Direct observation of the dead-cone effect in QCD

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, S. ; Acharya, S. ; Adamova, D. ; et al.
Nature 605 (2022) 440-446, 2022.
Inspire Record 1867966 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130725

In particle collider experiments, elementary particle interactions with large momentum transfer produce quarks and gluons (known as partons) whose evolution is governed by the strong force, as described by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). These partons subsequently emit further partons in a process that can be described as a parton shower which culminates in the formation of detectable hadrons. Studying the pattern of the parton shower is one of the key experimental tools for testing QCD. This pattern is expected to depend on the mass of the initiating parton, through a phenomenon known as the dead-cone effect, which predicts a suppression of the gluon spectrum emitted by a heavy quark of mass $m_{\rm{Q}}$ and energy $E$, within a cone of angular size $m_{\rm{Q}}$/$E$ around the emitter. Previously, a direct observation of the dead-cone effect in QCD had not been possible, owing to the challenge of reconstructing the cascading quarks and gluons from the experimentally accessible hadrons. We report the direct observation of the QCD dead cone by using new iterative declustering techniques to reconstruct the parton shower of charm quarks. This result confirms a fundamental feature of QCD. Furthermore, the measurement of a dead-cone angle constitutes a direct experimental observation of the non-zero mass of the charm quark, which is a fundamental constant in the standard model of particle physics.

1 data table

The $R(\theta)$ variable for charm/inclusive emissions in three bins of $E_{Rad}$: 5-10, 10-20 and 20-35 GeV.


Charm-quark fragmentation fractions and production cross section at midrapidity in pp collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 105 (2022) L011103, 2022.
Inspire Record 1863128 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.127975

Recent $p_{\rm T}$-integrated cross section measurements of the ground-state charm mesons and baryons, D$^{\rm 0}$, D$^+$, D$_{\rm s}^{+}$, $\Lambda_{\rm c}^{+}$, and $\Xi_{\rm c}^0$, are used to evaluate the charm fragmentation fractions and production cross section per unit of rapidity at midrapidity ($|y|<0.5$), in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 5.02$ TeV at the LHC. The latter is ${\rm d} \sigma^{\rm c \overline{c}}/{\rm d} y|_{|y| < 0.5}$ =1165 $\pm 44(\rm{stat})^{+134}_{-101}(\rm{syst})$$\mu b$. These measurements were obtained for the first time in hadronic collisions at the LHC including the charm baryon states, recently measured by ALICE at midrapidity. The charm fragmentation fractions differ significantly from the values measured in e$^+$e$^-$ and ep collisions, providing evidence of the dependence of the parton-to-hadron fragmentation fractions on the collision system, indicating that the assumption of their universality is not supported by the measured cross sections. An increase of a factor of about 3.3 for the fragmentation fraction for the $\Lambda_{\rm c}^{+}$ with a significance of $5\,\sigma$ between the values obtained in pp collisions and those obtained in e$^+$e$^-$ (ep) collisions is reported. The fragmentation fraction for the $\Xi_{\rm c}^0$ was obtained for the first time in any collision system. The measured fragmentation fractions were used to update the $\rm c \overline{c}$ cross sections per unit of rapidity at $|y|<0.5$ at $\sqrt{s} = 2.76$ and 7 TeV, which are about 40% higher than the previously published results. The data were compared with perturbative-QCD calculations and lie at the upper edge of the theoretical bands.

3 data tables

Ratio of prompt open-charm hadrons H$_\mathrm{c}$ and inclusive $\mathrm{J}/\psi$ mesons over D$^0$-meson production cross section in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 5.02$ TeV.

Fragmentation fractions of charm quark to open-charm hadrons $f(\mathrm{c \rightarrow H_c})$ in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 5.02$ TeV.

Production cross section of charm-anticharm quark pairs per unity of rapidity at midrapidity $\mathrm{d}\sigma^{\mathrm{c\overline{c}}}/\mathrm{d}y|_{|y| < 0.5}$ in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 2.76$, $5.02$, and $7$ TeV.


