Observation of four top quark production in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

The CMS collaboration Hayrapetyan, Aram ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
CMS-TOP-22-013, 2023.
Inspire Record 2661880 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.138420

The observation of the production of four top quarks in proton-proton collisions is reported, based on a data sample collected by the CMS experiment at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV in 2016-2018 at the CERN LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$. Events with two same-sign, three, or four charged leptons (electrons and muons) and additional jets are analyzed. Compared to previous results in these channels, updated identification techniques for charged leptons and jets originating from the hadronization of b quarks, as well as a revised multivariate analysis strategy to distinguish the signal process from the main backgrounds, lead to an improved expected signal significance of 4.9 standard deviations above the background-only hypothesis. Four top quark production is observed with a significance of 5.6 standard deviations, and its cross section is measured to be 17.7$^{+3.7}_{-3.5}$ (stat) $^{+2.3}_{-1.9}$ (syst) fb, in agreement with the available standard model predictions.

2 data tables

Comparison of fit results in the channels individually and in their combination. The left panel shows the values of the measured cross section relative to the SM prediction from Ref. [6]. The right panel shows the expected and observed significance, with the printed values rounded to the first decimal.

Number of predicted and observed events in the SR-2$\ell$ and SR-3$\ell$ $t\bar{t}t\bar{t}$ classes, both before the fit to the data ("prefit") and with their best fit normalizations ("postfit"). The uncertainties in the predicted number of events include both the statistical and systematic components. The uncertainties in the total number of predicted background and background plus signal events are also given.


Measurement of Spin-Density Matrix Elements in $\rho(770)$ Production with a Linearly Polarized Photon Beam at $E_\gamma = 8.2\,-\,8.8\,\text{GeV}$

The GlueX collaboration Adhikari, S. ; Afzal, F. ; Akondi, C.S. ; et al.
2023.
Inspire Record 2660186 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.140672

The GlueX experiment at Jefferson Lab studies photoproduction of mesons using linearly polarized $8.5\,\text{GeV}$ photons impinging on a hydrogen target which is contained within a detector with near-complete coverage for charged and neutral particles. We present measurements of spin-density matrix elements for the photoproduction of the vector meson $\rho$(770). The statistical precision achieved exceeds that of previous experiments for polarized photoproduction in this energy range by orders of magnitude. We confirm a high degree of $s$-channel helicity conservation at small squared four-momentum transfer $t$ and are able to extract the $t$-dependence of natural and unnatural-parity exchange contributions to the production process in detail. We confirm the dominance of natural-parity exchange over the full $t$ range. We also find that helicity amplitudes in which the helicity of the incident photon and the photoproduced $\rho(770)$ differ by two units are negligible for $-t<0.5\,\text{GeV}^{2}/c^{2}$.

1 data table

Spin-density matrix elements for the photoproduction of $\rho(770)$ in the helicity system. The first uncertainty is statistical, the second systematic. The systematic uncertainties for the polarized SDMEs $\rho^1_{ij}$ and $\rho^2_{ij}$ contain an overall relative normalization uncertainty of 2.1% which is fully correlated for all values of $-t$.


Search for resonances in events with photon and jet final states in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$= 13 TeV

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
CMS-EXO-20-012, 2023.
Inspire Record 2659689 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.139903

A search for resonances in events with the $\gamma$+jet final state has been performed using proton-proton collision data collected at $\sqrt{s}$= 13 TeV by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The total data analyzed correspond to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$. Models of excited quarks and quantum black holes are considered. The invariant mass spectrum of the $\gamma$+jet system is examined for the presence of resonances over the standard model continuum background. The data exhibit no statistically significant deviations from the expected standard model background. Exclusion limits at 95% confidence level on the resonance mass and other parameters are set. Excited light-flavor quarks (excited bottom quarks) are excluded up to a mass of 6.0 (3.8) TeV. Quantum black hole production is excluded for masses up to 7.5 (5.2) TeV in the Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali (Randall-Sundrum) model. These lower mass bounds are the most stringent to date among those obtained in the $\gamma$+jet final state.

