Measurement of $\phi$-meson production in Cu$+$Au at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV and U$+$U at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=193$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Abdulameer, N.J. ; Acharya, U. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2121010 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132483

The PHENIX experiment reports systematic measurements at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider of $\phi$-meson production in asymmetric Cu$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=200 GeV and in U$+$U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=193 GeV. Measurements were performed via the $\phi\rightarrow K^{+}K^{-}$ decay channel at midrapidity $|\eta|<0.35$. Features of $\phi$-meson production measured in Cu$+$Cu, Cu$+$Au, Au$+$Au, and U$+$U collisions were found to not depend on the collision geometry, which was expected because the yields are averaged over the azimuthal angle and follow the expected scaling with nuclear-overlap size. The elliptic flow of the $\phi$ meson in Cu$+$Au, Au$+$Au, and U$+$U collisions scales with second order participant eccentricity and the length scale of the nuclear overlap region (estimated with the number of participating nucleons). At moderate $p_T$, $\phi$-meson production measured in Cu$+$Au and U$+$U collisions is consistent with coalescence-model predictions, whereas at high $p_T$ the production is in agreement with expectations for in-medium energy loss of parent partons prior to their fragmentation. The elliptic flow for $\phi$ mesons measured in Cu$+$Au and U$+$U collisions is well described by a (2+1)D viscous-hydrodynamic model with specific-shear viscosity $\eta/s=1/4\pi$.

14 data tables

Invariant transverse momentum spectra measured for $\phi$ mesons in (a) Cu+Au and (b) U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV at midrapidity

Invariant transverse momentum spectra measured for $\phi$ mesons in (c) Cu+Au and (d) U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV at midrapidity. Data-to- Levy fit ratios.

The $\phi$-meson nuclear modification factors $R_{AB}$ measured as a function of $p_T$ in different centrality intervals of (a) to (d) Cu+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV and (e) to (h) U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 193 GeV at midrapidity $|\eta|<0.35$. The normalization uncertainty from p+p of about $\sim9.7\%$ is not shown.

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Improving constraints on gluon spin-momentum correlations in transversely polarized protons via midrapidity open-heavy-flavor electrons in $p^{\uparrow}+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Aidala, C. ; Akiba, Y. ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2072832 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130883

Polarized proton-proton collisions provide leading-order access to gluons, presenting an opportunity to constrain gluon spin-momentum correlations within transversely polarized protons and enhance our understanding of the three-dimensional structure of the proton. Midrapidity open-heavy-flavor production at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV is dominated by gluon-gluon fusion, providing heightened sensitivity to gluon dynamics relative to other production channels. Transverse single-spin asymmetries of electrons and positrons from heavy-flavor hadron decays are measured at midrapidity using the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These charge-separated measurements are sensitive to gluon correlators that can in principle be related to gluon orbital angular momentum via model calculations. Explicit constraints on gluon correlators are extracted for two separate models, one of which had not been constrained previously.

1 data table

Data from Figure 1 of open heavy flavor $e^{\pm}$ transverse single-spin asymmetries in transversely polarized p+p collisions as a function of $p_{T}$.


Nonprompt direct-photon production in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
336 authors from 71 institutions, 26 pages, 30 figures, 4 tabels, 2014 data. Physical Review C. Plain text data tables for the points plotted in figures for this and previous PHENIX publications are (or will be) publicly available at http://www.phenix.bnl.gov/papers.html, 2022.
Inspire Record 2061074 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.129292

The measurement of the direct-photon spectrum from Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV is presented by the PHENIX collaboration using the external-photon-conversion technique for 0%--93% central collisions in a transverse-momentum ($p_T$) range of 0.8--10 GeV/$c$. An excess of direct photons, above prompt-photon production from hard-scattering processes, is observed for $p_T<6$ GeV/$c$. Nonprompt direct photons are measured by subtracting the prompt component, which is estimated as $N_{\rm coll}$-scaled direct photons from $p$ $+$ $p$ collisions at 200 GeV, from the direct-photon spectrum. Results are obtained for $0.8<p_T<6.0$ GeV/$c$ and suggest that the spectrum has an increasing inverse slope from ${\approx}0.2$ to 0.4 GeV/$c$ with increasing $p_T$, which indicates a possible sensitivity of the measurement to photons from earlier stages of the evolution of the collision. In addition, like the direct-photon production, the $p_T$-integrated nonprompt direct-photon yields also follow a power-law scaling behavior as a function of collision-system size. The exponent, $\alpha$, for the nonprompt component is found to be consistent with 1.1 with no apparent $p_T$ dependence.

