Measurement of $\phi$-meson production in Cu$+$Au at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV and U$+$U at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=193$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Abdulameer, N.J. ; Acharya, U. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2121010 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132483

The PHENIX experiment reports systematic measurements at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider of $\phi$-meson production in asymmetric Cu$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=200 GeV and in U$+$U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$=193 GeV. Measurements were performed via the $\phi\rightarrow K^{+}K^{-}$ decay channel at midrapidity $|\eta|<0.35$. Features of $\phi$-meson production measured in Cu$+$Cu, Cu$+$Au, Au$+$Au, and U$+$U collisions were found to not depend on the collision geometry, which was expected because the yields are averaged over the azimuthal angle and follow the expected scaling with nuclear-overlap size. The elliptic flow of the $\phi$ meson in Cu$+$Au, Au$+$Au, and U$+$U collisions scales with second order participant eccentricity and the length scale of the nuclear overlap region (estimated with the number of participating nucleons). At moderate $p_T$, $\phi$-meson production measured in Cu$+$Au and U$+$U collisions is consistent with coalescence-model predictions, whereas at high $p_T$ the production is in agreement with expectations for in-medium energy loss of parent partons prior to their fragmentation. The elliptic flow for $\phi$ mesons measured in Cu$+$Au and U$+$U collisions is well described by a (2+1)D viscous-hydrodynamic model with specific-shear viscosity $\eta/s=1/4\pi$.

14 data tables

Invariant transverse momentum spectra measured for $\phi$ mesons in (a) Cu+Au and (b) U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV at midrapidity

Invariant transverse momentum spectra measured for $\phi$ mesons in (c) Cu+Au and (d) U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV at midrapidity. Data-to- Levy fit ratios.

The $\phi$-meson nuclear modification factors $R_{AB}$ measured as a function of $p_T$ in different centrality intervals of (a) to (d) Cu+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV and (e) to (h) U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 193 GeV at midrapidity $|\eta|<0.35$. The normalization uncertainty from p+p of about $\sim9.7\%$ is not shown.

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Improving constraints on gluon spin-momentum correlations in transversely polarized protons via midrapidity open-heavy-flavor electrons in $p^{\uparrow}+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Aidala, C. ; Akiba, Y. ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2072832 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130883

Polarized proton-proton collisions provide leading-order access to gluons, presenting an opportunity to constrain gluon spin-momentum correlations within transversely polarized protons and enhance our understanding of the three-dimensional structure of the proton. Midrapidity open-heavy-flavor production at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV is dominated by gluon-gluon fusion, providing heightened sensitivity to gluon dynamics relative to other production channels. Transverse single-spin asymmetries of electrons and positrons from heavy-flavor hadron decays are measured at midrapidity using the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. These charge-separated measurements are sensitive to gluon correlators that can in principle be related to gluon orbital angular momentum via model calculations. Explicit constraints on gluon correlators are extracted for two separate models, one of which had not been constrained previously.

1 data table

Data from Figure 1 of open heavy flavor $e^{\pm}$ transverse single-spin asymmetries in transversely polarized p+p collisions as a function of $p_{T}$.


Observation of Global Spin Alignment of $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ Vector Mesons in Nuclear Collisions

The STAR collaboration Abdallah, M.S. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Nature (2023), 2023.
Inspire Record 2063245 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.129067

Notwithstanding decades of progress since Yukawa first developed a description of the force between nucleons in terms of meson exchange, a full understanding of the strong interaction remains a major challenge in modern science. One remaining difficulty arises from the non-perturbative nature of the strong force, which leads to the phenomenon of quark confinement at distances on the order of the size of the proton. Here we show that in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, where quarks and gluons are set free over an extended volume, two species of produced vector (spin-1) mesons, namely $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$, emerge with a surprising pattern of global spin alignment. In particular, the global spin alignment for $\phi$ is unexpectedly large, while that for $K^{*0}$ is consistent with zero. The observed spin-alignment pattern and magnitude for the $\phi$ cannot be explained by conventional mechanisms, while a model with a connection to strong force fields, i.e. an effective proxy description within the Standard Model and Quantum Chromodynamics, accommodates the current data. This connection, if fully established, will open a potential new avenue for studying the behaviour of strong force fields.

