Underlying-event studies with strange hadrons in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Aakvaag, Erlend ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; et al.
CERN-EP-2024-105, 2024.
Inspire Record 2784422 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146740

Properties of the underlying-event in $pp$ interactions are investigated primarily via the strange hadrons $K_{S}^{0}$, $\Lambda$ and $\bar\Lambda$, as reconstructed using the ATLAS detector at the LHC in minimum-bias $pp$ collision data at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV. The hadrons are reconstructed via the identification of the displaced two-particle vertices corresponding to the decay modes $K_{S}^{0}\rightarrow\pi^+\pi^-$, $\Lambda\rightarrow\pi^-p$ and $\bar\Lambda\rightarrow\pi^+\bar{p}$. These are used in the construction of underlying-event observables in azimuthal regions computed relative to the leading charged-particle jet in the event. None of the hadronisation and underlying-event physics models considered can describe the data over the full kinematic range considered. Events with a leading charged-particle jet in the range of $10 < p_T \leq 40$ GeV are studied using the number of prompt charged particles in the transverse region. The ratio $N(\Lambda\rightarrow\pi^\mp p^\pm)/N(K_{S}^{0}\rightarrow\pi^+\pi^-)$ as a function of the number of such charged particles varies only slightly over this range. This disagrees with the expectations of some of the considered Monte Carlo models.

144 data tables

Mean multiplicity of $K^{0}_{S}$ per unit $(\eta, \phi)$ in the away region vs. leading-jet $p_{T}$

Statistical covariance between bins of Table 1

Mean multiplicity of $K^{0}_{S}$ per unit $(\eta, \phi)$ in the towards region vs. leading-jet $p_{T}$

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Constraints On Covariant WIMP-Nucleon Effective Field Theory Interactions from the First Science Run of the LUX-ZEPLIN Experiment

The LZ collaboration Aalbers, J. ; Akerib, D.S. ; Musalhi, A.K. Al ; et al.
2024.
Inspire Record 2781562 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.151391

The first science run of the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment, a dual-phase xenon time project chamber operating in the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, USA, has reported leading limits on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions and interactions described from a non-relativistic effective field theory (NREFT). Using the same 5.5~t fiducial mass and 60 live days of exposure we report on the results of a relativistic extension to the NREFT. We present constraints on couplings from covariant interactions arising from the coupling of vector, axial currents, and electric dipole moments of the nucleon to the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the WIMP which cannot be described by recasting previous results described by an NREFT. Using a profile-likelihood ratio analysis, in an energy region between 0~keV$_\text{nr}$ to 270~keV$_\text{nr}$, we report 90% confidence level exclusion limits on the coupling strength of five interactions in both the isoscalar and isovector bases.

40 data tables

Isoscalar interaction coupling limit for Lagrangian 1

Isovector interaction coupling limit for Lagrangian 19

Isoscalar interaction coupling limit for Lagrangian 19

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Search for pair production of boosted Higgs bosons via vector-boson fusion in the $b\bar{b}b\bar{b}$ final state using $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Aakvaag, Erlend ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; et al.
CERN-EP-2024-092, 2024.
Inspire Record 2781483 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.150977

A search for Higgs boson pair production via vector-boson fusion is performed in the Lorentz-boosted regime, where a Higgs boson candidate is reconstructed as a single large-radius jet, using 140 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Only Higgs boson decays into bottom quark pairs are considered. The search is particularly sensitive to the quartic coupling between two vector bosons and two Higgs bosons relative to its Standard Model prediction, $\kappa_{2V}$. This study constrains $\kappa_{2V}$ to $0.55 < \kappa_{2V} < 1.49$ at 95% confidence level. The value $\kappa_{2V} = 0$ is excluded with a significance of 3.8 standard deviations with other Higgs boson couplings fixed to their Standard Model values. A search for new heavy spin-0 resonances that would mediate Higgs boson pair production via vector-boson fusion is carried out in the mass range of 1-5 TeV for the first time under several model and decay-width assumptions. No significant deviation from the Standard Model hypothesis is observed and exclusion limits at 95% confidence level are derived.

23 data tables

The mass planes of the reconstructed Higgs boson candidates for the 1Pass selections of the analysis, shown for the data events.

The mass planes of the reconstructed Higgs boson candidates for the 2Pass selections of the analysis, shown for the data events.

