Transverse mass spectra of pions, kaons, and protons from the symmetric heavy-ion collisions 200 A GeV S+S and 158 A GeV Pb+Pb, measured in the NA44 focusing spectrometer at CERN, are presented. The mass dependence of the slope parameters provides evidence of collective transverse flow from expansion of the system in heavy-ion induced central collisions.
Inclusive energy spectra of protons, deuterons, and tritons were measured with a telescope of silicon and germanium detectors with a detection range for proton energies up to 200 MeV. Fifteen sets of data were taken using projectiles ranging from protons to Ar40 on targets from Al27 to U238 at bombarding energies from 240 MeV/nucleon to 2.1 GeV/nucleon. Particular attention was paid to the absolute normalization of the cross sections. For three previously reported reactions, He fragment cross sections have been corrected and are presented. To facilitate a comparison with theory the sum of nucleonic charges emitted as protons plus composite particles was estimated and is presented as a function of fragment energy per nucleon in the interval from 15 to 200 MeV/nucleon. For low-energy fragments at forward angles the protons account for only 25% of the nucleonic charges. The equal mass Ar40 plus Ca systems were examined in the center of mass. Here at 0.4 GeV/nucleon Ar40 plus Ca the proton spectra appear to be nearly isotropic in the center of mass over the region measured. Comparisons of some data with firestreak, cascade, and fluid dynamics models indicate a failure of the first and a fair agreement with the latter two. In addition, associated fast charged particle multiplicities (where the particles had energies larger than 25 MeV/nucleon) and azimuthal correlations were measured with an 80 counter array of plastic scintillators. It was found that the associated multiplicities were a smooth function of the total kinetic energy of the projectile. NUCLEAR REACTIONS U(Ne20,X), EA=240 MeV/nucleon; U(Ar40,X), Ca(Ar40,X), U(Ne20,X), Au(Ne20,X), Ag(Ne20,X), Al(Ne20,X), U(He4,X), Al(He4,X), EA=390 MeV/nucleon; U(Ar40,X), Ca(Ar40,X), U(Ne20,X), U(He4,X), U(p,X), EA=1.04 GeV/nucleon; U(Ne20,X), EA=2.1 GeV/nucleon; measured σ(E,θ), X=p,d,t.
K − /K + and p ¯ / p ratios measured in 158 A·GeV Pb+Pb collisions are shown as a function of transverse momentum P T and centrality in top 8.5% central region. Little centrality dependence of the K − / K + and p ¯ / p ratios is observed. The transverse mass m T distribution and dN/dy of K + , K − , p and p ¯ around mid-rapidity are obtained. The temperature T ch and the chemical potentials for both light and strange quarks (μ q , μ s ) at chemical freeze-out are determined by applying simple thermodynamical model to the present data. The resultant μ q , μ s and T ch are compared with those obtained from similar analysis of SPS S+A and AGS Si+A data. The chemical freeze-out temperature T ch at CERN energies is higher than thermal freeze-out temperature T fo which is extracted from m T distribution of charged hadrons. At AGS energies T ch is close to T fo .
Recently, highly relativistic Au beams have become available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. Inclusive production cross sections for composite particles, d, t, He3, and He4, in 11.5A GeV/c Au+Pt collisions have been measured using a beam line spectrometer. For comparison, composite particle production was also measured in Si+Pt and p+Pt collisions at similar beam momenta per nucleon (14.6A GeV/c and 12.9 GeV/c, respectively). The projectile dependence of the production cross section for each composite particle has been fitted to Aprojα. The parameter α can be described by a single function of the mass number and the momentum per nucleon of the produced particle. Additionally, the data are well described by momentum-space coalescence. Comparisons with similar analysis of Bevalac A+A data are made. The coalescence radii extracted from momentum-space coalescence fits are used to determine reaction volumes (‘‘source size’’) within the context of the Sato-Yazaki model.