Production of $\Lambda$ and ${\rm K}^{0}_{\rm S}$ in jets in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5$ TeV and pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 827 (2022) 136984, 2022.
Inspire Record 2048607 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.129068

The production of $\Lambda$ baryons and ${\rm K}^{0}_{\rm S}$ mesons (${\rm V}^{0}$ particles) was measured in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV and pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with ALICE at the LHC. The production of these strange particles is studied separately for particles associated with hard scatterings and the underlying event to shed light on the baryon-to-meson ratio enhancement observed at intermediate transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) in high multiplicity pp and p-Pb collisions. Hard scatterings are selected on an event-by-event basis with jets reconstructed with the anti-$k_{\rm T}$ algorithm using charged particles. The production of strange particles associated with jets $p_{\rm T,\;jet}^{\rm ch}>10$ and $p_{\rm T,\;jet}^{\rm ch}>20$ GeV/$c$ in p-Pb collisions, and with jet $p_{\rm T,\;jet}^{\rm ch}>10$ GeV/$c$ in pp collisions is reported as a function of $p_{\rm T}$. Its dependence on angular distance from the jet axis, $R({\rm V}^{0},\;{\rm jet})$, for jets with $p_{\rm T,\;jet}^{\rm ch}>10$ GeV/$c$ in p-Pb collisions is reported as well. The $p_{\rm T}$-differential production spectra of strange particles associated with jets are found to be harder compared to that in the underlying event and both differ from the inclusive measurements. In events containing a jet, the density of the ${\rm V}^{0}$ particles in the underlying event is found to be larger than the density in the minimum bias events. The $\Lambda/{\rm K}^{0}_{\rm S}$ ratio associated with jets in p-Pb collisions is consistent with the ratio in pp collisions and follows the expectation of jets fragmenting in vacuum. On the other hand, this ratio within jets is consistently lower than the one obtained in the underlying event and it does not show the characteristic enhancement of baryons at intermediate $p_{\rm T}$ often referred to as "baryon anomaly" in the inclusive measurements.

11 data tables

$p_{\rm T}$-differential density of inclusive ${\rm V}^{0}$ particles in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV.

$p_{\rm T}$-differential density of ${\rm V}^{0}$ particles in underlying events (perp. cone) in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV.

$p_{\rm T}$-differential densities of ${\rm V}^{0}$ particles selected with $R({\rm V}^{0},{\rm jet}) < 0.4$ and that produced in jets in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV.

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Measurement of $\Lambda$(1520) production in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, S. ; Adamová, D. ; Adhya, S.P. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 80 (2020) 160, 2020.
Inspire Record 1752831 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115139

The production of the $\Lambda$(1520) baryonic resonance has been measured at midrapidity in inelastic pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV for non-single diffractive events and in multiplicity classes. The resonance is reconstructed through its hadronic decay channel $\Lambda$(1520) $\rightarrow$ pK$^{-}$ and the charge conjugate with the ALICE detector. The integrated yields and mean transverse momenta are calculated from the measured transverse momentum distributions in pp and p-Pb collisions. The mean transverse momenta follow mass ordering as previously observed for other hyperons in the same collision systems. A Blast-Wave function constrained by other light hadrons ($\pi$, K, K$_{\rm{S}}^0$, p, $\Lambda$) describes the shape of the $\Lambda$(1520) transverse momentum distribution up to 3.5 GeV/$c$ in p-Pb collisions. In the framework of this model, this observation suggests that the $\Lambda(1520)$ resonance participates in the same collective radial flow as other light hadrons. The ratio of the yield of $\Lambda(1520)$ to the yield of the ground state particle $\Lambda$ remains constant as a function of charged-particle multiplicity, suggesting that there is no net effect of the hadronic phase in p-Pb collisions on the $\Lambda$(1520) yield.

12 data tables

$p_{\rm T}$-differential yields of $\Lambda$(1520) (sum of particle and anti-particle states) at midrapidity in inelastic pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ $\mathrm{=}$ 7 TeV.