38 data tables

Global spin alignment of $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. The measured matrix element $\rho_{00}$ as a function of beam energy for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons within the indicated windows of centrality, transverse momentum ($p_T$) and rapidity ($y$). The open symbols indicate ALICE results for Pb+Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV at $p_{T}$ values of 2.0 and 1.4 GeV/c for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ mesons, respectively, corresponding to the $p_{T}$ bin nearest to the mean $p_{T}$ for the 1.0 – 5.0 GeV/$c$ range assumed for each meson in the present analysis. The red solid curve is a fit to data in the range of $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 19.6$ to 200 GeV, based on a theoretical calculation with a $\phi$-meson field. Parameter sensitivity of $\rho_{00}$ to the $\phi$-meson field is shown in Ref.5. The red dashed line is an extension of the solid curve with the fitted parameter $G_s^{(y)}$. The black dashed line represents $\rho_{00}=1/3.$

Global spin alignment of $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. The measured matrix element $\rho_{00}$ as a function of beam energy for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ vector mesons within the indicated windows of centrality, transverse momentum ($p_T$) and rapidity ($y$). The open symbols indicate ALICE results for Pb+Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV at $p_{T}$ values of 2.0 and 1.4 GeV/c for the $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ mesons, respectively, corresponding to the $p_{T}$ bin nearest to the mean $p_{T}$ for the 1.0 – 5.0 GeV/$c$ range assumed for each meson in the present analysis. The red solid curve is a fit to data in the range of $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 19.6$ to 200 GeV, based on a theoretical calculation with a $\phi$-meson field. Parameter sensitivity of $\rho_{00}$ to the $\phi$-meson field is shown in Ref.5. The red dashed line is an extension of the solid curve with the fitted parameter $G_s^{(y)}$. The black dashed line represents $\rho_{00}=1/3.$

Example of combinatorial background subtracted invariant mass distributions and the extracted yields as a function of $\cos \theta^*$ for $\phi$ and $K^{*0}$ mesons. \textbf{a)} example of $\phi \rightarrow K^+ + K^-$ invariant mass distributions, with combinatorial background subtracted, integrated over $\cos \theta^*$; \textbf{b)} example of $K^{*0} (\overline{K^{*0}}) \rightarrow K^{-} \pi^{+} (K^{+} \pi^{-})$ invariant mass distributions, with combinatorial background subtracted, integrated over $\cos \theta^*$; \textbf{c)} extracted yields of $\phi$ as a function of $\cos \theta^*$; \textbf{d)} extracted yields of $K^{*0}$ as a function of $\cos \theta^*$.

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Nonprompt direct-photon production in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
336 authors from 71 institutions, 26 pages, 30 figures, 4 tabels, 2014 data. Physical Review C. Plain text data tables for the points plotted in figures for this and previous PHENIX publications are (or will be) publicly available at http://www.phenix.bnl.gov/papers.html, 2022.
Inspire Record 2061074 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.129292

The measurement of the direct-photon spectrum from Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV is presented by the PHENIX collaboration using the external-photon-conversion technique for 0%--93% central collisions in a transverse-momentum ($p_T$) range of 0.8--10 GeV/$c$. An excess of direct photons, above prompt-photon production from hard-scattering processes, is observed for $p_T<6$ GeV/$c$. Nonprompt direct photons are measured by subtracting the prompt component, which is estimated as $N_{\rm coll}$-scaled direct photons from $p$ $+$ $p$ collisions at 200 GeV, from the direct-photon spectrum. Results are obtained for $0.8<p_T<6.0$ GeV/$c$ and suggest that the spectrum has an increasing inverse slope from ${\approx}0.2$ to 0.4 GeV/$c$ with increasing $p_T$, which indicates a possible sensitivity of the measurement to photons from earlier stages of the evolution of the collision. In addition, like the direct-photon production, the $p_T$-integrated nonprompt direct-photon yields also follow a power-law scaling behavior as a function of collision-system size. The exponent, $\alpha$, for the nonprompt component is found to be consistent with 1.1 with no apparent $p_T$ dependence.

