta(1232) isobars, coupled to S-- and D-- states of the initial pp system.
Detailed measurements of the production of charged π mesons in proton-proton collisions are reported. The observed results are compared with the "isobar" and "one-pion exchange" models and for single production are in agreement if only the "resonant" part of the π−p cross section is used and if the angular distribution cos16θ is introduced for the production of the N1* isobar. The effects of higher resonances are also considered.
Data on multiplicities of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon are presented. It is shown that the mean multiplicity of negative particles is proportional to the mean number of nucleons participating in the collision both for nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions. The apparent consistency of pion multiplicity data with the assumption of an incoherent superposition of nucleon-nucleon collisions is critically discussed.
The cross section for the reaction pp → Σ + K + n at 5 GeV/ c is measured to be 48.1 ± 3.5 μ b. The KΣ mass spectrum shows an enhancement at 1.86 GeV, which may due to the Δ (1920) resonance. Adequacy of the one-pion exchange model for the reaction is discussed. The cross section for the reaction pp → Σ + K o p is found to be 24.9 ± 2.3 μ b.
Results are presented on the exclusive production of four-prong final states in photon-photon collisions from the TPC/Two-Gamma detector at the SLAC e+e− storage ring PEP. Measurement of dE/dx and momentum in the time-projection chamber (TPC) provides identification of the final states 2π+2π−, K+K−π+π−, and 2K+2K−. For two quasireal incident photons, both the 2π+2π− and K+K−π+π− cross sections show a steep rise from threshold to a peak value, followed by a decrease at higher mass. Cross sections for the production of the final states ρ0ρ0, ρ0π+π−, and φπ+π− are presented, together with upper limits for φρ0, φφ, and K*0K¯ *0. The ρ0ρ0 contribution dominates the four-pion cross section at low masses, but falls to nearly zero above 2 GeV. Such behavior is inconsistent with expectations from vector dominance but can be accommodated by four-quark resonance models or by t-channel factorization. Angular distributions for the part of the data dominated by ρ0ρ0 final states are consistent with the production of JP=2+ or 0+ resonances but also with isotropic (nonresonant) production. When one of the virtual photons has mass (mγ2=-Q2≠0), the four-pion cross section is still dominated by ρ0ρ0 at low final-state masses Wγγ and by 2π+2π− at higher mass. Further, the dependence of the cross section on Q2 becomes increasingly flat as Wγγ increases.