Investigation of the linear and mode-coupled flow harmonics in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt {S_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; Adams, J.R. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 809 (2020) 135728, 2020.
Inspire Record 1802752 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95353

Flow harmonics ($\textit{v}_{n}$) of the Fourier expansion for the azimuthal distributions of hadrons are commonly employed to quantify the azimuthal anisotropy of particle production relative to the collision symmetry planes. While lower order Fourier coefficients ($\textit{v}_{2}$ and $\textit{v}_{3}$) are more directly related to the corresponding eccentricities of the initial state, the higher-order flow harmonics ($\textit{v}_{n>3}$) can be induced by a mode-coupled response to the lower-order anisotropies, in addition to a linear response to the same-order anisotropies. These higher-order flow harmonics and their linear and mode-coupled contributions can be used to more precisely constrain the initial conditions and the transport properties of the medium in theoretical models. The multiparticle azimuthal cumulant method is used to measure the linear and mode-coupled contributions in the higher-order anisotropic flow, the mode-coupled response coefficients, and the correlations of the event plane angles for charged particles as functions of centrality and transverse momentum in Au+Au collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy \roots = 200 GeV. The results are compared to similar LHC measurements as well as to several viscous hydrodynamic calculations with varying initial conditions.

5 data tables

3-particle integrated correlators

The integrated $v_{4}$ and $v_{5}$

The integrated $\chi_{4,22}$, $\rho_{4,22}$, $\chi_{5,23}$ and $\rho_{5,23}$

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Measurement of inclusive charged-particle jet production in Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; Adams, J.R. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 054913, 2020.
Inspire Record 1798665 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95120

The STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider reports the first measurement of inclusive jet production in peripheral and central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$~=~200 GeV. Jets are reconstructed with the anti-k$_{T}$ algorithm using charged tracks with pseudo--rapidity $|\eta|<1.0$ and transverse momentum $0.2<p_{T}<30$ GeV/$c$, with jet resolution parameter $R$~=~0.2, 0.3, and 0.4. The large background yield uncorrelated with the jet signal is observed to be dominated by statistical phase space, consistent with a previous coincidence measurement. This background is suppressed by requiring a high transverse-momentum (high-$p_T$) leading hadron in accepted jet candidates. The bias imposed by this requirement is assessed, and the $p_T$-region in which the bias is small is identified. Inclusive charged-particle jet distributions are reported in peripheral and central Au+Au collisions for $5<p_{T,jet}^{ch}<25$ GeV/$c$ and $5<p_{T,jet}^{ch}<30$ GeV/$c$, respectively. The charged-particle jet inclusive yield is suppressed for central Au+Au collisions, compared to both the peripheral Au+Au yield from this measurement and to the $pp$ yield calculated using the PYTHIA event generator. The magnitude of the suppression is consistent with that of inclusive hadron production at high $p_T$, and that of semi-inclusive recoil jet yield when expressed in terms of energy loss due to medium-induced energy transport. Comparison of inclusive charged-particle jet yields for different values of $R$ exhibits no significant evidence for medium-induced broadening of the transverse jet profile for $R<0.4$ in central Au+Au collisions. The measured distributions are consistent with theoretical model calculations that incorporate jet quenching.

12 data tables

Corrected inclusive charged-particle jet distributions in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV for R=0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 in central (0-10%) Au+Au collisions for pTlead,min = 5 GeV/c. The first uncertainty is statistical (symmetric), followed by shape uncertainty (asymmetric) and correlated uncertainty (asymmetric).

Corrected inclusive charged-particle jet distributions in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV for R=0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 in peripheral (60-80%) Au+Au collisions for pTlead,min = 5 GeV/c. The first uncertainty is statistical (symmetric), followed by shape uncertainty (asymmetric) and correlated uncertainty (asymmetric).

Corrected inclusive charged-particle jet distributions in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV for R=0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 in central (0-10%) Au+Au collisions for pTlead,min = 7 GeV/c. The first uncertainty is statistical (symmetric), followed by shape uncertainty (asymmetric) and correlated uncertainty (asymmetric).