The mass planes of the reconstructed Higgs boson candidates for the 2Pass selections of the analysis, shown for the VBF SM $\kappa_{2V} = 1$ HH samples.

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Search for pair-produced higgsinos decaying via Higgs or $Z$ bosons to final states containing a pair of photons and a pair of $b$-jets with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abeling, Kira ; et al.
CERN-EP-2023-039, 2024.
Inspire Record 2773395 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.144072

A search is presented for the pair production of higgsinos $\tilde{\chi}$ in gauge-mediated supersymmetry models, where the lightest neutralinos $\tilde{\chi}_1^0$ decay into a light gravitino $\tilde{G}$ either via a Higgs $h$ or $Z$ boson. The search is performed with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider using 139 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV. It targets final states in which a Higgs boson decays into a photon pair, while the other Higgs or $Z$ boson decays into a $b\bar{b}$ pair, with missing transverse momentum associated with the two gravitinos. Search regions dependent on the amount of missing transverse momentum are defined by the requirements that the diphoton mass should be consistent with the mass of the Higgs boson, and the $b\bar{b}$ mass with the mass of the Higgs or $Z$ boson. The main backgrounds are estimated with data-driven methods using the sidebands of the diphoton mass distribution. No excesses beyond Standard Model expectations are observed and higgsinos with masses up to 320 GeV are excluded, assuming a branching fraction of 100% for $\tilde{\chi}_1^0\rightarrow h\tilde{G}$. This analysis excludes higgsinos with masses of 130 GeV for branching fractions to $h\tilde{G}$ as low as 36%, thus providing complementarity to previous ATLAS searches in final states with multiple leptons or multiple $b$-jets, targeting different decays of the electroweak bosons.

25 data tables

<b>- - - - - - - - Overview of HEPData Record - - - - - - - -</b> <b>Histograms:</b><ul> <li><a href=?table=Distribution1>Figure 3a: $m_{\gamma\gamma}$ Distribution in VR1</a> <li><a href=?table=Distribution2>Figure 3b: $E_{\mathrm{T}}^{\mathrm{miss}}$ Distribution in VR1</a> <li><a href=?table=Distribution3>Figure 3c: $m_{\gamma\gamma}$ Distribution in VR2</a> <li><a href=?table=Distribution4>Figure 3d: $E_{\mathrm{T}}^{\mathrm{miss}}$ Distribution in VR2</a> <li><a href=?table=Distribution5>Figure 4a: N-1 $m_{\gamma\gamma}$ Distribution for SR1h</a> <li><a href=?table=Distribution6>Figure 4b: N-1 $m_{\gamma\gamma}$ Distribution for SR1Z</a> <li><a href=?table=Distribution7>Figure 4c: N-1 $m_{\gamma\gamma}$ Distribution for SR2</a> <li><a href=?table=Distribution8>Auxiliary Figure 1: Signal and Validation Region Yields</a> </ul> <b>Tables:</b><ul> <li><a href=?table=YieldsTable1>Table 3: Signal Region Yields & Model-independent Limits</a> <li><a href=?table=Cutflow1>Auxiliary Table 1: Benchmark Signal Cutflows</a> </ul> <b>Cross section limits:</b><ul> <li><a href=?table=X-sectionU.L.1>Figure 5: 1D Cross-section Limits</a> <li><a href=?table=X-sectionU.L.2>Auxiliary Figure 3: 2D Cross-section Limits</a> </ul> <b>2D CL limits:</b><ul> <li><a href=?table=Exclusioncontour1>Figure 6: Expected Limit on $\mathrm{BF}(\tilde{\chi}_1^0\rightarrow h\tilde{G})$</a> <li><a href=?table=Exclusioncontour2>Figure 6: $+1\sigma$ Variation for Expected Limit on $\mathrm{BF}(\tilde{\chi}_1^0\rightarrow h\tilde{G})$</a> <li><a href=?table=Exclusioncontour3>Figure 6: $-1\sigma$ Variation for Expected Limit on $\mathrm{BF}(\tilde{\chi}_1^0\rightarrow h\tilde{G})$</a> <li><a href=?table=Exclusioncontour4>Figure 6: Observed Limit on $\mathrm{BF}(\tilde{\chi}_1^0\rightarrow h\tilde{G})$</a> <li><a href=?table=Exclusioncontour5>Figure 6: $+1\sigma$ Variation for Observed Limit on $\mathrm{BF}(\tilde{\chi}_1^0\rightarrow h\tilde{G})$</a> <li><a href=?table=Exclusioncontour6>Figure 6: $-1\sigma$ Variation for Observed Limit on $\mathrm{BF}(\tilde{\chi}_1^0\rightarrow h\tilde{G})$</a> </ul> <b>2D Acceptance and Efficiency maps:</b><ul> <li><a href=?table=Acceptance1>Auxiliary Figure 4a: Acceptances SR1h</a> <li><a href=?table=Acceptance2>Auxiliary Figure 4b: Acceptances SR1Z</a> <li><a href=?table=Acceptance3>Auxiliary Figure 4c: Acceptances SR2</a> <li><a href=?table=Efficiency1>Auxiliary Figure 5a: Efficiencies SR1h</a> <li><a href=?table=Efficiency2>Auxiliary Figure 5b: Efficiencies SR1Z</a> <li><a href=?table=Efficiency3>Auxiliary Figure 5c: Efficiencies SR2</a> </ul>