30 data tables

The signal cross-sections values of the signals q* with coupling mupltiplier f =1.0 and f = 0.5, as a function of resonance mass

The signal cross-sections values of the signals b* with coupling mupltiplier f =1.0 and f = 0.5, as a function of resonance mass

The signal cross-sections values of the signal QBH ADD with n=6 extra dimensions, as a function of threshold mass

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Measurements of inclusive and differential cross sections for the Higgs boson production and decay to four-leptons in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

The CMS collaboration Hayrapetyan, Aram ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
CMS-HIG-21-009, 2023.
Inspire Record 2659285 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.140341

Measurements of the inclusive and differential fiducial cross sections for the Higgs boson production in the H $\to$ ZZ $\to$ 4$\ell$ ($\ell$ = e,$\mu$) decay channel are presented. The results are obtained from the analysis of proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$. The measured inclusive fiducial cross section is 2.73$\pm$0.26 fb, in agreement with the standard model expectation of 2.86$\pm$0.1 fb. Differential cross sections are measured as a function of several kinematic observables sensitive to the Higgs boson production and decay to four leptons. A set of double-differential measurements is also performed, yielding a comprehensive characterization of the four leptons final state. Constraints on the Higgs boson trilinear coupling and on the bottom and charm quark coupling modifiers are derived from its transverse momentum distribution. All results are consistent with theoretical predictions from the standard model.

113 data tables

Differential cross section measurements in bins of mass4l (v3)

Differential cross section measurements in bins of mass4l_zzfloating (v3)

Differential cross section measurements in bins of njets_pt30_eta4p7 (v3)

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Observation of the rare decay of the $\eta$ meson to four muons

The CMS collaboration Hayrapetyan, Aram ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
CMS-BPH-22-003, 2023.
Inspire Record 2657654 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.140340

A search for the rare $\eta$$\to$$\mu^+\mu^-\mu^+\mu^-$ double-Dalitz decay is performed using a sample of proton-proton collisions, collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC with high-rate muon triggers in 2017-2018 and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 101 fb$^{-1}$. A signal having a statistical significance well in excess of 5 standard deviations is observed. Using the \emm decay as normalization, the branching fraction $\mathcal{B}($η$ \to \mu^+\mu^-\mu^+\mu^-)$ = ( 5.0 $\pm$ 0.8 (stat) $\pm$ 0.7 (syst) $\pm$ 0.7 $\mathcal{B}_{2\mu}$ ) $\times$ 10$^{-9}$ is measured, where the last term is the uncertainty in the normalization channel branching fraction. This is the first measurement of this branching fraction and is found to be in agreement with theoretical predictions.

3 data tables

The total efficiencies for the four-muon ($A_{4\mu}^{i,j}$, red and blue points) and two-muon ($A_{2\mu}^{i,j}$, orange and green points) decay channels, as functions of the generated meson's $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ and $y$, evaluated through MC simulation.

Measured ratio of $\mathcal{B}_{4\mu}/\mathcal{B}_{2\mu}$

Measured branching fraction $\mathcal{B}_{4\mu}$


Search in diphoton and dielectron final states for displaced production of Higgs or $Z$ bosons with the ATLAS detector in $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV $pp$ collisions

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abbott, Dale ; et al.
CERN-EP-2023-044, 2023.
Inspire Record 2654099 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.135829