9 data tables

Direct photon $R_{\gamma}$, every 20% centrality

Direct photon $R_{\gamma}$, every 10% centrality

Invariant yield of direct photons, every 10% centrality

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Low-$p_T$ direct-photon production in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=39$ and 62.4 GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2057344 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133218

The measurement of direct photons from Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=39$ and 62.4 GeV in the transverse-momentum range $0.4<p_T<3$ Gev/$c$ is presented by the PHENIX collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. A significant direct-photon yield is observed in both collision systems. A universal scaling is observed when the direct-photon $p_T$ spectra for different center-of-mass energies and for different centrality selections at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=62.4$ GeV is scaled with $(dN_{\rm ch}/d\eta)^{\alpha}$ for $\alpha=1.21{\pm}0.04$. This scaling also holds true for direct-photon spectra from Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV measured earlier by PHENIX, as well as the spectra from Pb$+$Pb at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=2760$ GeV published by ALICE. The scaling power $\alpha$ seems to be independent of $p_T$, center of mass energy, and collision centrality. The spectra from different collision energies have a similar shape up to $p_T$ of 2 GeV/$c$. The spectra have a local inverse slope $T_{\rm eff}$ increasing with $p_T$ of $0.174\pm0.018$ GeV/$c$ in the range $0.4<p_T<1.3$ GeV/$c$ and increasing to $0.289\pm0.024$ GeV/$c$ for $0.9<p_T<2.1$ GeV/$c$. The observed similarity of low-$p_T$ direct-photon production from $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}= 39$ to 2760 GeV suggests a common source of direct photons for the different collision energies and event centrality selections, and suggests a comparable space-time evolution of direct-photon emission.

12 data tables

$R_{\gamma}$ for minimum bias (0-86%) Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62.4$ GeV (a) and $39$ GeV (b). For $62.4$ GeV also centrality bins of 0-20% (c) and 20-40% (d) are shown. Data points are shown with statistical (bar) and systematic uncertainties (box)

$R_{\gamma}$ for minimum bias (0-86%) Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62.4$ GeV (a) and $39$ GeV (b). For $62.4$ GeV also centrality bins of 0-20% (c) and 20-40% (d) are shown. Data points are shown with statistical (bar) and systematic uncertainties (box)

Direct photon spectra for minimum bias (0-86%) Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62.4$ GeV (a) and $39$ GeV (b). For $62.4$ GeV also centrality bins of 0-20% (c) and 20-40% (d) are shown. Data points are shown with statistical and systematic uncertainties, unless the central value is negative (arrows) or is consistent with zero within the statistical uncertainties (arrows with data point). In these cases upper limit with CL = 95$%$ are given.

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Measurements of second-harmonic Fourier coefficients from azimuthal anisotropies in $p+p, p$+Au $d$+Au, and $^3$He + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2054927 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.136560

Recently, the PHENIX Collaboration has published second- and third-harmonic Fourier coefficients $v_2$ and $v_3$ for midrapidity ($|\eta|<0.35$) charged hadrons in 0%--5% central $p$$+$Au, $d$ $+$Au, and $^3$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV utilizing three sets of two-particle correlations for two detector combinations with different pseudorapidity acceptance [Phys. Rev. C {\bf 105}, 024901 (2022)]. This paper extends these measurements of $v_2$ to all centralities in $p$ $+$Au, $d$ $+$Au, and $^3$He$+$Au collisions, as well as $p$$+$$p$ collisions, as a function of transverse momentum ($p_T$) and event multiplicity. The kinematic dependence of $v_2$ is quantified as the ratio $R$ of $v_2$ between the two detector combinations as a function of event multiplicity for $0.5$ $<$ $p_T$ $<$ $1$ and $2$ $<$ $p_T$ $<$ $2.5$ GeV/$c$. A multiphase-transport (AMPT) model can reproduce the observed $v_2$ in most-central to midcentral $d$$+$Au and $^3$He$+$Au collisions. However, the AMPT model systematically overestimates the measurements in $p$ $+$ $p$, $p$ $+$Au, and peripheral $d$$+$Au and $^3$He$+$Au collisions, indicating a higher nonflow contribution in AMPT than in the experimental data. The AMPT model fails to describe the observed $R$ for $0.5$ $<$ $p_T$$<$ $1$ GeV/$c$, but there is qualitative agreement with the measurements for $2$ $<$ $p_T$ $<$ $2.5$ GeV/$c$.

18 data tables

Azimuthal anisotropy $v_2\{BB\}$ as a function of transverse momentum $p_T$ in $p$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 200 GeV.

Azimuthal anisotropy $v_2\{BF\}$ as a function of transverse momentum $p_T$ in $p$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 200 GeV.

Azimuthal anisotropy $v_2\{BB\}$ as a function of transverse momentum $p_T$ in $d$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 200 GeV.