Distribution of the diphoton invariant mass in validation region VR1. The solid histograms are stacked to show the SM expectations after the 2&times;2D background estimation technique is applied. Background and signal predictions are normalised to the luminosity. The background category "h (other)" includes events originating from VBF, Vh, ggF, thq, thW and bb&#772;h, all subdominant in this signature. Statistical and systematic uncertainties are indicated by the shaded area. The lower panel of each plot shows the ratio of the data to the SM prediction for the respective bin. The first and last bins include the underflows and overflows respectively.

Distribution of the missing transverse momentum in validation region VR1. The solid histograms are stacked to show the SM expectations after the 2&times;2D background estimation technique is applied. Background and signal predictions are normalised to the luminosity. The background category "h (other)" includes events originating from VBF, Vh, ggF, thq, thW and bb&#772;h, all subdominant in this signature. Statistical and systematic uncertainties are indicated by the shaded area. The lower panel of each plot shows the ratio of the data to the SM prediction for the respective bin. The first and last bins include the underflows and overflows respectively.

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Search for flavour-changing neutral-current couplings between the top quark and the Higgs boson in multi-lepton final states in 13 TeV $pp$ collisions with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Aakvaag, Erlend ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; et al.
CERN-EP-2024-070, 2024.
Inspire Record 2773613 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.150998

A search is presented for flavour-changing neutral-current interactions involving the top quark, the Higgs boson and an up-type quark ($q=u,c$) with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The analysis considers leptonic decays of the top quark along with Higgs boson decays into two $W$ bosons, two $Z$ bosons or a $\tau^{+}\tau^{-}$ pair. It focuses on final states containing either two leptons (electrons or muons) of the same charge or three leptons. The considered processes are $t\bar{t}$ and $Ht$ production. For the $t\bar{t}$ production, one top quark decays via $t\to Hq$. The proton-proton collision data set analysed amounts to 140 fb$^{-1}$ at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV. No significant excess beyond Standard Model expectations is observed and upper limits are set on the $t\to Hq$ branching ratios at 95% confidence level, amounting to observed (expected) limits of $\mathcal{B}(t\to Hu)<2.8\,(3.0) \times 10^{-4}$ and $\mathcal{B}(t\to Hc)<3.3\,(3.8) \times 10^{-4}$. Combining this search with other searches for $tHq$ flavour-changing neutral-current interactions previously conducted by ATLAS, considering $H\to b\bar{b}$ and $H\to\gamma\gamma$ decays, as well as $H\to\tau^{+}\tau^{-}$ decays with one or two hadronically decaying $\tau$-leptons, yields observed (expected) upper limits on the branching ratios of $\mathcal{B}(t\to Hu)<2.6\,(1.8) \times 10^{-4}$ and $\mathcal{B}(t\to Hc)<3.4\,(2.3) \times 10^{-4}$.

53 data tables

Pre-fit background composition of the SR$2\ell$ Dec. The table shows the event yields as opposed to just the percentages of the relevant background processes.

Pre-fit background composition of the SR$2\ell$ Prod. The table shows the event yields as opposed to just the percentages of the relevant background processes.

Pre-fit background composition of the SR$3\ell$ Dec. The table shows the event yields as opposed to just the percentages of the relevant background processes.