$p_{\rm T}$-differential yields of $\Lambda$(1520) (sum of particle and anti-particle states) in NSD p--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ $\mathrm{=}$ 5.02 TeV. The uncertainty 'sys,$p_{\rm T}$-correlated' indicates the systematic uncertainty after removing the contributions of $p_{\rm T}$-uncorrelated uncertainty.

$p_{\rm T}$-differential yields of $\Lambda$(1520) (sum of particle and anti-particle states) in p--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ $\mathrm{=}$ 5.02 TeV in multiplicity interval 0--20\%. The uncertainty 'sys,$p_{\rm T}$-correlated' indicates the systematic uncertainty after removing the contributions of $p_{\rm T}$-uncorrelated uncertainty.

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Charged-particle multiplicity distributions over a wide pseudorapidity range in proton-proton collisions at $\mathbf{\sqrt{s}=}$ 0.9, 7 and 8 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, S. ; Adamová, D. ; Adolfsson, J. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 77 (2017) 852, 2017.
Inspire Record 1614477 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.78802

We present the charged-particle multiplicity distributions over a wide pseudorapidity range ($-3.4<\eta<5.0$) for pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=$ 0.9, 7, and 8 TeV at the LHC. Results are based on information from the Silicon Pixel Detector and the Forward Multiplicity Detector of ALICE, extending the pseudorapidity coverage of the earlier publications and the high-multiplicity reach. The measurements are compared to results from the CMS experiment and to PYTHIA, PHOJET and EPOS LHC event generators, as well as IP-Glasma calculations.

90 data tables

Multiplicity distribution in the pseudorapidity region -2.0 to 2.0 for NSD collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV.

Multiplicity distribution in the pseudorapidity region -2.4 to 2.4 for NSD collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV.

Multiplicity distribution in the pseudorapidity region -3.0 to 3.0 for NSD collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV.

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Test of lepton universality with $B^{0} \rightarrow K^{*0}\ell^{+}\ell^{-}$ decays

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, R. ; Adeva, B. ; Adinolfi, M. ; et al.
JHEP 08 (2017) 055, 2017.
Inspire Record 1599846 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77815

A test of lepton universality, performed by measuring the ratio of the branching fractions of the $B^{0} \rightarrow K^{*0}\mu^{+}\mu^{-}$ and $B^{0} \rightarrow K^{*0}e^{+}e^{-}$ decays, $R_{K^{*0}}$, is presented. The $K^{*0}$ meson is reconstructed in the final state $K^{+}\pi^{-}$, which is required to have an invariant mass within 100$\mathrm{\,MeV}c^2$ of the known $K^{*}(892)^{0}$ mass. The analysis is performed using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 3$\mathrm{\,fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8$\mathrm{\,TeV}$. The ratio is measured in two regions of the dilepton invariant mass squared, $q^{2}$, to be \begin{eqnarray*} R_{K^{*0}} = \begin{cases} 0.66~^{+~0.11}_{-~0.07}\mathrm{\,(stat)} \pm 0.03\mathrm{\,(syst)} & \textrm{for } 0.045 < q^{2} < 1.1~\mathrm{\,GeV^2}c^4 \, , \\ 0.69~^{+~0.11}_{-~0.07}\mathrm{\,(stat)} \pm 0.05\mathrm{\,(syst)} & \textrm{for } 1.1\phantom{00} < q^{2} < 6.0~\mathrm{\,GeV^2}c^4 \, . \end{cases} \end{eqnarray*} The corresponding 95.4\% confidence level intervals are $[0.52, 0.89]$ and $[0.53, 0.94]$. The results, which represent the most precise measurements of $R_{K^{*0}}$ to date, are compatible with the Standard Model expectations at the level of 2.1--2.3 and 2.4--2.5 standard deviations in the two $q^{2}$ regions, respectively.

2 data tables

Distributions of the $R(K^{*0})$ delta log-likelihood, $-(\ln L - \ln L_{best})$, for the three trigger categories combined in the low-q2 bin ($0.045 < q^2 < 1.1$ GeV$^{2}/c^4$).