9 data tables

Direct photon $R_{\gamma}$, every 20% centrality

Direct photon $R_{\gamma}$, every 10% centrality

Invariant yield of direct photons, every 10% centrality

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Low-$p_T$ direct-photon production in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=39$ and 62.4 GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2057344 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133218

The measurement of direct photons from Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=39$ and 62.4 GeV in the transverse-momentum range $0.4<p_T<3$ Gev/$c$ is presented by the PHENIX collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. A significant direct-photon yield is observed in both collision systems. A universal scaling is observed when the direct-photon $p_T$ spectra for different center-of-mass energies and for different centrality selections at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=62.4$ GeV is scaled with $(dN_{\rm ch}/d\eta)^{\alpha}$ for $\alpha=1.21{\pm}0.04$. This scaling also holds true for direct-photon spectra from Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV measured earlier by PHENIX, as well as the spectra from Pb$+$Pb at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=2760$ GeV published by ALICE. The scaling power $\alpha$ seems to be independent of $p_T$, center of mass energy, and collision centrality. The spectra from different collision energies have a similar shape up to $p_T$ of 2 GeV/$c$. The spectra have a local inverse slope $T_{\rm eff}$ increasing with $p_T$ of $0.174\pm0.018$ GeV/$c$ in the range $0.4<p_T<1.3$ GeV/$c$ and increasing to $0.289\pm0.024$ GeV/$c$ for $0.9<p_T<2.1$ GeV/$c$. The observed similarity of low-$p_T$ direct-photon production from $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}= 39$ to 2760 GeV suggests a common source of direct photons for the different collision energies and event centrality selections, and suggests a comparable space-time evolution of direct-photon emission.

12 data tables

$R_{\gamma}$ for minimum bias (0-86%) Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62.4$ GeV (a) and $39$ GeV (b). For $62.4$ GeV also centrality bins of 0-20% (c) and 20-40% (d) are shown. Data points are shown with statistical (bar) and systematic uncertainties (box)

$R_{\gamma}$ for minimum bias (0-86%) Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62.4$ GeV (a) and $39$ GeV (b). For $62.4$ GeV also centrality bins of 0-20% (c) and 20-40% (d) are shown. Data points are shown with statistical (bar) and systematic uncertainties (box)

Direct photon spectra for minimum bias (0-86%) Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62.4$ GeV (a) and $39$ GeV (b). For $62.4$ GeV also centrality bins of 0-20% (c) and 20-40% (d) are shown. Data points are shown with statistical and systematic uncertainties, unless the central value is negative (arrows) or is consistent with zero within the statistical uncertainties (arrows with data point). In these cases upper limit with CL = 95$%$ are given.

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Measurements of second-harmonic Fourier coefficients from azimuthal anisotropies in $p+p, p$+Au $d$+Au, and $^3$He + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
2022.
Inspire Record 2054927 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.136560

Recently, the PHENIX Collaboration has published second- and third-harmonic Fourier coefficients $v_2$ and $v_3$ for midrapidity ($|\eta|<0.35$) charged hadrons in 0%--5% central $p$$+$Au, $d$ $+$Au, and $^3$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV utilizing three sets of two-particle correlations for two detector combinations with different pseudorapidity acceptance [Phys. Rev. C {\bf 105}, 024901 (2022)]. This paper extends these measurements of $v_2$ to all centralities in $p$ $+$Au, $d$ $+$Au, and $^3$He$+$Au collisions, as well as $p$$+$$p$ collisions, as a function of transverse momentum ($p_T$) and event multiplicity. The kinematic dependence of $v_2$ is quantified as the ratio $R$ of $v_2$ between the two detector combinations as a function of event multiplicity for $0.5$ $<$ $p_T$ $<$ $1$ and $2$ $<$ $p_T$ $<$ $2.5$ GeV/$c$. A multiphase-transport (AMPT) model can reproduce the observed $v_2$ in most-central to midcentral $d$$+$Au and $^3$He$+$Au collisions. However, the AMPT model systematically overestimates the measurements in $p$ $+$ $p$, $p$ $+$Au, and peripheral $d$$+$Au and $^3$He$+$Au collisions, indicating a higher nonflow contribution in AMPT than in the experimental data. The AMPT model fails to describe the observed $R$ for $0.5$ $<$ $p_T$$<$ $1$ GeV/$c$, but there is qualitative agreement with the measurements for $2$ $<$ $p_T$ $<$ $2.5$ GeV/$c$.

