Underlying Event properties in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
JHEP 04 (2020) 192, 2020.
Inspire Record 1762350 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.94414

This article reports measurements characterizing the Underlying Event (UE) associated with hard scatterings at midrapidity in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV. The hard scatterings are identified by the leading particle, the charged particle with the highest transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}^{\rm leading}$) in the event. Charged-particle number and summed transverse-momentum densities are measured in different azimuthal regions defined with respect to the leading particle direction: Toward, Transverse, and Away. The Toward and Away regions contain the fragmentation products of the hard scatterings in addition to the UE contribution, whereas particles in the Transverse region are expected to originate predominantly from the UE. The study is performed as a function of $p_{\rm T}^{\rm leading}$ with three different $p_{\rm T}$ thresholds for the associated particles, $p_{\rm T}^{\rm min} >$ 0.15, 0.5, and 1.0 GeV/$c$. The charged-particle density in the Transverse region rises steeply for low values of $p_{\rm T}^{\rm leading}$ and reaches a plateau. The results confirm the trend that the charged-particle density in the Transverse region shows a stronger increase with $\sqrt{s}$ than the inclusive charged-particle density at midrapidity. The UE activity is increased by approximately 20% when going from 7 to 13 TeV. The plateau in the Transverse region ($5 < p_{\rm T}^{\rm leading} < ~ 40$ GeV/$c$ ) is further characterized by the probability distribution of its charged-particle multiplicity normalized to its average value (relative transverse activity, $R_{T}$) and the mean transverse momentum as a function of $R_{T}$. Experimental results are compared to model calculations using PYTHIA 8 and EPOS LHC. The overall agreement between models and data is within 30%. These measurements provide new insights on the interplay between hard scatterings and the associated UE in pp collisions.

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First measurement of large area jet transverse momentum spectra in heavy-ion collisions

The CMS collaboration Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
JHEP 05 (2021) 284, 2021.
Inspire Record 1848440 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.93881

Jet production in lead-lead (PbPb) and proton-proton (pp) collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV is studied with the CMS detector at the LHC, using PbPb and pp data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 404 $\mu$b$^{-1}$ and 27.4 pb$^{-1}$, respectively. Jets with different areas are reconstructed using the anti-$k_\mathrm{T}$ algorithm by varying the distance parameter $R$. The measurements are performed using jets with transverse momenta ($p_\mathrm{T}$) greater than 200 GeV and in a pseudorapidity range of $|\eta|$$\lt$ 2. To reveal the medium modification of the jet spectra in PbPb collisions, the properly normalized ratio of spectra from PbPb and pp data is used to extract jet nuclear modification factors as functions of the PbPb collision centrality, $p_\mathrm{T}$ and, for the first time, as a function of $R$ up to 1.0. For the most central collisions, a strong suppression is observed for high-$p_\mathrm{T}$ jets reconstructed with all distance parameters, implying that a significant amount of jet energy is scattered to large angles. The dependence of jet suppression on $R$ is expected to be sensitive to both the jet energy loss mechanism and the medium response, and so the data are compared to several modern event generators and analytic calculations. The models considered do not fully reproduce the data.

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Underlying event measurements in $p$+$p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}= 200 $ GeV at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamczyk, Leszek ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 101 (2020) 052004, 2020.
Inspire Record 1771348 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95537

Particle production sensitive to non-factorizable and non-perturbative processes that contribute to the underlying event associated with a high transverse momentum ($p_{T}$) jet in proton+proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$=200 GeV is studied with the STAR detector. Each event is divided into three regions based on the azimuthal angle with respect to the highest-$p_{T}$ jet direction: in the leading jet direction ("Toward"), opposite to the leading jet ("Away"), and perpendicular to the leading jet ("Transverse"). In the Transverse region, the average charged particle density is found to be between 0.4 and 0.6 and the mean transverse momentum, $\langle p_{T}\rangle$, between 0.5-0.7 GeV/$c$ for particles with $p_{T}$$>$0.2 GeV/$c$ at mid-pseudorapidity ($|\eta|$$<$1) and jet $p_{T}$$>$15 GeV/$c$. Both average particle density and $\langle p_{T}\rangle$ depend weakly on the leading jet $p_{T}$. Closer inspection of the Transverse region hints that contributions to the underlying event from initial- and final-state radiation are significantly smaller in these collisions than at the higher energies, up to 13 TeV, recorded at the LHC. Underlying event measurements associated with a high-$p_{T}$ jet will contribute to our understanding of QCD processes at hard and soft scales at RHIC energies, as well as provide constraints to modeling of underlying event dynamics.