A search is presented for displaced production of Higgs bosons or $Z$ bosons, originating from the decay of a neutral long-lived particle (LLP) and reconstructed in the decay modes $H\rightarrow \gamma\gamma$ and $Z\rightarrow ee$. The analysis uses the full Run 2 data set of proton$-$proton collisions delivered by the LHC at an energy of $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV between 2015 and 2018 and recorded by the ATLAS detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb$^{-1}$. Exploiting the capabilities of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter to precisely measure the arrival times and trajectories of electromagnetic objects, the analysis searches for the signature of pairs of photons or electrons which arise from a common displaced vertex and which arrive after some delay at the calorimeter. The results are interpreted in a gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking model with pair-produced higgsinos that decay to LLPs, and each LLP subsequently decays into either a Higgs boson or a $Z$ boson. The final state includes at least two particles that escape direct detection, giving rise to missing transverse momentum. No significant excess is observed above the background expectation. The results are used to set upper limits on the cross section for higgsino pair production, up to a $\tilde\chi^0_1$ mass of 369 (704) GeV for decays with 100% branching ratio of $\tilde\chi^0_1$ to Higgs ($Z$) bosons for a $\tilde\chi^0_1$ lifetime of 2 ns. A model-independent limit is also set on the production of pairs of photons or electrons with a significant delay in arrival at the calorimeter.

45 data tables

Average timing distributions for SR data and the estimated background as determined by the background-only fit, in each of the five exclusive $\rho$ categories. For comparison, the expected timing shapes for a few different signal models are superimposed, with each model labeled by the values of the $\tilde\chi^0_1$ mass and lifetime, as well as decay mode. To provide some indication of the variations in signal yield and shape, three signal models are shown for each of the $\tilde\chi^0_1$ decay modes, namely $\tilde\chi^0_1$ $\rightarrow$ $H \tilde G$ and $\tilde\chi^0_1$ $\rightarrow$ $Z \tilde G$. The models shown include a rather low $\tilde\chi^0_1$ mass value of 135 GeV for lifetimes of either 2 ns or 10 ns, and a higher $\tilde\chi^0_1$ mass value which is near the 95% CL exclusion limit for each decay mode for a lifetime of 2 ns. Each signal model is shown with the signal normalization corresponding to a BR value of unity for the decay mode in question.

Average timing distributions for SR data and the estimated background as determined by the background-only fit, in each of the five exclusive $\rho$ categories. For comparison, the expected timing shapes for a few different signal models are superimposed, with each model labeled by the values of the $\tilde\chi^0_1$ mass and lifetime, as well as decay mode. To provide some indication of the variations in signal yield and shape, three signal models are shown for each of the $\tilde\chi^0_1$ decay modes, namely $\tilde\chi^0_1$ $\rightarrow$ $H \tilde G$ and $\tilde\chi^0_1$ $\rightarrow$ $Z \tilde G$. The models shown include a rather low $\tilde\chi^0_1$ mass value of 135 GeV for lifetimes of either 2 ns or 10 ns, and a higher $\tilde\chi^0_1$ mass value which is near the 95% CL exclusion limit for each decay mode for a lifetime of 2 ns. Each signal model is shown with the signal normalization corresponding to a BR value of unity for the decay mode in question.

Average timing distributions for SR data and the estimated background as determined by the background-only fit, in each of the five exclusive $\rho$ categories. For comparison, the expected timing shapes for a few different signal models are superimposed, with each model labeled by the values of the $\tilde\chi^0_1$ mass and lifetime, as well as decay mode. To provide some indication of the variations in signal yield and shape, three signal models are shown for each of the $\tilde\chi^0_1$ decay modes, namely $\tilde\chi^0_1$ $\rightarrow$ $H \tilde G$ and $\tilde\chi^0_1$ $\rightarrow$ $Z \tilde G$. The models shown include a rather low $\tilde\chi^0_1$ mass value of 135 GeV for lifetimes of either 2 ns or 10 ns, and a higher $\tilde\chi^0_1$ mass value which is near the 95% CL exclusion limit for each decay mode for a lifetime of 2 ns. Each signal model is shown with the signal normalization corresponding to a BR value of unity for the decay mode in question.