Distributions of the $R(K^{*0})$ delta log-likelihood, $-(\ln L - \ln L_{best})$, for the three trigger categories combined in the central-q2 bin ($1.1 < q^2 < 6.0$ GeV$^{2}/c^4$).


First Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Charged Current Single Pion Production Cross Section on Water with the T2K Near Detector

The T2K collaboration Abe, K. ; Andreopoulos, C. ; Antonova, M. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 95 (2017) 012010, 2017.
Inspire Record 1465650 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73182

The T2K off-axis near detector, ND280, is used to make the first differential cross section measurements of muon neutrino charged current single positive pion production on a water target at energies ${\sim}0.8$ GeV. The differential measurements are presented as a function of muon and pion kinematics, in the restricted phase-space defined by $p_{\pi^+}>200$MeV/c, $p_{\mu^-}>200$MeV/c, $\cos \theta_{\pi^+}>0.3$ and $\cos \theta_{\mu^-}>0.3$. The total flux integrated $\nu_\mu$ charged current single positive pion production cross section on water in the restricted phase-space is measured to be $\langle\sigma\rangle_\phi=4.25\pm0.48 (\mathrm{stat})\pm1.56 (\mathrm{syst})\times10^{-40} \mathrm{cm}^{2}/\mathrm{nucleon}$. The total cross section is consistent with the NEUT prediction ($5.03\times10^{-40} \mathrm{cm}^{2}/\mathrm{nucleon}$) and 2$\sigma$ lower than the GENIE prediction ($7.68\times10^{-40} \mathrm{cm}^{2}/\mathrm{nucleon}$). The differential cross sections are in good agreement with the NEUT generator. The GENIE simulation reproduces well the shapes of the distributions, but over-estimates the overall cross section normalization.

8 data tables

Total $\nu_\mu$ CC1$\pi^+$ cross section on water in the reduced phase-space of $p_{\pi^+} > 200$ MeV/$c$, $p_\mu > 200$ MeV/c, $\cos(\theta_{\pi^+}) > 0.3$ and $\cos(\theta_\mu) > 0.3$. The T2K data point is placed at the $\nu_\mu$ flux mean energy.

Unfolded $\nu_\mu$ CC1$\pi^+$ differential cross section as a function of $p_\pi$ in the reduced phase-space of $p_{\pi^+} > 200$ MeV/$c$, $p_\mu > 200$ MeV/c, $\cos(\theta_{\pi^+}) > 0.3$ and $\cos(\theta_\mu) > 0.3$.

Unfolded $\nu_\mu$ CC1$\pi^+$ differential cross section as a function of $\cos\theta_\pi$ in the reduced phase-space of $p_{\pi^+} > 200$ MeV/$c$, $p_\mu > 200$ MeV/c, $\cos(\theta_{\pi^+}) > 0.3$ and $\cos(\theta_\mu) > 0.3$.

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Measurement of the muon neutrino inclusive charged-current cross section in the energy range of 1-3 GeV with the T2K INGRID detector

The T2K collaboration Abe, K. ; Andreopoulos, C. ; Antonova, M. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 93 (2016) 072002, 2016.
Inspire Record 1394549 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.80058

We report a measurement of the $\nu_{\mu}$-nucleus inclusive charged current cross section (=$\sigma^{cc}$) on iron using data from exposed to the J-PARC neutrino beam. The detector consists of 14 modules in total, which are spread over a range of off-axis angles from 0$^\circ$ to 1.1$^\circ$. The variation in the neutrino energy spectrum as a function of the off-axis angle, combined with event topology information, is used to calculate this cross section as a function of neutrino energy. The cross section is measured to be $\sigma^{cc}(1.1\text{ GeV}) = 1.10 \pm 0.15$ $(10^{-38}\text{cm}^2/\text{nucleon})$, $\sigma^{cc}(2.0\text{ GeV}) = 2.07 \pm 0.27$ $(10^{-38}\text{cm}^2/\text{nucleon})$, and $\sigma^{cc}(3.3\text{ GeV}) = 2.29 \pm 0.45$ $(10^{-38}\text{cm}^2/\text{nucleon})$, at energies of 1.1, 2.0, and 3.3 GeV, respectively. These results are consistent with the cross section calculated by the neutrino interaction generators currently used by T2K. More importantly, the method described here opens up a new way to determine the energy dependence of neutrino-nucleus cross sections.