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Measurement of charged jet cross section in $pp$ collisions at ${\sqrt{s}=5.02}$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adhya, Souvik Priyam ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 100 (2019) 092004, 2019.
Inspire Record 1733689 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.91239

The cross section of jets reconstructed from charged particles is measured in the transverse momentum range of $5<p_\mathrm{T}<100\ \mathrm{GeV}/c$ in pp collisions at the center-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s} = 5.02\ \mathrm{TeV}$ with the ALICE detector. The jets are reconstructed using the anti-$k_\mathrm{T}$ algorithm with resolution parameters $R=0.2$, $0.3$, $0.4$, and $0.6$ in the pseudorapidity range $|\eta|< 0.9-R$. The charged jet cross sections are compared with the leading order (LO) and to next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative Quantum ChromoDynamics (pQCD) calculations. It was found that the NLO calculations agree better with the measurements. The cross section ratios for different resolution parameters were also measured. These ratios increase from low $p_\mathrm{T}$ to high $p_\mathrm{T}$ and saturate at high $p_\mathrm{T}$, indicating that jet collimation is larger at high $p_\mathrm{T}$ than at low $p_\mathrm{T}$. These results provide a precision test of pQCD predictions and serve as a baseline for the measurement in Pb$-$Pb collisions at the same energy to quantify the effects of the hot and dense medium created in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC.

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Charged jet cross sections and properties in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 91 (2015) 112012, 2015.
Inspire Record 1328629 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.68515

The differential charged jet cross sections, jet fragmentation distributions, and jet shapes are measured in minimum bias proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV using the ALICE detector at the LHC. Jets are reconstructed from charged particle momenta in the mid-rapidity region using the sequential recombination $k_{\rm T}$ and anti-$k_{\rm T}$ as well as the SISCone jet finding algorithms with several resolution parameters in the range $R=0.2$ to $0.6$. Differential jet production cross sections measured with the three jet finders are in agreement in the transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) interval $20<p_{\rm T}^{\rm jet,ch}<100$ GeV/$c$. They are also consistent with prior measurements carried out at the LHC by the ATLAS collaboration. The jet charged particle multiplicity rises monotonically with increasing jet $p_{\rm T}$, in qualitative agreement with prior observations at lower energies. The transverse profiles of leading jets are investigated using radial momentum density distributions as well as distributions of the average radius containing 80% ($\langle R_{\rm 80} \rangle$) of the reconstructed jet $p_{\rm T}$. The fragmentation of leading jets with $R=0.4$ using scaled $p_{\rm T}$ spectra of the jet constituents is studied. The measurements are compared to model calculations from event generators (PYTHIA, PHOJET, HERWIG). The measured radial density distributions and $\langle R_{\rm 80} \rangle$ distributions are well described by the PYTHIA model (tune Perugia-2011). The fragmentation distributions are better described by HERWIG.

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Charged jet cross section and fragmentation in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Torales - Acosta, Fernando ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 99 (2019) 012016, 2019.
Inspire Record 1693308 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.86229

We report the differential charged jet cross section and jet fragmentation distributions measured with the ALICE detector in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s}=$ 7 TeV. Jets with pseudo-rapidity $\left| \eta \right| < {\rm 0.5}$ are reconstructed from charged particles using the anti-$k_{\rm T}$ jet finding algorithm with a resolution parameter $R$ = 0.4. The jet cross section is measured in the transverse momentum interval 5 $\leq p_{\rm T}^{\rm ch \; jet} <$ 100 GeV/$c$. Jet fragmentation is studied measuring the scaled transverse momentum spectra of the charged constituents of jets in four intervals of jet transverse momentum between 5 GeV/$c$ and 30 GeV/$c$. The measurements are compared to calculations from the PYTHIA model as well as next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations with POWHEG + PYTHIA8. The charged jet cross section is described by POWHEG for the entire measured range of $p_{\rm T}^{\rm ch \; jet}$. For $p_{\rm T}^{\rm ch \; jet}$ $>$ 40 GeV/$c$, the PYTHIA calculations also agree with the measured charged jet cross section. PYTHIA6 simulations describe the fragmentation distributions to 15%. Larger discrepancies are observed for PYTHIA8.