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Observation of the $\Upsilon$(3S) meson and suppression of $\Upsilon$ states in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
CMS-HIN-21-007, 2023.
Inspire Record 2648528 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130959

The production of $\Upsilon$(2S) and $\Upsilon$(3S) mesons in lead-lead (PbPb) and proton-proton (pp) collisions is studied in their dimuon decay channel using the CMS detector at the LHC. The $\Upsilon$(3S) meson is observed for the first time in PbPb collisions, with a significance above five standard deviations. The ratios of yields measured in PbPb and pp collisions are reported for both the $\Upsilon$(2S) and $\Upsilon$(3S) mesons, as functions of transverse momentum and PbPb collision centrality. These ratios, when appropriately scaled, are significantly less than unity, indicating a suppression of $\Upsilon$ yields in PbPb collisions. This suppression increases from peripheral to central PbPb collisions. Furthermore, the suppression is stronger for $\Upsilon$(3S) mesons compared to $\Upsilon$(2S) mesons, extending the pattern of sequential suppression of quarkonium states in nuclear collisions previously seen for the $\psi$/J, $\psi$(2S), $\Upsilon$(1S), and $\Upsilon$(2S) mesons.

9 data tables

Measured $R_\text{AA}$ for the $\Upsilon(2S)$ state as functions of PbPb collision centrality, integrated over the full kinematic range $p_\text{T}$ < 30 GeV/c and |y| < 2.4. The global uncertainty "PP MB" represents the pp luminosity and PbPb $N_\text{MB}$ combined uncertainties, whereas the global uncertainty "PP 2S" corresponds to the uncertainty on the $\Upsilon(2S)$ pp yields.

Measured $R_\text{AA}$ for the $\Upsilon(3S)$ state as functions of PbPb collision centrality, integrated over the full kinematic range $p_\text{T}$ < 30 GeV/c and |y| < 2.4. The global uncertainty "PP MB" represents the pp luminosity and PbPb $N_\text{MB}$ combined uncertainties, whereas the global uncertainty "PP 3S" corresponds to the uncertainty on the $\Upsilon(3S)$ pp yields.

Measured $R_\text{AA}$ for the$\Upsilon(2S)$ state in the 0–90% centrality interval, integrated over the full kinematic range $p_\text{T}$ < 30 GeV/c and |y| < 2.4. The global uncertainty "PP MB" represents the pp luminosity and PbPb $N_\text{MB}$ combined uncertainties, whereas the global uncertainty "PP 2S" corresponds to the uncertainty on the $\Upsilon(2S)$ pp yields.

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Probing small Bjorken-$x$ nuclear gluonic structure via coherent J/$\psi$ photoproduction in ultraperipheral PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
CMS-HIN-22-002, 2023.
Inspire Record 2648536 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.138867

Quasi-real photons exchanged in relativistic heavy ion interactions are powerful probes of the gluonic structure of nuclei. The first measurement of the coherent J/$\psi$ photoproduction cross section in ultraperipheral lead-lead collisions is presented over a wide range of photon-nucleus center-of-mass energies per nucleon (W$^\text{Pb}_{\gamma\text{N}}$). Results are obtained using data at the nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.52 nb$^{-1}$. The cross section is observed to rise rapidly at low W$^\text{Pb}_{\gamma\text{N}}$, and plateau above W$^\text{Pb}_{\gamma\text{N}}$$\approx$ 40 GeV, up to 400 GeV, a new regime of small Bjorken-$x$ ($\approx$ 6 $\times$ 10$^{-5}$) gluons being probed in a heavy nucleus. The observed energy dependence is not predicted by current quantum chromodynamic models.

6 data tables

The differential coherent $\mathrm{J}/\psi$ photoproduction cross section as a function of rapidity, in different neutron multiplicity classes: 0n0n, 0nXn, XnXn , and AnAn.