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Measurement of jet-medium interactions via direct photon-hadron correlations in Au$+$Au and $d$ $+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U. ; Adare, A. ; Afanasiev, S. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 054910, 2020.
Inspire Record 1798493 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101752

We present direct photon-hadron correlations in 200 GeV/A Au+Au, d+Au, and p+p collisions, for direct photon pT from 5–12 GeV/c, collected by the PHENIX Collaboration in the years from 2006 to 2011. We observe no significant modification of jet fragmentation in d+Au collisions, indicating that cold nuclear matter effects are small or absent. Hadrons carrying a large fraction of the quark's momentum are suppressed in Au+Au compared to p+p and d+Au. As the momentum fraction decreases, the yield of hadrons in Au+Au increases to an excess over the yield in p+p collisions. The excess is at large angles and at low hadron pT and is most pronounced for hadrons associated with lower momentum direct photons. Comparison to theoretical calculations suggests that the hadron excess arises from medium response to energy deposited by jets.

14 data tables

Per-trigger yield of hadrons associated to direct photons in Au+Au collisions for direct photon $p_T$ 5-9 GeV/$c$, compared with p+p baseline, in various $\xi$ bins.

Per-trigger yield of hadrons associated to direct photons in d+Au collisions for direct photon $p_T$ 7-9 GeV/$c$, compared with p+p baseline, in various $\xi$ bins.

Integrated away-side $\gamma_{dir}$-h per-trigger yields of Au+Au, d+Au, and p+p, as a function of $\xi$.

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Directed, Elliptic, and Higher Order Flow Harmonics of Protons, Deuterons, and Tritons in $\mathrm{Au}+\mathrm{Au}$ Collisions at $\sqrt{{s}_{NN}}=2.4\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{GeV}$

The HADES collaboration Adamczewski-Musch, J. ; Arnold, O. ; Behnke, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 125 (2020) 262301, 2020.
Inspire Record 1797626 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.102468

Flow coefficients $v_{n}$ of the orders $n = 1 - 6$ are measured with the High-Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer (HADES) at GSI for protons, deuterons and tritons as a function of centrality, transverse momentum and rapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.4$ GeV. Combining the information from the flow coefficients of all orders allows to construct for the first time, at collision energies of a few GeV, a multi-differential picture of the angular emission pattern of these particles. It reflects the complicated interplay between the effect of the central fireball pressure on the emission of particles and their subsequent interaction with spectator matter. The high precision information on higher order flow coefficients is a major step forward in constraining the equation-of-state of dense baryonic matter.

18 data tables

The $p_{t}$ dependence of $v_{1}$ for protons, deuterons and tritons in the rapidity interval $-0.25 < y_{cm} < -0.15$ in semi-central ($20 - 30$ %) $\mathrm{Au}+\mathrm{Au}$ collisions at $\sqrt{{s}_{NN}}=2.4$ GeV.

The $p_{t}$ dependence of $v_{3}$ for protons, deuterons and tritons in the rapidity interval $-0.25 < y_{cm} < -0.15$ in semi-central ($20 - 30$ %) $\mathrm{Au}+\mathrm{Au}$ collisions at $\sqrt{{s}_{NN}}=2.4$ GeV.

The $p_{t}$ dependence of $v_{5}$ for protons, deuterons and tritons in the rapidity interval $-0.25 < y_{cm} < -0.15$ in semi-central ($20 - 30$ %) $\mathrm{Au}+\mathrm{Au}$ collisions at $\sqrt{{s}_{NN}}=2.4$ GeV.

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Charged-pion production in $\mathbf {Au+Au}$ collisions at $\sqrt{\mathbf {s}_{\mathbf {NN}}} = 2.4~{\mathbf {GeV}}$: HADES Collaboration

The HADES collaboration Adamczewski-Musch, J. ; Arnold, O. ; Behnke, C. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.A 56 (2020) 259, 2020.
Inspire Record 1796710 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.97368

We present high-statistic data on charged pion emission from Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 2.4 GeV (corresponding to $E_{beam}$ = 1.23 A GeV) in four centrality classes in the range 0 - 40$\%$ of the most central collisions. The data are analyzed as a function of transverse momentum, transverse mass, rapidity, and polar angle. Pion multiplicity per participating nucleon decreases moderately with increasing centrality. The polar angular distributions are found to be non-isotropic even for the most central event class. Our results on pion multiplicity fit well into the general trend of the world data, but undershoot by $2.5 \sigma$ data from the FOPI experiment measured at slightly lower beam energy. We compare our data to state-of-the-art transport model calculations (PHSD, IQMD, PHQMD, GiBUU and SMASH) and find substantial differences between the measurement and the results of these calculations.