1 data table

Results of the $\nu_{\mu}$ CC inclusive cross section on Fe.


Measurement of the $\nu_\mu$ CCQE cross section on carbon with the ND280 detector at T2K

The T2K collaboration Abe, K. ; Adam, J. ; Aihara, H. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 92 (2015) 112003, 2015.
Inspire Record 1329784 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72875

The Charged-Current Quasi-Elastic (CCQE) interaction, $\nu_{l} + n \rightarrow l^{-} + p$, is the dominant CC process at $E_\nu \sim 1$ GeV and contributes to the signal in accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments operating at intermediate neutrino energies. This paper reports a measurement by the T2K experiment of the $\nu_{\mu}$ CCQE cross section on a carbon target with the off-axis detector based on the observed distribution of muon momentum ($p_\mu$) and angle with respect to the incident neutrino beam ($\theta_\mu$). The flux-integrated CCQE cross section was measured to be $(0.83 \pm 0.12) \times 10^{-38}\textrm{ cm}^{2}$ in good agreement with NEUT MC value of ${0.88 \times 10^{-38}} \textrm{ cm}^{2}$. The energy dependence of the CCQE cross section is also reported. The axial mass, $M_A^{QE}$, of the dipole axial form factor was extracted assuming the Smith-Moniz CCQE model with a relativistic Fermi gas nuclear model. Using the absolute (shape-only) $p_{\mu}cos\theta_\mu$ distribution, the effective $M_A^{QE}$ parameter was measured to be ${1.26^{+0.21}_{-0.18} \textrm{ GeV}/c^{2}}$ (${1.43^{+0.28}_{-0.22} \textrm{ GeV}/c^{2}}$).

2 data tables

The measured CCQE energy-dependent cross section per target neutron.

The fractional covariance matrix corresponding to the errors shown in Figure 7.


Observation of $Z$ production in proton-lead collisions at LHCb

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, R. ; Adeva, B. ; Adinolfi, M. ; et al.
JHEP 09 (2014) 030, 2014.
Inspire Record 1300150 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.64260

The first observation of $Z$ boson production in proton-lead collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per proton-nucleon pair of $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5~\text{TeV}$ is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $1.6~\text{nb}^{-1}$ collected with the LHCb detector. The $Z$ candidates are reconstructed from pairs of oppositely charged muons with pseudorapidities between 2.0 and 4.5 and transverse momenta above $20~\text{GeV}/c$. The invariant dimuon mass is restricted to the range $60-120~\text{GeV}/c^2$. The $Z$ production cross-section is measured to be \begin{eqnarray*} \sigma_{Z\to\mu^+\mu^-}(\text{fwd})&=&13.5^{+5.4}_{-4.0}\text{(stat.)}\pm1.2\text{(syst.)}~\text{nb} \end{eqnarray*} in the direction of the proton beam and \begin{eqnarray*} \sigma_{Z\to\mu^+\mu^-}(\text{bwd}) & =&10.7^{+8.4}_{-5.1}\text{(stat.)}\pm1.0\text{(syst.)}~\text{nb} \end{eqnarray*} in the direction of the lead beam, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic.

2 data tables

The measured Z production cross-sections in proton-lead collisions, measured in the fiducial region defined in the table, in the forward and backward directions. The statistical uncertainty is defined as the 68% confidence interval with symmetric coverage assuming that the number of candidates follows a Poisson distribution.

The forward-backward ratio measured in the overlap region 2.5 < ABS(YRAP) < 4.0. The first uncertainty is statistical, defined as the 68% confidence interval with symmetric coverage. The second uncertainty is systematic and includes the uncertainty on the acceptance correction factor, BETA, for the difference in the detector acceptance of the muons between the forward and backward directions.