Single particle distributions of π ± , K ± , p , p and d near mid-rapidity from 450 GeV/c p A and 200 GeV/c per nucleon SA collisions are presented. Inverse slope parameters are extracted from the transverse mass spectra, and examined for indications of collective phenomena. Proton and antiproton yields are determined for different projectile-target combinations. First results from 160 GeV/c per nucleon PbPb collisions are presented.
A strangelet search in Si+Pt and Au+Pt collisions at alternating-gradient synchrotron (AGS) energies, using a focusing spectrometer, sensitive to mass per charge of 3-14 GeV/c2 was conducted during the 1992 and 1993 heavy ion runs at the AGS. The null results thereof are presented as upper limits on the invariant production cross section, in the range of 10−5-10−4 mb c3/GeV2, and model dependent sensitivity limits in the range of 10−7-10−5 per collision. Measurements of the production cross sections of several nonstrange nuclear systems, from p to Be7 and Li8, the background of the strangelet search, are also presented.
We report on measurements by the E864 experiment at the BNL-AGS of the yields of light nuclei in collisions of Au(197) with beam momentum of 11.5 A GeV/c on targets of Pb(208) and Pt(197). The yields are reported for nuclei with baryon number A=1 up to A=7, and typically cover a rapidity range from y(cm) to y(cm)+1 and a transverse momentum range of approximately 0.1 < p(T)/A < 0.5 GeV/c. We calculate coalescence scale factors B(A) from which we extract model dependent source dimensions and collective flow velocities. We also examine the dependences of the yields on baryon number, spin, and isospin of the produced nuclei.
Transverse mass spectra of protons emitted in Au+Au collisions at beam energies of 6, 8, and 10.8 GeV/nucleon have been measured as a function of collision centrality over a rapidity range 0.5<ylab<1.5. The spectra are well reproduced by Boltzmann distributions over the measured transverse mass region, which allows for extrapolation of the data to derive the rapidity density and apparent temperature of the emitting source. The shapes of the rapidity distributions suggest significant transparency or substantial longitudinal expansion in even the most central collisions at all three beam energies. The data are analyzed within a simple thermal source plus longitudinal expansion model.
During the recent commissioning of Au beams at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron facility, experiment 886 measured production cross sections for π±, K±, p, and p¯ in minimum bias Au+Pt collisions at 11.5A GeV/c. Invariant differential cross sections, Ed3σ/dp3, were measured at several rigidities (p/Z≤1.8 GeV/c) using a 5.7° (fixed-angle) focusing spectrometer. For comparison, particle production was measured in minimum bias Si+Pt collisions at 14.6A GeV/c using the same apparatus and in p+Pt collisions at 12.9 GeV/c using a similar spectrometer at KEK. When normalized to projectile mass, Aproj, the measured π± and K± cross sections are nearly equal for the p+Pt and Si+Pt reactions. In contrast to this behavior, the π− cross section measured in Au+Pt shows a significant excess beyond Aproj scaling of the p+Pt measurement. This enhancement suggests collective phenomena contribute significantly to π− production in the larger Au+Pt colliding system. For the Au+Pt reaction, the π+ and K+ yields also exceed Aproj scaling of p+Pt collisions. However, little significance can be attributed to these excesses due to larger experimental uncertainties for the positive rigidity Au beam measurements. For antiprotons, the Si+Pt and Au+Pt cross sections fall well below Aproj scaling of the p+Pt yields indicating a substantial fraction of the nuclear projectile is ineffective for p¯ production. Comparing with p+Pt multiplicities, the Si+Pt and Au+Pt antiproton yields agree with that expected solely from ‘‘first’’ nucleon-nucleon collisions (i.e., collisions between previously unstruck nucleons). In light of expected p¯ annihilation in the colliding system, such projectile independence is unexpected without additional (projectile dependent) sources of p¯ production. In this case, the data indicate an approximate balance exists between absorption and additional sources of antiprotons. This balance is remarkable given the wide range of projectile mass spanned by these measurements.