11 data tables

Mid-rapidity and forward rapidity transverse momentum distributions ($p_{t}$) for charged pion for the 10$\%$most central events.

Reduced transverse mass distribution for negatively charged pions in rapidity bins of $\Delta y_{cm}$ = 0.1width between -0.65 and 0.75 for 0-10$\%$ most central events. The most backward rapidity is shown unscaledwhile for following rapidity slices are scaled up by succesive factors of 10.

Reduced transverse mass distribution for positively charged pions in rapidity bins of $\Delta y_{cm}$ = 0.1width between -0.65 and 0.75 for 0-10$\%$ most central events. The most backward rapidity is shown unscaledwhile for following rapidity slices are scaled up by succesive factors of 10.

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Measurement of charged pion double spin asymmetries at midrapidity in longitudinally polarized $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt {s}$ = 510 GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 102 (2020) 032001, 2020.
Inspire Record 1789851 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95883

The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured the longitudinal double spin asymmetries, $A_{LL}$, for charged pions at midrapidity ($|\eta|<0.35$) in longitudinally polarized $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV. These measurements are sensitive to the gluon spin contribution to the total spin of the proton in the parton momentum fraction $x$ range between 0.04 and 0.09. One can infer the sign of the gluon polarization from the ordering of pion asymmetries with charge alone. The asymmetries are found to be consistent with global quantum-chromodynamics fits of deep-inelastic scattering and data at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV, which show a nonzero positive contribution of gluon spin to the proton spin.

1 data table

Double-spin asymmetries $A_{LL}$ as a function of transverse momentum for positive and negative pions.


Proton-number fluctuations in $\sqrt {s_{NN}}$ =2.4 GeV Au + Au collisions studied with the High-Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer (HADES)

The HADES collaboration Adamczewski-Musch, J. ; Arnold, O. ; Behnke, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 024914, 2020.
Inspire Record 1781493 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.96305

We present an analysis of proton number fluctuations in $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.4 GeV Au+Au collisions measured with the High-Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer (HADES) at GSI. With the help of extensive detector simulations done with IQMD transport model events including nuclear clusters, various nuisance effects influencing the observed proton cumulants have been investigated. Acceptance and efficiency corrections have been applied as a function of fine grained rapidity and transverse momentum bins, as well as considering local track density dependencies. Next, the effects of volume changes within particular centrality selections have been considered and beyond-leading-order corrections have been applied to the data. The efficiency and volume corrected proton number moments and cumulants Kn of orders n = 1, . . . , 4 have been obtained as a function of centrality and phase-space bin, as well as the corresponding correlators C_n . We find that the observed correlators show a power-law scaling with the mean number of protons, i.e. $C_n \propto <N>^n$, indicative of mostly long-range multi-particle correlations in momentum space. We also present a comparison of our results with Au+Au collision data obtained at RHIC at similar centralities, but higher $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$.

20 data tables

$N_{part}$ distributions in Au+Au collisions for 8 centrality bins obtained from rescaled and modified $N_{hit}$ distributions (solid lines in Fig. 21b)

Efficiency and N2LO volume-corrected proton cumulant ratio $K_2/K_1$ plotted as a function of the rapidity acceptance

Efficiency and N2LO volume-corrected proton cumulant ratio $K_3/K_2$ plotted as a function of the rapidity acceptance

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Measurement of $J/\psi$ at forward and backward rapidity in $p+p$, $p+A$l, $p+A$u, and $^3$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200~{\rm GeV}$

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 014902, 2020.
Inspire Record 1762446 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.98626

