Evidence for Collective Multiparticle Correlations in p-Pb Collisions

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 115 (2015) 012301, 2015.
Inspire Record 1345262 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.67530
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Centrality determination of Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with ALICE

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev. C88 (2013) 044909, 2013.
Inspire Record 1215085 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66916

This publication describes the methods used to measure the centrality of inelastic Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per colliding nucleon pair with ALICE. The centrality is a key parameter in the study of the properties of QCD matter at extreme temperature and energy density, because it is directly related to the initial overlap region of the colliding nuclei. Geometrical properties of the collision, such as the number of participating nucleons and the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, are deduced from a Glauber model with a sharp impact parameter selection and shown to be consistent with those extracted from the data. The centrality determination provides a tool to compare ALICE measurements with those of other experiments and with theoretical calculations.

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Multiparticle azimuthal correlations in p -Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev. C90 (2014) 054901, 2014.
Inspire Record 1300038 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.65710

<p>Measurements of multiparticle azimuthal correlations (cumulants) for charged particles in <inline-formula><mml:math><mml:mi>p</mml:mi></mml:math></inline-formula>-Pb at <inline-formula><mml:math><mml:mrow><mml:msqrt><mml:msub><mml:mi>s</mml:mi><mml:mi>NN</mml:mi></mml:msub></mml:msqrt><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mn>5.02</mml:mn></mml:mrow></mml:math></inline-formula> TeV and Pb-Pb at <inline-formula><mml:math><mml:mrow><mml:msqrt><mml:msub><mml:mi>s</mml:mi><mml:mi>NN</mml:mi></mml:msub></mml:msqrt><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mn>2.76</mml:mn></mml:mrow></mml:math></inline-formula> TeV collisions are presented. They help address the question of whether there is evidence for global, flowlike, azimuthal correlations in the <inline-formula><mml:math><mml:mi>p</mml:mi></mml:math></inline-formula>-Pb system. Comparisons are made to measurements from the larger Pb-Pb system, where such evidence is established. In particular, the second harmonic two-particle cumulants are found to decrease with multiplicity, characteristic of a dominance of few-particle correlations in <inline-formula><mml:math><mml:mi>p</mml:mi></mml:math></inline-formula>-Pb collisions. However, when a <inline-formula><mml:math><mml:mrow><mml:mo>|</mml:mo><mml:mi>Δ</mml:mi><mml:mi>η</mml:mi><mml:mo>|</mml:mo></mml:mrow></mml:math></inline-formula> gap is placed to suppress such correlations, the two-particle cumulants begin to rise at high multiplicity, indicating the presence of global azimuthal correlations. The Pb-Pb values are higher than the <inline-formula><mml:math><mml:mi>p</mml:mi></mml:math></inline-formula>-Pb values at similar multiplicities. In both systems, the second harmonic four-particle cumulants exhibit a transition from positive to negative values when the multiplicity increases. The negative values allow for a measurement of <inline-formula><mml:math><mml:mrow><mml:msub><mml:mi>v</mml:mi><mml:mn>2</mml:mn></mml:msub><mml:mrow><mml:mo>{</mml:mo><mml:mn>4</mml:mn><mml:mo>}</mml:mo></mml:mrow></mml:mrow></mml:math></inline-formula> to be made, which is found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions at similar multiplicities. The second harmonic six-particle cumulants are also found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions. In Pb-Pb collisions, we generally find <inline-formula><mml:math><mml:mrow><mml:msub><mml:mi>v</mml:mi><mml:mn>2</mml:mn></mml:msub><mml:mrow><mml:mo>{</mml:mo><mml:mn>4</mml:mn><mml:mo>}</mml:mo></mml:mrow><mml:mo>≃</mml:mo><mml:msub><mml:mi>v</mml:mi><mml:mn>2</mml:mn></mml:msub><mml:mrow><mml:mo>{</mml:mo><mml:mn>6</mml:mn><mml:mo>}</mml:mo></mml:mrow><mml:mo>≠</mml:mo><mml:mn>0</mml:mn></mml:mrow></mml:math></inline-formula> which is indicative of a Bessel-Gaussian function for the <inline-formula><mml:math><mml:msub><mml:mi>v</mml:mi><mml:mn>2</mml:mn></mml:msub></mml:math></inline-formula> distribution. For very high-multiplicity Pb-Pb collisions, we observe that the four- and six-particle cumulants become consistent with 0. Finally, third harmonic two-particle cumulants in <inline-formula><mml:math><mml:mi>p</mml:mi></mml:math></inline-formula>-Pb and Pb-Pb are measured. These are found to be similar for overlapping multiplicities, when a <inline-formula><mml:math><mml:mrow><mml:mo>|</mml:mo><mml:mi>Δ</mml:mi><mml:mi>η</mml:mi><mml:mo>|</mml:mo><mml:mo>&gt;</mml:mo><mml:mn>1.4</mml:mn></mml:mrow></mml:math></inline-formula> gap is placed.</p>