18 data tables

Azimuthal anisotropy $v_2\{BB\}$ as a function of transverse momentum $p_T$ in $p$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 200 GeV.

Azimuthal anisotropy $v_2\{BF\}$ as a function of transverse momentum $p_T$ in $p$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 200 GeV.

Azimuthal anisotropy $v_2\{BB\}$ as a function of transverse momentum $p_T$ in $d$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} =$ 200 GeV.

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Study of $\phi$-meson production in $p+$Al, $p+$Au, $d+$Au, and $^3$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 106 (2022) 014908, 2022.
Inspire Record 2050486 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130267

Small nuclear collisions are mainly sensitive to cold-nuclear-matter effects; however, the collective behavior observed in these collisions shows a hint of hot-nuclear-matter effects. The identified-particle spectra, especially the $\phi$ mesons which contain strange and antistrange quarks and have a relatively small hadronic-interaction cross section, are a good tool to study these effects. The PHENIX experiment has measured $\phi$ mesons in a specific set of small collision systems $p$$+$Al, $p$$+$Au, and $^3$He$+$Au, as well as $d$$+$Au [Phys. Rev. C {\bf 83}, 024909 (2011)], at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV. The transverse-momentum spectra and nuclear-modification factors are presented and compared to theoretical-model predictions. The comparisons with different calculations suggest that quark-gluon plasma may be formed in these small collision systems at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV. However, the volume and the lifetime of the produced medium may be insufficient for observing strangeness-enhancement and jet-quenching effects. Comparison with calculations suggests that the main production mechanisms of $\phi$ mesons at midrapidity may be different in $p$$+$Al versus $p/d/$$^3$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV. While thermal quark recombination seems to dominate in $p/d/$$^3$He$+$Au collisions, fragmentation seems to be the main production mechanism in $p$$+$Al collisions.

2 data tables

Invariant transverse momentum spectra measured for $\phi$ mesons in (a) $p$+Al, (b) $p$+Au, and (c) $^{3}$He+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV at midrapidity.

Comparison of $\phi$-meson nuclear-modification factors in $p$+Al, $p$+Au, $d$+Au [2], and $^{3}$He+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV at midrapidity. The normalization uncertainty from $p$+$p$ of about $9.7 \%$ is not shown [28].


Measurement of the helicity dependence for single $\pi^{0}$ photoproduction from the deuteron

The A2 collaboration Cividini, F. ; Dieterle, M. ; Abt, S. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.A 58 (2022) 113, 2022.
Inspire Record 2040546 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132014

The helicity-dependent single $\pi^{0}$ photoproduction cross section on the deuteron and the angular dependence of the double polarisation observable $E$ for the quasi-free single $\pi^0$ production off the proton and the neutron have been measured for the first time from the threshold region up to the photon energy 1.4 GeV. The experiment was performed at the tagged photon facility of the MAMI accelerator and used a circularly polarised photon beam and longitudinally polarised deuteron target. The reaction products were detected using the large acceptance Crystal Ball/TAPS calorimeter, which covered 97% of the full solid angle. Comparing the cross section from the deuteron with the sum of free nucleon cross sections provides a quantitative estimate of the effects of the nuclear medium on pion production. In contrast, comparison of $E$ helicity asymmetry data from quasi-free protons off deuterium with data from a free proton target indicates that nuclear effects do not significantly affect this observable. As a consequence, it is deduced that the helicity asymmetry $E$ on a free neutron can be reliably extracted from measurements on a deuteron in quasi-free kinematics.

