Beam energy dependent two-pion interferometry and the freeze-out eccentricity of pions in heavy ion collisions at STAR

The STAR collaboration
Phys.Rev.C 92 (2015) 014904, 2015.

Abstract (data abstract)
We present results of analyses of two-pion interferometry in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{sNN}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV measured in the STAR detector as part of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan program. The extracted correlation lengths (HBT radii) are studied as a function of beam energy, azimuthal angle relative to the reaction plane, centrality, and transverse mass ($m_T$) of the particles. The azimuthal analysis allows extraction of the eccentricity of the entire fireball at kinetic freeze-out. The energy dependence of this observable is expected to be sensitive to changes in the equation of state. A new global fit method is studied as an alternate method to directly measure the parameters in the azimuthal analysis. The eccentricity shows a monotonic decrease with beam energy that is qualitatively consistent with the trend from all model predictions and quantitatively consistent with a hadronic transport model.

  • Figure 3

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    Angular oscillations of the HBT radii relative to the event plane from 20-30% central, 19.6 GeV Au+Au collisions for 0.15...

  • Figure 4.1

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    Angular oscillations of the HBT radii relative to the event plane from 20-30% central, 19.6 GeV Au+Au collisions for 0.15...

  • Figure 4.2

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    Angular oscillations of the HBT radii relative to the event plane from 20-30% central, 19.6 GeV Au+Au collisions for 0.15...

  • Figure 5

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    Sample fit projections onto the $q_{out}$, $q_{side}$, and $q_{long}$ axes respectively for four angular bins relative to the reaction. These...

  • Figure 6

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    Energy dependence of the HBT parameters for central Au+Au, Pb+Pb, and Pb+Au collisions at mid-rapidity and $\langle k_T \rangle \approx...

  • Figure 7

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    The $\langle m_T \rangle$ dependence of $R_{out}$, $R_{side}$ and $R_{long}$ for all energies at 0-5% centrality. Errors are statistical only....

  • Figure 8

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    The $\langle m_T \rangle$ dependence of $R_{out}$, $R_{side}$ and $R_{long}$ for each energy and multiple centralities. Errors are statistical only.

  • Figure 9.1

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    The dependence of the HBT radii on multiplicity,$\langle dN_{ch}/d\eta \rangle^{1/3}$, for $k_T\approx 0.22$ GeV/c and$k_T\approx 0.39$ GeV/c. Results are for...

  • Figure 9.2

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    The dependence of the HBT radii on multiplicity,$\langle dN_{ch}/d\eta \rangle^{1/3}$, for $k_T\approx 0.22$ GeV/c and$k_T\approx 0.39$ GeV/c. Results are for...

  • Figure 9.3

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    The dependence of the HBT radii on multiplicity,$\langle dN_{ch}/d\eta \rangle^{1/3}$, for $k_T\approx 0.22$ GeV/c and$k_T\approx 0.39$ GeV/c. Results are for...

  • Figure 9.4

    10.17182/hepdata.96391.v1/t11

    The dependence of the HBT radii on multiplicity,$\langle dN_{ch}/d\eta \rangle^{1/3}$, for $k_T\approx 0.22$ GeV/c and$k_T\approx 0.39$ GeV/c. Results are for...

  • Figure 9.5

    10.17182/hepdata.96391.v1/t12

    The dependence of the HBT radii on multiplicity,$\langle dN_{ch}/d\eta \rangle^{1/3}$, for $k_T\approx 0.22$ GeV/c and$k_T\approx 0.39$ GeV/c. Results are for...

  • Figure 9.6

    10.17182/hepdata.96391.v1/t13

    The dependence of the HBT radii on multiplicity,$\langle dN_{ch}/d\eta \rangle^{1/3}$, for $k_T\approx 0.22$ GeV/c and$k_T\approx 0.39$ GeV/c. Results are for...

  • Figure 9.7

    10.17182/hepdata.96391.v1/t14

    The dependence of the HBT radii on multiplicity,$\langle dN_{ch}/d\eta \rangle^{1/3}$, for $k_T\approx 0.22$ GeV/c and$k_T\approx 0.39$ GeV/c. Results are for...

  • Figure 9.8

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    The dependence of the HBT radii on multiplicity,$\langle dN_{ch}/d\eta \rangle^{1/3}$, for $k_T\approx 0.22$ GeV/c and$k_T\approx 0.39$ GeV/c. Results are for...

  • Figure 10

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    The beam energy dependence of the volume of the regions of homogeneity at kinetic freeze-out in central Au+Au, Pb+Pb and...

  • Figure 11

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    The lifetime, $\tau$, of the system as a function of beam energy for central Au+Au collisions assuming a temperature of...

  • Figure 12.1

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 12.2

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 13

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at backward(−1<y<−0.5), forward(0.5<y<1)and mid(−0.5<y< 0.5) rapidity,...

  • Figure 14.1

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 14.2

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 15

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at backward(−1<y<−0.5), forward(0.5<y<1) and mid(−0.5<y< 0.5)...

  • Figure 16.1

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 16.2

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 17

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at backward(−1<y<−0.5), forward(0.5<y<1) and mid(−0.5<y< 0.5)...

  • Figure 18.1

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 18.2

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 19

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at backward(−1<y<−0.5), forward(0.5<y<1) and mid(−0.5<y< 0.5)...

  • Figure 20.1

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 20.2

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 21

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at backward(−1<y<−0.5), forward(0.5<y<1) and mid(−0.5<y< 0.5)...

  • Figure 22.1

    10.17182/hepdata.96391.v1/t33

    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 22.2

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 23

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at backward(−1<y<−0.5), forward(0.5<y<1) and mid(−0.5<y< 0.5)...

  • Figure 24.1

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 24.2

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at mid-rapidity (−0.5 < y <...

  • Figure 25

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    Centrality dependence of the Fourier coefficients that describe azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii, at backward(−1<y<−0.5), forward(0.5<y<1) and mid(−0.5<y< 0.5)...

  • Figure 26

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    Beam energy dependence of the $R_{ol,0}^2$ cross term for forward and backward rapidity with ⟨$k_T$⟩ ≈ 0.31 GeV/c.

  • Figure 27

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    The eccentricity of the collisions at kinetic freez-out, εF , as a function of initial eccentricity relative to the participant...

  • Figure 28.1

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    The dependence of the kinetic freeze-out eccentricity of pions on collision energy in mid-central Au+Au collisions (E895, STAR) and Pb+Au...

  • Figure 28.2

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    The dependence of the kinetic freeze-out eccentricity of pions on collision energy in mid-central Au+Au collisions using UrQMD calculations, (2+1)D...

  • Figure 28.3

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    The dependence of the kinetic freeze-out eccentricity of pions on collision energy in mid-central Au+Au collisions using (2+1)D hydro EOS-Q,...

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