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Evidence for transverse momentum and pseudorapidity dependent event plane fluctuations in PbPb and pPb collisions

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Rev. C92 (2015) 034911, 2015.
Inspire Record 1347386 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.67151
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Version 2
Anisotropic flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 116 (2016) 132302, 2016.
Inspire Record 1419244 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72886

We report the first results of elliptic (v2), triangular (v3), and quadrangular (v4) flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of sNN=5.02  TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurements are performed in the central pseudorapidity region |η|<0.8 and for the transverse momentum range 0.2<pT<5  GeV/c. The anisotropic flow is measured using two-particle correlations with a pseudorapidity gap greater than one unit and with the multiparticle cumulant method. Compared to results from Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76  TeV, the anisotropic flow coefficients v2, v3, and v4 are found to increase by (3.0±0.6)%, (4.3±1.4)%, and (10.2±3.8)%, respectively, in the centrality range 0%–50%. This increase can be attributed mostly to an increase of the average transverse momentum between the two energies. The measurements are found to be compatible with hydrodynamic model calculations. This comparison provides a unique opportunity to test the validity of the hydrodynamic picture and the power to further discriminate between various possibilities for the temperature dependence of shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of the produced matter in heavy-ion collisions at the highest energies.

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Measurement of charged jet suppression in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, B. ; Adam, J. ; Adamova, D. ; et al.
JHEP 1403 (2014) 013, 2014.
Inspire Record 1263194 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.62723
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Net-Charge Fluctuations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s}_{NN} = 2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 110 (2013) 152301, 2013.
Inspire Record 1123802 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.60476
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Elliptic flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration
Phys.Rev.Lett. 105 (2010) 252302, 2010.
Inspire Record 877822 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.62277

We report the first measurement of charged particle elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region (|eta|<0.8) and transverse momentum range 0.2< p_t< 5.0 GeV/c. The elliptic flow signal v_2, measured using the 4-particle correlation method, averaged over transverse momentum and pseudorapidity is 0.087 +/- 0.002 (stat) +/- 0.004 (syst) in the 40-50% centrality class. The differential elliptic flow v_2(p_t) reaches a maximum of 0.2 near p_t = 3 GeV/c. Compared to RHIC Au-Au collisions at 200 GeV, the elliptic flow increases by about 30%. Some hydrodynamic model predictions which include viscous corrections are in agreement with the observed increase.

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Observation of correlated azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics in pp and pPb collisions at the LHC

The CMS collaboration Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
No Journal Information, 2017.
Inspire Record 1626103 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.79667

The azimuthal anisotropy Fourier coefficients ($v_n$) in 8.16 TeV pPb data are extracted via long-range two-particle correlations as a function of event multiplicity and compared to corresponding results in pp and PbPb collisions. Using a four-particle cumulant technique, $v_n$ correlations are measured for the first time in pp and pPb collisions. The $v_2$ and $v_4$ coefficients are found to be positively correlated in all collision systems. For high multiplicity pPb collisions an anticorrelation of $v_2$ and $v_3$ is observed, with a similar correlation strength as in PbPb data at the same multiplicity. The new correlation results strengthen the case for a common origin of the collectivity seen in pPb and PbPb collisions in the measured multiplicity range.