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Measurement of $t$-channel production of single top quarks and antiquarks in $pp$ collisions at 13 TeV using the full ATLAS Run 2 data sample

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; Abeling, Kira ; et al.
JHEP 05 (2024) 305, 2024.
Inspire Record 2764820 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.150693

The production of single top quarks and top antiquarks via the $t$-channel exchange of a virtual $W$ boson is measured in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV at the LHC using $140\,\mathrm{fb^{-1}}$ of ATLAS data. The total cross-sections are determined to be $\sigma(tq)=137^{+8}_{-8}\,\mathrm{pb}$ and $\sigma(\bar{t}q)=84^{+6}_{-5}\,\mathrm{pb}$ for top-quark and top-antiquark production, respectively. The combined cross-section is found to be $\sigma(tq+\bar{t}q)=221^{+13}_{-13}\,\mathrm{pb}$ and the cross-section ratio is $R_{t}=\sigma(tq)/\sigma(\bar{t}q)=1.636^{+0.036}_{-0.034}$. The predictions at next-to-next-to-leading-order in quantum chromodynamics are in good agreement with these measurements. The predicted value of $R_{t}$ using different sets of parton distribution functions is compared with the measured value, demonstrating the potential to further constrain the functions when using this result in global fits. The measured cross-sections are interpreted in an effective field theory approach, setting limits at the 95% confidence level on the strength of a four-quark operator and an operator coupling the third quark generation to the Higgs boson doublet: $-0.37 < C_{Qq}^{3,1}/\Lambda^2 < 0.06$ and $-0.87 < C_{\phi Q}^{3}/\Lambda^2 < 1.42$. The constraint $|V_{tb}|>0.95$ at the 95% confidence level is derived from the measured value of $\sigma(tq+\bar{t}q)$. In a more general approach, pairs of CKM matrix elements involving top quarks are simultaneously constrained, leading to confidence contours in the corresponding two-dimensional parameter spaces.

21 data tables

The 17 variables used for the training of the NN ordered by their discriminating power. The jet that is not \(b\)-tagged is referred to as the untagged jet. The charged lepton is denoted \(\ell\). The sphericity tensor \(S^{\alpha\beta}\) used to define the sphericity \(S\) is formed with the three-momenta \(\vec{p}_i\) of the reconstructed objects, namely the jets, the charged lepton and the reconstructed neutrino. The tensor is given by \(S^{\alpha\beta}=\frac{\sum_i p_i^\alpha p_i^\beta}{\sum_i |\vec{p}_i|^2}\) where \(\alpha\) and \(\beta\) correspond to the spatial components $x$, $y$ and $z$.

The impact of different groups of systematic uncertainties on the \(\sigma(tq)\) , \(\sigma(\bar t q)\), \(\sigma(tq + \bar t q)\) and \(R_t\), given in %.

The impact of the eight most important systematic uncertainties on the \(\sigma(tq)\) , \(\sigma(\bar t q)\) and \(\sigma(tq + \bar t q)\), given in %. The sequence of the uncertainties is given by the impact on \(\sigma(tq + \bar t q)\)

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Searches for exclusive Higgs boson decays into $D^*\gamma$ and $Z$ boson decays into $D^0\gamma$ and $K^0_s\gamma$ in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Aakvaag, Erlend ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 855 (2024) 138762, 2024.
Inspire Record 2763131 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.147194

Searches for the exclusive decays of the Higgs boson into $D^*\gamma$ and of the $Z$ boson into $D^0\gamma$ and $K^0_s\gamma$ can probe flavour-violating Higgs and $Z$ boson couplings to light quarks. Searches for these decays are performed with a $pp$ collision data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $136.3$ fb$^{-1}$ collected at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV between 2016-2018 with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. In the $D^*\gamma$ and $D^0\gamma$ channels, the observed (expected) 95$\%$ confidence-level upper limits on the respective branching fractions are ${\cal B}(H\rightarrow D^*\gamma)< 1.0 (1.2)\times 10^{-3}$, ${\cal B}(Z\rightarrow D^0\gamma)< 4.0 (3.4)\times 10^{-6}$, while the corresponding results in the $K^0_s\gamma$ channel are ${\cal B}(Z\rightarrow K^0_s\gamma)< 3.1 (3.0)\times 10^{-6}$.