158 data tables

Inclusive polarized total cross section as a function of photon beam energy.

Helicity-dependent differential cross section on deuteron at Egamma= 161. MeV

Helicity-dependent differential cross section on deuteron at Egamma= 178. MeV

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Measurement of Direct-Photon Cross Section and Double-Helicity Asymmetry at $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV in $\vec{p}+\vec{p}$ Collisions

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
347 authors from 70 institutions, 8 pages, 2 figures, 1 table, 2013 data. Physical Review Letters. Plain text data tables for the points plotted in figures for this and previous PHENIX publications are (or will be) publicly available at http://www.phenix.bnl.gov/papers.html, 2022.
Inspire Record 2033856 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.129088

We present the measurement of the cross section and double-helicity asymmetry $A_{LL}$ of direct-photon production in $\vec{p}+\vec{p}$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV. The measurement has been performed at midrapidity ($|\eta|<0.25$) with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Direct photons are dominantly produced by the quark-gluon scattering at relativistic energies. Direct photons are produced from the initial partonic hard scattering and do not interact via the strong force. Therefore, this measurement provides a clean and direct access to the gluons in the polarized proton in the gluon-momentum-fraction range $0.02<x<0.08$.

2 data tables

Cross sections for inclusive and isolated direct photons as a function of $p_T$. Not shown are 10% absolute luminosity uncertainties.

Double helicity asymmetry $A_{LL}$ $vs$ $p_{T}$ for isolated direct-photon production in polarized $\vec{p}+\vec{p}$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV at midrapidity. Not shown are $3.9 \times 10^{-4}$ shift uncertainty from relative luminosity and 6.6% scale uncertainty from polarization.


Measurement of $\psi(2S)$ nuclear modification at backward and forward rapidity in $p$ $+$ $p$, $p$ $+$ Al, and $p$ $+$ Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Aidala, C. ; Akiba, Y. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 105 (2022) 064912, 2022.
Inspire Record 2029951 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130200

Suppression of the $J/\psi$ nuclear-modification factor has been seen as a trademark signature of final-state effects in large collision systems for decades. In small systems, the nuclear modification was attributed to cold-nuclear-matter effects until the observation of strong differential suppression of the $\psi(2S)$ state in $p/d$ $+$ $A$ collisions suggested the presence of final-state effects. Results of $J/\psi$ and $\psi(2S)$ measurements in the dimuon decay channel are presented here for $p$ $+$ $p$, $p$ $+$Al, and $p$ $+$Au collision systems at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV. The results are predominantly shown in the form of the nuclear-modification factor, $R_{pA}$, the ratio of the $\psi(2S)$ invariant yield per nucleon-nucleon collision in collisions of proton on target nucleus to that in $p$ $+$ $p$ collisions. Measurements of the $J/\psi$ and $\psi(2S)$ nuclear-modification factor are compared with shadowing and transport-model predictions, as well as to complementary measurements at Large-Hadron-Collider energies.

12 data tables

PSI(2S)-->MU+MU- invariant yields in p+p, p+Al, and p+Au collisions as a function of rapidity. The statistical and systematic uncertainties vary point-to-point and are listed for each measured value. An additional global systematic uncertainty is provided in each column heading, which applies to all data points per column.

J/PSI(1S)-->MU+MU- invariant yields in p+p, p+Al, and p+Au collisions as a function of rapidity. The statistical and systematic uncertainties vary point-to-point and are listed for each measured value. An additional global systematic uncertainty is provided in each column heading, which applies to all data points per column.

PSI(2S)-->MU+MU- nuclear modification in p+Al collisions as a function of rapidity. The statistical and systematic uncertainties vary point-to-point and are listed for each measured value. An additional global systematic uncertainty is provided in each column heading, which applies to all data points per column.

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