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Long-range two-particle correlations of strange hadrons with charged particles in pPb and PbPb collisions at LHC energies

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B742 (2015) 200-224, 2015.
Inspire Record 1315947 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66784

Measurements of two-particle angular correlations between an identified strange hadron (K0S or Lambda/anti-Lambda) and a charged particle, emitted in pPb collisions, are presented over a wide range in pseudorapidity and full azimuth. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 35 inverse nanobarns, were collected at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy (sqrt(s[NN])) of 5.02 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. The results are compared to semi-peripheral PbPb collision data at sqrt(s[NN]) = 2.76 TeV, covering similar charged-particle multiplicities in the events. The observed azimuthal correlations at large relative pseudorapidity are used to extract the second-order (v[2]) and third-order (v[3]) anisotropy harmonics of K0S and Lambda/anti-Lambda particles. These quantities are studied as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity in the event and the transverse momentum of the particles. For high-multiplicity pPb events, a clear particle species dependence of v[2] and v[3] is observed. For pt < 2 GeV, the v[2] and v[3] values of K0S particles are larger than those of Lambda/anti-Lambda particles at the same pt. This splitting effect between two particle species is found to be stronger in pPb than in PbPb collisions in the same multiplicity range. When divided by the number of constituent quarks and compared at the same transverse kinetic energy per quark, both v[2] and v[3] for K0S particles are observed to be consistent with those for Lambda/anti-Lambda particles at the 10% level in pPb collisions. This consistency extends over a wide range of particle transverse kinetic energy and event multiplicities.

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Event shape engineering for inclusive spectra and elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\rm{NN}}=2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev. C93 (2016) 034916, 2016.
Inspire Record 1384270 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72304

We report on results obtained with the event-shape engineering technique applied to Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV. By selecting events in the same centrality interval, but with very different average flow, different initial-state conditions can be studied. We find the effect of the event-shape selection on the elliptic flow coefficient v2 to be almost independent of transverse momentum pT, which is as expected if this effect is attributable to fluctuations in the initial geometry of the system. Charged-hadron, -pion, -kaon, and -proton transverse momentum distributions are found to be harder in events with higher-than-average elliptic flow, indicating an interplay between radial and elliptic flow.

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Correlated event-by-event fluctuations of flow harmonics in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}=2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
No Journal Information, 2016.
Inspire Record 1452590 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.74142

We report the measurements of correlations between event-by-event fluctuations of amplitudes of anisotropic flow harmonics in nucleus-nucleus collisions, obtained for the first time using a new analysis method based on multiparticle cumulants in mixed harmonics. This novel method is robust against systematic biases originating from non-flow effects and by construction any dependence on symmetry planes is eliminated. We demonstrate that correlations of flow harmonics exhibit a better sensitivity to medium properties than the individual flow harmonics. The new measurements are performed in Pb-Pb collisions at the centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}=2.76$ TeV by the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The centrality dependence of correlation between event-by-event fluctuations of the elliptic, $v_2$, and quadrangular, $v_4$, flow harmonics, as well as of anti-correlation between $v_2$ and triangular, $v_3$, flow harmonics are presented. The results cover two different regimes of the initial state configurations: geometry-dominated (in mid-central collisions) and fluctuation-dominated (in the most central collisions). Comparisons are made to predictions from MC-Glauber, viscous hydrodynamics, AMPT and HIJING models. Together with the existing measurements of individual flow harmonics the presented results provide further constraints on initial conditions and the transport properties of the system produced in heavy-ion collisions.