The total coherent $\mathrm{J}/\psi$ photoproduction cross section as a function of photon-nuclear center-of-mass energy per nucleon $W_{\gamma \mathrm{N}}^{\mathrm{Pb}}$, measured in PbPb ultra-peripheral collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV. The $W_{\gamma \mathrm{N}}^{\mathrm{Pb}}$ values used correspond to the center of each rapidity range. The theoretical uncertainties is due to the uncertainties in the photon flux.

The nuclear gluon suppression factor $R_{\mathrm{g}}^{\mathrm{Pb}}$ as a function of Bjorken $x$ extracted from the CMS measurement of the coherent $\mathrm{J}/\psi$ photoproduction in PbPb ultra-peripheral collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV. The $x$ values are evaluated at the centers of their corresponding rapidity ranges. The theoretical uncertainties are due to the uncertainties in the photon flux and the impulse approximation model.

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Search for heavy long-lived multi-charged particles in the full LHC Run 2 $pp$ collision data at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV using the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abbott, Dale ; et al.
CERN-EP-2023-017, 2023.
Inspire Record 2648109 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.135815

A search for heavy long-lived multi-charged particles is performed using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Data collected in 2015-2018 at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV from $pp$ collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb$^{-1}$ are examined. Particles producing anomalously high ionization, consistent with long-lived spin-1/2 massive particles with electric charges from $|q|=2e$ to $|q|=7e$ are searched for. No statistically significant evidence of such particles is observed, and 95% confidence level cross-section upper limits are calculated and interpreted as the lower mass limits for a Drell-Yan plus photon-fusion production mode. The least stringent limit, 1060 GeV, is obtained for $|q|=2e$ particles, and the most stringent one, 1600 GeV, is for $|q|=6e$ particles.

3 data tables

The signal efficiencies for spin-1/2 MCPs with different charges and masses for the DY+PF production mode versus their mass.

Observed 95% CL cross-section upper limits as a function of the muon-like spin-1/2 MCP's mass for the DY+PF production mode.

Cutflow (sum of weights of events satisfying cumulative selection requirements) for several signal benchmark points. Event counts are scaled by their respective cross-sections.


First measurement of the top quark pair production cross section in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13.6 TeV

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
CMS-TOP-22-012, 2023.
Inspire Record 2648595 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.135832

The first measurement of the top quark pair ($\mathrm{t\bar{t}}$) production cross section in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13.6 TeV is presented. Data recorded with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC in Summer 2022, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.21 fb$^{-1}$, are analyzed. Events are selected with one or two charged leptons (electrons or muons) and additional jets. A maximum likelihood fit is performed in event categories defined by the number and flavors of the leptons, the number of jets, and the number of jets identified as originating from b quarks. An inclusive $\mathrm{t\bar{t}}$ production cross section of 882 $\pm$ 23 (stat+syst) $\pm$ 20 (lumi) pb is measured, in agreement with the standard model prediction of 921$^{+29}_{-37}$ pb.

3 data tables

Comparison of the number of observed (points) and predicted (filled histograms) events in the final analysis binning. The predictions are shown before fitting the model to the data. The lower panel of the plot displays the ratio of the event yields in data to the sum of predicted signal and background yields. The vertical bars on the points represent the statistical uncertainties in the data, while the hatched bands represent systematic uncertainty in the predictions, excluding the integrated luminosity. No b jet efficiency scale factors are applied in the plot, and no systematic uncertainty entering into the hatched bands is intended to cover thesefactors, which are free parameters in the fit.

Comparison of the number of observed (points) and predicted (filled histograms) events in the final analysis binning. The predictions are shown after fitting the model to the data. The lower panel of each plot displays the ratio of the event yields in data to the sum of predicted signal and background yields. The vertical bars on the points represent the statistical uncertainties in the data, while the hatched bands represent systematic uncertainty in the predictions, excluding the integrated luminosity. The hatched bands are greatly reduced due to additional constraint of the nuisances parameters as well as correlations between them.

Result for the inclusive ttbar production cross section