2 data tables

Numbers of observed and expected background events for the $m_{\mathcal{M}\gamma}$ ranges of interest. Each expected background and the corresponding uncertainty is obtained by integrating the total pdf after a background-only fit to the data, where the uncertainty does not take into account statistical fluctuations in each mass range. Expected Higgs and $Z$ boson signal contributions, with their corresponding total systematic uncertainty, are shown for reference branching fractions of $10^{-3}$ and $10^{-6}$, respectively. Entries are marked with a dash when there is no signal of that type in the specified range.

Observed and expected (with the corresponding $\pm1\sigma$ intervals) 95% CL upper limits on the branching fractions for $H\rightarrow D^*\gamma$, $Z\rightarrow D^0\gamma$ and $Z\rightarrow K^0_s\gamma$. Standard Model production of the Higgs boson is assumed. The corresponding upper limits on the production cross-section times branching fraction $\sigma\times\mathcal{B}$ are also shown.


Search for a new $Z'$ gauge boson via the $pp \rightarrow W^{\pm(*)} \rightarrow Z' \mu^{\pm} \nu \rightarrow \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\mp}\mu^{\pm}\nu$ process in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

The ATLAS collaboration Aad, Georges ; Aakvaag, Erlend ; Abbott, Braden Keim ; et al.
CERN-EP-2024-042, 2024.
Inspire Record 2761384 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.149991

A search for a new $Z'$ gauge boson predicted by $L_{\mu}-L_{\tau}$ models, based on charged-current Drell-Yan production, $pp \rightarrow W^{\pm(*)} \rightarrow Z' \mu^{\pm} \nu \rightarrow \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\mp}\mu^{\pm}\nu$, is presented. The data sample used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 140 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The search examines a final state of $3\mu$ plus large missing transverse momentum. Upper limits are set on the $Z'$ production cross-section times branching ratio in the mass range of 5-81 GeV. After combining with the previous $Z'$ search using the neutral-current Drell-Yan production with a $4\mu$ final state, the most stringent exclusion limits to date are achieved in the parameter space of the $Z'$ coupling strength and mass.

4 data tables

Observed and expected upper limits at 95% CL on the production cross-section times branching fraction of the process $pp\to W\to Z^{\prime}$ $\mu \nu \to \mu \mu \mu \nu$ as a function of $m_{Z^{\prime}}$.

Observed and expected upper limits at 95% CL on the coupling parameter $g_{Z^{\prime}}$ as a function of $m_{Z^{\prime}}$ from the statistical combination of the $3\mu$ and $4\mu$ channels.

Exclusion contour compared to the limits from the Neutrino Trident and the $B_{S}$ mixing experimental results.

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Version 2
Search for long-lived particles decaying to final states with a pair of muons in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13.6 TeV

The CMS collaboration Hayrapetyan, Aram ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
JHEP 05 (2024) 047, 2024.
Inspire Record 2760892 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146759

An inclusive search for long-lived exotic particles (LLPs) decaying to final states with a pair of muons is presented. The search uses data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.6 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the CMS experiment from the proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13.6 TeV in 2022, the first year of Run 3 of the CERN LHC. The experimental signature is a pair of oppositely charged muons originating from a common vertex spatially separated from the proton-proton interaction point by distances ranging from several hundred $\mu$m to several meters. The sensitivity of the search benefits from new triggers for displaced dimuons developed for Run 3. The results are interpreted in the framework of the hidden Abelian Higgs model, in which the Higgs boson decays to a pair of long-lived dark photons, and of an $R$-parity violating supersymmetry model, in which long-lived neutralinos decay to a pair of muons and a neutrino. The limits set on these models are the most stringent to date in wide regions of lifetimes for LLPs with masses larger than 10 GeV.

91 data tables

Efficiencies of the Run 2 and Run 3 displaced dimuon triggers as a function of $c\tau$ for the HAHM signal events with $m_{Z_D} = 20\ GeV$. The efficiency is defined as the fraction of simulated events that satisfy the requirements of the following sets of trigger paths: the Run 2 (2018) triggers (dashed black); the Run 3 (2022, L3) triggers (blue); the Run 3 (2022, L2) triggers (red); and the OR of all these triggers (Run 3 (2022), black). The lower panel shows the ratio of the overall Run 3 (2022) efficiency to the Run 2 (2018) efficiency.