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Particle-yield modification in jet-like azimuthal di-hadron correlations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Aamodt, K. ; Abelev, B. ; Abrahantes Quintana, A. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 108 (2012) 092301, 2012.
Inspire Record 930312 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.58113

The yield of charged particles associated with high-pT trigger particles (8 < pT < 15 GeV/c) is measured with the ALICE detector in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 2.76 TeV relative to proton-proton collisions at the same energy. The conditional per-trigger yields are extracted from the narrow jet-like correlation peaks in azimuthal di-hadron correlations. In the 5% most central collisions, we observe that the yield of associated charged particles with transverse momenta pT > 3 GeV/c on the away-side drops to about 60% of that observed in pp collisions, while on the near-side a moderate enhancement of 20-30% is found.

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Measurement of Event Background Fluctuations for Charged Particle Jet Reconstruction in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
JHEP 1203 (2012) 053, 2012.
Inspire Record 1084331 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.58285
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Measurement of the elliptic anisotropy of charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s}_{NN}$=2.76 TeV

The CMS collaboration Chatrchyan, Serguei ; Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; et al.
Phys.Rev. C87 (2013) 014902, 2013.
Inspire Record 1107659 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.58994
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Higher harmonic anisotropic flow measurements of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Aamodt, K. ; Abelev, B. ; Abrahantes Quintana, A. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 107 (2011) 032301, 2011.
Inspire Record 900651 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.62026

We report on the first measurement of the triangular v3, quadrangular v4, and pentagonal v5 charged particle flow in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV measured with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We show that the triangular flow can be described in terms of the initial spatial anisotropy and its fluctuations, which provides strong constraints on its origin. In the most central events, where the elliptic flow v2 and v3 have similar magnitude, a double peaked structure in the two-particle azimuthal correlations is observed, which is often interpreted as a Mach cone response to fast partons. We show that this structure can be naturally explained from the measured anisotropic flow Fourier coefficients.

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Suppression of Charged Particle Production at Large Transverse Momentum in Central Pb-Pb Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Aamodt, K. ; Abrahantes Quintana, A. ; Adamova, D. ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B696 (2011) 30-39, 2011.
Inspire Record 879583 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.63859
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Measurement of event-plane correlations in $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Brad ; Abdallah, Jalal ; et al.
Phys.Rev. C90 (2014) 024905, 2014.
Inspire Record 1283339 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66137

A measurement of event-plane correlations involving two or three event planes of different order is presented as a function of centrality for 7 ub-1 Pb+Pb collision data at sqrt(s_NN)=2.76 TeV, recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Fourteen correlators are measured using a standard event-plane method and a scalar-product method, and the latter method is found to give a systematically larger correlation signal. Several different trends in the centrality dependence of these correlators are observed. These trends are not reproduced by predictions based on the Glauber model, which includes only the correlations from the collision geometry in the initial state. Calculations that include the final-state collective dynamics are able to describe qualitatively, and in some cases also quantitatively, the centrality dependence of the measured correlators. These observations suggest that both the fluctuations in the initial geometry and non-linear mixing between different harmonics in the final state are important for creating these correlations in momentum space.

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Multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B727 (2013) 371-380, 2013.
Inspire Record 1241423 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.61692
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Pseudorapidity dependence of the anisotropic flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B762 (2016) 376-388, 2016.
Inspire Record 1456145 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73940

We present measurements of the elliptic ($\mathrm{v}_2$), triangular ($\mathrm{v}_3$) and quadrangular ($\mathrm{v}_4$) anisotropic azimuthal flow over a wide range of pseudorapidities ($-3.5< \eta < 5$). The measurements are performed with Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\text{NN}}} = 2.76$ TeV using the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The flow harmonics are obtained using two- and four-particle correlations from nine different centrality intervals covering central to peripheral collisions. We find that the shape of $\mathrm{v}_n(\eta)$ is largely independent of centrality for the flow harmonics $n=2-4$, however the higher harmonics fall off more steeply with increasing $|\eta|$. We assess the validity of extended longitudinal scaling of $\mathrm{v}_2$ by comparing to lower energy measurements, and find that the higher harmonic flow coefficients are proportional to the charged particle densities at larger pseudorapidities. Finally, we compare our measurements to both hydrodynamical and transport models, and find they both have challenges when it comes to describing our data.