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Study of $\phi$-meson production in $p+$Al, $p+$Au, $d+$Au, and $^3$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 106 (2022) 014908, 2022.
Inspire Record 2050486 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130267

Small nuclear collisions are mainly sensitive to cold-nuclear-matter effects; however, the collective behavior observed in these collisions shows a hint of hot-nuclear-matter effects. The identified-particle spectra, especially the $\phi$ mesons which contain strange and antistrange quarks and have a relatively small hadronic-interaction cross section, are a good tool to study these effects. The PHENIX experiment has measured $\phi$ mesons in a specific set of small collision systems $p$$+$Al, $p$$+$Au, and $^3$He$+$Au, as well as $d$$+$Au [Phys. Rev. C {\bf 83}, 024909 (2011)], at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV. The transverse-momentum spectra and nuclear-modification factors are presented and compared to theoretical-model predictions. The comparisons with different calculations suggest that quark-gluon plasma may be formed in these small collision systems at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV. However, the volume and the lifetime of the produced medium may be insufficient for observing strangeness-enhancement and jet-quenching effects. Comparison with calculations suggests that the main production mechanisms of $\phi$ mesons at midrapidity may be different in $p$$+$Al versus $p/d/$$^3$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV. While thermal quark recombination seems to dominate in $p/d/$$^3$He$+$Au collisions, fragmentation seems to be the main production mechanism in $p$$+$Al collisions.

2 data tables

Invariant transverse momentum spectra measured for $\phi$ mesons in (a) $p$+Al, (b) $p$+Au, and (c) $^{3}$He+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV at midrapidity.

Comparison of $\phi$-meson nuclear-modification factors in $p$+Al, $p$+Au, $d$+Au [2], and $^{3}$He+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV at midrapidity. The normalization uncertainty from $p$+$p$ of about $9.7 \%$ is not shown [28].


Measurement of Direct-Photon Cross Section and Double-Helicity Asymmetry at $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV in $\vec{p}+\vec{p}$ Collisions

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
347 authors from 70 institutions, 8 pages, 2 figures, 1 table, 2013 data. Physical Review Letters. Plain text data tables for the points plotted in figures for this and previous PHENIX publications are (or will be) publicly available at http://www.phenix.bnl.gov/papers.html, 2022.
Inspire Record 2033856 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.129088

We present the measurement of the cross section and double-helicity asymmetry $A_{LL}$ of direct-photon production in $\vec{p}+\vec{p}$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV. The measurement has been performed at midrapidity ($|\eta|<0.25$) with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Direct photons are dominantly produced by the quark-gluon scattering at relativistic energies. Direct photons are produced from the initial partonic hard scattering and do not interact via the strong force. Therefore, this measurement provides a clean and direct access to the gluons in the polarized proton in the gluon-momentum-fraction range $0.02<x<0.08$.

2 data tables

Cross sections for inclusive and isolated direct photons as a function of $p_T$. Not shown are 10% absolute luminosity uncertainties.

Double helicity asymmetry $A_{LL}$ $vs$ $p_{T}$ for isolated direct-photon production in polarized $\vec{p}+\vec{p}$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV at midrapidity. Not shown are $3.9 \times 10^{-4}$ shift uncertainty from relative luminosity and 6.6% scale uncertainty from polarization.


Measurement of $\psi(2S)$ nuclear modification at backward and forward rapidity in $p$ $+$ $p$, $p$ $+$ Al, and $p$ $+$ Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Aidala, C. ; Akiba, Y. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 105 (2022) 064912, 2022.
Inspire Record 2029951 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130200

Suppression of the $J/\psi$ nuclear-modification factor has been seen as a trademark signature of final-state effects in large collision systems for decades. In small systems, the nuclear modification was attributed to cold-nuclear-matter effects until the observation of strong differential suppression of the $\psi(2S)$ state in $p/d$ $+$ $A$ collisions suggested the presence of final-state effects. Results of $J/\psi$ and $\psi(2S)$ measurements in the dimuon decay channel are presented here for $p$ $+$ $p$, $p$ $+$Al, and $p$ $+$Au collision systems at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV. The results are predominantly shown in the form of the nuclear-modification factor, $R_{pA}$, the ratio of the $\psi(2S)$ invariant yield per nucleon-nucleon collision in collisions of proton on target nucleus to that in $p$ $+$ $p$ collisions. Measurements of the $J/\psi$ and $\psi(2S)$ nuclear-modification factor are compared with shadowing and transport-model predictions, as well as to complementary measurements at Large-Hadron-Collider energies.

12 data tables

PSI(2S)-->MU+MU- invariant yields in p+p, p+Al, and p+Au collisions as a function of rapidity. The statistical and systematic uncertainties vary point-to-point and are listed for each measured value. An additional global systematic uncertainty is provided in each column heading, which applies to all data points per column.