Efficiencies of the various displaced dimuon trigger paths and their combination as a function of $c\tau$ for the HAHM signal events with $m(Z_D) = 20\ GeV$. The efficiency is defined as the fraction of simulated events that satisfy the detector acceptance and the requirements of the following sets of trigger paths: the Run 2 (2018) triggers (dashed black); the Run 3 (2022, L3) triggers (blue); the Run 3 (2022, L2) triggers (red); and the OR of all these triggers (Run 3 (2022), black). The lower panel shows the ratio of the overall Run 3 (2022) efficiency to the Run 2 (2018) efficiency.

Efficiencies in the STA-STA (green) and TMS-TMS (red) dimuon categories, as well as their combination (black) as a function of $c\tau$ for the HAHM signal events with $m_{Z_D} = 20\ GeV$. Solid curves show efficiencies achieved with the Run 3 triggers, whereas dashed curves show efficiencies for the subset of events selected by the triggers used in the 2018 Run 2 analysis. The efficiency is defined as the fraction of signal events that satisfy the criteria of the indicated trigger as well as the full set of offline selection criteria. The lower panel shows the relative improvement of the overall signal efficiency brought in by improvements in the trigger.

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Search for exotic decays of the Higgs boson to a pair of pseudoscalars in the $\mu\mu$bb and $\tau\tau$bb final states

The CMS collaboration Hayrapetyan, Aram ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 84 (2024) 493, 2024.
Inspire Record 2760544 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.145999

A search for exotic decays of the Higgs boson (H) with a mass of 125 GeV to a pair of light pseudoscalars $\mathrm{a}_1$ is performed in final states where one pseudoscalar decays to two b quarks and the other to a pair of muons or $\tau$ leptons. A data sample of proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$ recorded with the CMS detector is analyzed. No statistically significant excess is observed over the standard model backgrounds. Upper limits are set at 95% confidence level (CL) on the Higgs boson branching fraction to $\mu\mu$bb and to $\tau\tau$bb, via a pair of $\mathrm{a}_1$s. The limits depend on the pseudoscalar mass $m_{\mathrm{a}_1}$ and are observed to be in the range (0.17-3.3) $\times$ 10$^{-4}$ and (1.7-7.7) $\times$ 10$^{-2}$ in the $\mu\mu$bb and $\tau\tau$bb final states, respectively. In the framework of models with two Higgs doublets and a complex scalar singlet (2HDM+S), the results of the two final states are combined to determine model-independent upper limits on the branching fraction $\mathcal{B}$(H $\to$ $\mathrm{a}_1\mathrm{a}_1$ $\to$ $\ell\ell$bb) at 95% CL, with $\ell$ being a muon or a $\tau$ lepton. For different types of 2HDM+S, upper bounds on the branching fraction $\mathcal{B}$(H $\to$ $\mathrm{a}_1\mathrm{a}_1$) are extracted from the combination of the two channels. In most of the Type II 2HDM+S parameter space, $\mathcal{B}($H $\to$ $\mathrm{a}_1\mathrm{a}_1$) values above 0.23 are excluded at 95% CL for $m_{\mathrm{a}_1}$ values between 15 and 60 GeV.

4 data tables

Observed and expected upper limits at 95% CL on B($\text{H} \rightarrow \text{a}_{1}\text{a}_{1} \rightarrow \mu\mu$bb) as functions of $m_{\text{a}_{1}}$. The inner and outer bands indicate the regions containing the distribution of limits located within 68 and 95% confidence intervals, respectively, of the expectation under the background-only hypothesis.

Observed and expected upper limits at 95% CL on B($\text{H} \rightarrow \text{a}_{1}\text{a}_{1} \rightarrow \tau\tau$bb) in percent as functions of $m_{\text{a}_{1}}$, for the combination of the $\mu\tau_{\text{h}}$, $e\tau_{\text{h}}$, and $e\mu$ channels. The inner and outer bands indicate the regions containing the distribution of limits located within 68 and 95% confidence intervals, respectively, of the expectation under the background-only hypothesis.

Observed and expected upper limits at 95% CL on B($\text{H} \rightarrow \text{a}_{1}\text{a}_{1} \rightarrow ll$bb) in percent, where $l$ stands for muons or $\tau$ leptons, obtained from the combination of the $\mu\mu$bb and $\tau\tau$bb channels. The results are obtained as functions $m_{\text{a}_{1}}$ for 2HDM+S models, independent of the type and tan $\beta$ parameter. The inner and outer bands indicate the regions containing the distribution of limits located within 68 and 95% confidence intervals, respectively, of the expectation under the background-only hypothesis.

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