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Jet-like correlations with neutral pion triggers in pp and central Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Lett. B763 (2016) 238-250, 2016.
Inspire Record 1483164 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.75246
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Measurement of transverse energy at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev. C94 (2016) 034903, 2016.
Inspire Record 1427723 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73993
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Version 2
Systematic studies of correlations between different order flow harmonics in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
No Journal Information, 2017.
Inspire Record 1621591 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.78924

The correlations between event-by-event fluctuations of anisotropic flow harmonic amplitudes have been measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The results are reported in terms of multiparticle correlation observables dubbed Symmetric Cumulants. These observables are robust against biases originating from nonflow effects. The centrality dependence of correlations between the higher order harmonics (the quadrangular $v_4$ and pentagonal $v_5$ flow) and the lower order harmonics (the elliptic $v_2$ and triangular $v_3$ flow) is presented. The transverse momentum dependence of correlations between $v_3$ and $v_2$ and between $v_4$ and $v_2$ is also reported. The results are compared to calculations from viscous hydrodynamics and A Multi-Phase Transport ({AMPT}) model calculations. The comparisons to viscous hydrodynamic models demonstrate that the different order harmonic correlations respond differently to the initial conditions and the temperature dependence of the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density ($\eta/s$). A small average value of $\eta/s$ is favored independent of the specific choice of initial conditions in the models. The calculations with the AMPT initial conditions yield results closest to the measurements. Correlations between the magnitudes of $v_2$, $v_3$ and $v_4$ show moderate $p_{\rm T}$ dependence in mid-central collisions. Together with existing measurements of individual flow harmonics, the presented results provide further constraints on the initial conditions and the transport properties of the system produced in heavy-ion collisions.

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Version 2
Charged-particle nuclear modification factors in PbPb and pPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}= $ 5.02 TeV

The CMS collaboration Khachatryan, Vardan ; Sirunyan, Albert M ; Tumasyan, Armen ; et al.
JHEP, 2016.
Inspire Record 1496050 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77101

The spectra of charged particles produced within the pseudorapidity window $| \eta | < $ 1 at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}= $ 5.02 TeV are measured using 404 $ \mu $b$^{-1}$ of PbPb and 27.4 pb$^{-1}$ of pp data collected by the CMS detector at the LHC in 2015. The spectra are presented over the transverse momentum ranges spanning 0.5 $ < p_{\mathrm{T}} < $ 400 GeV in pp and 0.7 $ < p_{\mathrm{T}} < $ 400 GeV in PbPb collisions. The corresponding nuclear modification factor, ${R_\mathrm{AA}} $, is measured in bins of collision centrality. The ${R_\mathrm{AA}} $ in the 5% most central collisions shows a maximal suppression by a factor of 7-8 in the $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ region of 6-9 GeV. This dip is followed by an increase, which continues up to the highest $ p_{\mathrm{T}}$ measured, and approaches unity in the vicinity of $p_{\mathrm{T}}= $ 200 GeV. The ${R_\mathrm{AA}} $ is compared to theoretical predictions and earlier experimental results at lower collision energies. The newly measured pp spectrum is combined with the pPb spectrum previously published by the CMS Collaboration to construct the pPb nuclear modification factor, ${R_{\mathrm{ p }\mathrm{A}}} $, up to 120 GeV. For $ p_{\mathrm{T}} > $ 20 GeV, ${R_{\mathrm{ p }\mathrm{A}}} $ exhibits weak momentum dependence and shows a moderate enhancement above unity.

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Directed Flow of Charged Particles at Midrapidity Relative to the Spectator Plane in Pb-Pb Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 111 (2013) 232302, 2013.
Inspire Record 1238980 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.61769
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