J/PSI(1S)-->MU+MU- invariant yields in p+p, p+Al, and p+Au collisions as a function of rapidity. The statistical and systematic uncertainties vary point-to-point and are listed for each measured value. An additional global systematic uncertainty is provided in each column heading, which applies to all data points per column.

PSI(2S)-->MU+MU- nuclear modification in p+Al collisions as a function of rapidity. The statistical and systematic uncertainties vary point-to-point and are listed for each measured value. An additional global systematic uncertainty is provided in each column heading, which applies to all data points per column.

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Multiplicity dependence of charged-particle jet production in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 82 (2022) 514, 2022.
Inspire Record 2026265 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130653

The multiplicity dependence of jet production in pp collisions at the centre-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s} = 13\ \mathrm{TeV}$ is studied for the first time. Jets are reconstructed from charged particles using the anti-$k_\mathrm{T}$ algorithm with resolution parameters $R$ varying from $0.2$ to $0.7$. The jets are measured in the pseudorapidity range $|\eta_{\rm jet}|< 0.9-R$ and in the transverse momentum range $5<p_\mathrm{T,jet}^{\rm ch}<140\ \mathrm{GeV}/c$. The multiplicity intervals are categorised by the ALICE forward detector V0. The $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ differential cross section of charged-particle jets are compared to leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) calculations. It is found that the data are better described by the NLO calculation, although the NLO prediction overestimates the jet cross section below $20\ \mathrm{GeV}/c$. The cross section ratios for different $R$ are also measured and compared to model calculations. These measurements provide insights into the angular dependence of jet fragmentation. The jet yield increases with increasing self-normalised charged-particle multiplicity. This increase shows only a weak dependence on jet transverse momentum and resolution parameter at the highest multiplicity. While such behaviour is qualitatively described by the present version of PYTHIA, quantitative description may require implementing new mechanisms for multi-particle production in hadronic collisions.

9 data tables

Inclusive charged-particle jet cross sections in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV using the anti-kT algorithm for different jet resolution parameters R from 0.2 to 0.7, with UE subtraction. Statistical uncertainties are displayed as vertical error bars. The total systematic uncertainties are shown as solid boxes around the data points.

Ratio of charged-particle jet cross section for resolution parameter R = 0.2 to other radii R = X, with X ranging from 0.3 to 0.7, after UE subtraction. Data are compared with LO (PYTHIA) and NLO (POWHEG+PYTHIA8) predictions as shown in the bottom panels. The systematic uncertainties of the cross section ratios from data are indicated by solid boxes around data points in the upper panel and shaded bands around unity in the mid and lower panels. No uncertainties are shown for theoretical predictions for better visibility.

Charged-particle jet yields in different V0M multiplicity percentile intervals for resolution parameters R varied from 0.2 to 0.7 in pp collisions at s = 13 TeV. Statistical and total systematic uncertainties are shown as vertical error bars and boxes around the data points, respectively.

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First measurement of the absorption of $^{3}\overline{\rm He}$ nuclei in matter and impact on their propagation in the galaxy

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Nature Phys. 19 (2023) 61-71, 2023.
Inspire Record 2026264 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133480

In our Galaxy, light antinuclei composed of antiprotons and antineutrons can be produced through high-energy cosmic-ray collisions with the interstellar medium or could also originate from the annihilation of dark-matter particles that have not yet been discovered. On Earth, the only way to produce and study antinuclei with high precision is to create them at high-energy particle accelerators. Although the properties of elementary antiparticles have been studied in detail, the knowledge of the interaction of light antinuclei with matter is limited. We determine the disappearance probability of $^{3}\overline{\rm He}$ when it encounters matter particles and annihilates or disintegrates within the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. We extract the inelastic interaction cross section, which is then used as input to calculations of the transparency of our Galaxy to the propagation of $^{3}\overline{\rm He}$ stemming from dark-matter annihilation and cosmic-ray interactions within the interstellar medium. For a specific dark-matter profile, we estimate a transparency of about 50%, whereas it varies with increasing $^{3}\overline{\rm He}$ momentum from 25% to 90% for cosmic-ray sources. The results indicate that $^{3}\overline{\rm He}$ nuclei can travel long distances in the Galaxy, and can be used to study cosmic-ray interactions and dark-matter annihilation.

21 data tables

Raw primary antihelium3-to-helium3 ratio as a function of the momentum p_primary.

Raw primary antihelium3-to-helium3 ratio from Geant4-based MC simulations as a function of the momentum p_primary with default sigma_inel(3Hebar).

Raw primary antihelium3-to-helium3 ratio from Geant4-based MC simulations as a function of the momentum p_primary with sigma_inel(3Hebar)x0.5.

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