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Underlying-event properties in pp and p$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, S. ; Adamová, D. ; Adler, A. ; et al.
JHEP 06 (2023) 023, 2023.
Inspire Record 2071174 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133032

We report about the properties of the underlying event measured with ALICE at the LHC in pp and p$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV. The event activity, quantified by charged-particle number and summed-$p_{\rm T}$ densities, is measured as a function of the leading-particle transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}^{\rm trig}$). These quantities are studied in three azimuthal-angle regions relative to the leading particle in the event: toward, away, and transverse. Results are presented for three different $p_{\rm T}$ thresholds (0.15, 0.5, and 1 GeV/$c$) at mid-pseudorapidity ($|\eta|<0.8$). The event activity in the transverse region, which is the most sensitive to the underlying event, exhibits similar behaviour in both pp and p$-$Pb collisions, namely, a steep increase with $p_{\rm T}^{\rm trig}$ for low $p_{\rm T}^{\rm trig}$, followed by a saturation at $p_{\rm T}^{\rm trig} \approx 5$ GeV/$c$. The results from pp collisions are compared with existing measurements at other centre-of-mass energies. The quantities in the toward and away regions are also analyzed after the subtraction of the contribution measured in the transverse region. The remaining jet-like particle densities are consistent in pp and p$-$Pb collisions for $p_{\rm T}^{\rm trig}>10$ GeV/$c$, whereas for lower $p_{\rm T}^{\rm trig}$ values the event activity is slightly higher in p$-$Pb than in pp collisions. The measurements are compared with predictions from the PYTHIA 8 and EPOS LHC Monte Carlo event generators.

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Centrality dependence of charged jet production in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
CERN-EP-2016-052, 2016.
Inspire Record 1427026 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72903

Measurements of charged jet production as a function of centrality are presented for p-Pb collisions recorded at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV with the ALICE detector. Centrality classes are determined via the energy deposit in neutron calorimeters at zero degree, close to the beam direction, to minimise dynamical biases of the selection. The corresponding number of participants or binary nucleon-nucleon collisions is determined based on the particle production in the Pb-going rapidity region. Jets have been reconstructed in the central rapidity region from charged particles with the anti-$k_{\rm T}$ algorithm for resolution parameters $R = 0.2$ and $R = 0.4$ in the transverse momentum range 20 to 120 GeV/$c$. The reconstructed jet momentum and yields have been corrected for detector effects and underlying-event background. In the five centrality bins considered, the charged jet production in p-Pb collisions is consistent with the production expected from binary scaling from pp collisions. The ratio of jet yields reconstructed with the two different resolution parameters is also independent of the centrality selection, demonstrating the absence of major modifications of the radial jet structure in the reported centrality classes.

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Measurement of the underlying event in jet events from 7 TeV proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abajyan, Tatevik ; Abbott, Brad ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 74 (2014) 2965, 2014.
Inspire Record 1298811 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.65229

Distributions sensitive to the underlying event in QCD jet events have been measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, based on 37/pb of proton-proton collision data collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. Charged-particle mean $p_T$ and densities of all-particle $E_T$ and charged-particle multiplicity and $p_T$ have been measured in regions azimuthally transverse to the hardest jet in each event. These are presented both as one-dimensional distributions and with their mean values as functions of the leading-jet transverse momentum from 20 GeV to 800 GeV. The correlation of charged-particle mean $p_T$ with charged-particle multiplicity is also studied, and the $E_T$ densities include the forward rapidity region; these features provide extra data constraints for Monte Carlo modelling of colour reconnection and beam-remnant effects respectively. For the first time, underlying event observables have been computed separately for inclusive jet and exclusive dijet event selections, allowing more detailed study of the interplay of multiple partonic scattering and QCD radiation contributions to the underlying event. Comparisons to the predictions of different Monte Carlo models show a need for further model tuning, but the standard approach is found to generally reproduce the features of the underlying event in both types of event selection.

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Study of Hadronic Event-Shape Variables in Multijet Final States in pp Collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
JHEP 10 (2014) 087, 2014.
Inspire Record 1305624 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66571

Event-shape variables, which are sensitive to perturbative and nonperturbative aspects of quantum chromodynamic (QCD) interactions, are studied in multijet events recorded in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV. Events are selected with at least one jet with transverse momentum pt > 110 GeV and pseudorapidity abs(eta) < 2.4, in a data sample corresponding to integrated luminosities of up to 5 inverse femtobarns. The distributions of five event-shape variables in various leading jet pt ranges are compared to predictions from different QCD Monte Carlo event generators.

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