Charmonium is a valuable probe in heavy-ion collisions to study the properties of the quark gluon plasma, and is also an interesting probe in small collision systems to study cold nuclear matter effects, which are also present in large collision systems. With the recent observations of collective behavior of produced particles in small system collisions, measurements of the modification of charmonium in small systems have become increasingly relevant. We present the results of J/ψ measurements at forward and backward rapidity in various small collision systems, p+p, p+Al, p+Au and 3He+Au, at √sNN =200 GeV. The results are presented in the form of the observable RAB, the nuclear modification factor, a measure of the ratio of the J/ψ invariant yield compared to the scaled yield in p+p collisions. We examine the rapidity, transverse momentum, and collision centrality dependence of nuclear effects on J/ψ production with different projectile sizes p and 3He, and different target sizes Al and Au. The modification is found to be strongly dependent on the target size, but to be very similar for p+Au and 3He+Au. However, for 0%–20% central collisions at backward rapidity, the modification for 3He+Au is found to be smaller than that for p+Au, with a mean fit to the ratio of 0.89±0.03(stat)±0.08(syst), possibly indicating final state effects due to the larger projectile size.

36 data tables

J/psi invariant yields in p+p collisions as a function of pT at forward and backward rapidity. The statistical and systematic uncertainties vary point-to-point and are listed for each measured value. An additional global systematic uncertainty is provided in each column heading, which applies to all data points per column.

J/psi nuclear modification in p+Al, p+Au and 3He+Au collisions as a function of centrality and rapidity. The statistical and systematic uncertainties vary point-to-point and are listed for each measured value. An additional global systematic uncertainty is provided in each column heading, which applies to all data points per column.

J/psi nuclear modification in p+Al collisions as a function of centrality and rapidity. The statistical and systematic uncertainties vary point-to-point and are listed for each measured value. An additional global systematic uncertainty is provided in each column heading, which applies to all data points per column.

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Version 2
Probing dense baryon-rich matter with virtual photons

The HADES collaboration Adamczewski-Musch, J. ; Arnold, O. ; Behnke, C. ; et al.
Nature Phys. 15 (2019) 1040-1045, 2019.
Inspire Record 1758156 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.90846

About 10 μs after the Big Bang, the universe was filled—in addition to photons and leptons—with strong-interaction matter consisting of quarks and gluons, which transitioned to hadrons at temperatures close to kT = 150 MeV and densities several times higher than those found in nuclei. This quantum chromodynamics (QCD) matter can be created in the laboratory as a transient state by colliding heavy ions at relativistic energies. The different phases in which QCD matter may exist depend for example on temperature, pressure or baryochemical potential, and can be probed by studying the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Electron–positron pairs emerge from the decay of virtual photons, which immediately decouple from the strong interaction, and thus provide information about the properties of QCD matter at various stages. Here, we report the observation of virtual photon emission from baryon-rich QCD matter. The spectral distribution of the electron–positron pairs is nearly exponential, providing evidence for a source of temperature in excess of 70 MeV with constituents whose properties have been modified, thus reflecting peculiarities of strong-interaction QCD matter. Its bulk properties are similar to the dense matter formed in the final state of a neutron star merger, as apparent from recent multimessenger observation.

10 data tables

Reconstructed $e^{+} e^{-}$ mass distribution from Au+Au collisions.

Reconstructed $e^{+} e^{-}$ mass distribution from Au+Au collisions.

Reconstructed $e^{+} e^{-}$ mass distribution from Au+Au collisions.

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Charge-dependent pair correlations relative to a third particle in $p$ + Au and $d$+ Au collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Margetis, S. ; Markert, C. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 798 (2019) 134975, 2019.
Inspire Record 1738942 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.105911

Quark interactions with topological gluon configurations can induce chirality imbalance and local parity violation in quantum chromodynamics. This can lead to electric charge separation along the strong magnetic field in relativistic heavy-ion collisions -- the chiral magnetic effect (CME). We report measurements by the STAR collaboration of a CME-sensitive observable in $p$+Au and $d$+Au collisions at 200 GeV, where the CME is not expected, using charge-dependent pair correlations relative to a third particle. We observe strong charge-dependent correlations similar to those measured in heavy-ion collisions. This bears important implications for the interpretation of the heavy-ion data.

10 data tables

The $\gamma_{OS}$ correlators in p+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV at RHIC as a function of multiplicity.

The $\gamma_{SS}$ correlators in p+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV at RHIC as a function of multiplicity.

The $\gamma_{OS}$ correlators in d+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV at RHIC as a function of multiplicity.

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