Investigation of the linear and mode-coupled flow harmonics in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt {S_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; Adams, J.R. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 809 (2020) 135728, 2020.
Inspire Record 1802752 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95353

Flow harmonics ($\textit{v}_{n}$) of the Fourier expansion for the azimuthal distributions of hadrons are commonly employed to quantify the azimuthal anisotropy of particle production relative to the collision symmetry planes. While lower order Fourier coefficients ($\textit{v}_{2}$ and $\textit{v}_{3}$) are more directly related to the corresponding eccentricities of the initial state, the higher-order flow harmonics ($\textit{v}_{n>3}$) can be induced by a mode-coupled response to the lower-order anisotropies, in addition to a linear response to the same-order anisotropies. These higher-order flow harmonics and their linear and mode-coupled contributions can be used to more precisely constrain the initial conditions and the transport properties of the medium in theoretical models. The multiparticle azimuthal cumulant method is used to measure the linear and mode-coupled contributions in the higher-order anisotropic flow, the mode-coupled response coefficients, and the correlations of the event plane angles for charged particles as functions of centrality and transverse momentum in Au+Au collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy \roots = 200 GeV. The results are compared to similar LHC measurements as well as to several viscous hydrodynamic calculations with varying initial conditions.

5 data tables

3-particle integrated correlators

The integrated $v_{4}$ and $v_{5}$

The integrated $\chi_{4,22}$, $\rho_{4,22}$, $\chi_{5,23}$ and $\rho_{5,23}$

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Measurement of jet-medium interactions via direct photon-hadron correlations in Au$+$Au and $d$ $+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U. ; Adare, A. ; Afanasiev, S. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 054910, 2020.
Inspire Record 1798493 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101752

We present direct photon-hadron correlations in 200 GeV/A Au+Au, d+Au, and p+p collisions, for direct photon pT from 5–12 GeV/c, collected by the PHENIX Collaboration in the years from 2006 to 2011. We observe no significant modification of jet fragmentation in d+Au collisions, indicating that cold nuclear matter effects are small or absent. Hadrons carrying a large fraction of the quark's momentum are suppressed in Au+Au compared to p+p and d+Au. As the momentum fraction decreases, the yield of hadrons in Au+Au increases to an excess over the yield in p+p collisions. The excess is at large angles and at low hadron pT and is most pronounced for hadrons associated with lower momentum direct photons. Comparison to theoretical calculations suggests that the hadron excess arises from medium response to energy deposited by jets.

14 data tables

Per-trigger yield of hadrons associated to direct photons in Au+Au collisions for direct photon $p_T$ 5-9 GeV/$c$, compared with p+p baseline, in various $\xi$ bins.

Per-trigger yield of hadrons associated to direct photons in d+Au collisions for direct photon $p_T$ 7-9 GeV/$c$, compared with p+p baseline, in various $\xi$ bins.

Integrated away-side $\gamma_{dir}$-h per-trigger yields of Au+Au, d+Au, and p+p, as a function of $\xi$.

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Directed, Elliptic, and Higher Order Flow Harmonics of Protons, Deuterons, and Tritons in $\mathrm{Au}+\mathrm{Au}$ Collisions at $\sqrt{{s}_{NN}}=2.4\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{GeV}$

The HADES collaboration Adamczewski-Musch, J. ; Arnold, O. ; Behnke, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 125 (2020) 262301, 2020.
Inspire Record 1797626 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.102468

Flow coefficients $v_{n}$ of the orders $n = 1 - 6$ are measured with the High-Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer (HADES) at GSI for protons, deuterons and tritons as a function of centrality, transverse momentum and rapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.4$ GeV. Combining the information from the flow coefficients of all orders allows to construct for the first time, at collision energies of a few GeV, a multi-differential picture of the angular emission pattern of these particles. It reflects the complicated interplay between the effect of the central fireball pressure on the emission of particles and their subsequent interaction with spectator matter. The high precision information on higher order flow coefficients is a major step forward in constraining the equation-of-state of dense baryonic matter.

18 data tables

The $p_{t}$ dependence of $v_{1}$ for protons, deuterons and tritons in the rapidity interval $-0.25 < y_{cm} < -0.15$ in semi-central ($20 - 30$ %) $\mathrm{Au}+\mathrm{Au}$ collisions at $\sqrt{{s}_{NN}}=2.4$ GeV.

The $p_{t}$ dependence of $v_{3}$ for protons, deuterons and tritons in the rapidity interval $-0.25 < y_{cm} < -0.15$ in semi-central ($20 - 30$ %) $\mathrm{Au}+\mathrm{Au}$ collisions at $\sqrt{{s}_{NN}}=2.4$ GeV.

The $p_{t}$ dependence of $v_{5}$ for protons, deuterons and tritons in the rapidity interval $-0.25 < y_{cm} < -0.15$ in semi-central ($20 - 30$ %) $\mathrm{Au}+\mathrm{Au}$ collisions at $\sqrt{{s}_{NN}}=2.4$ GeV.

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Charged-pion production in $\mathbf {Au+Au}$ collisions at $\sqrt{\mathbf {s}_{\mathbf {NN}}} = 2.4~{\mathbf {GeV}}$: HADES Collaboration

The HADES collaboration Adamczewski-Musch, J. ; Arnold, O. ; Behnke, C. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.A 56 (2020) 259, 2020.
Inspire Record 1796710 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.97368

We present high-statistic data on charged pion emission from Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 2.4 GeV (corresponding to $E_{beam}$ = 1.23 A GeV) in four centrality classes in the range 0 - 40$\%$ of the most central collisions. The data are analyzed as a function of transverse momentum, transverse mass, rapidity, and polar angle. Pion multiplicity per participating nucleon decreases moderately with increasing centrality. The polar angular distributions are found to be non-isotropic even for the most central event class. Our results on pion multiplicity fit well into the general trend of the world data, but undershoot by $2.5 \sigma$ data from the FOPI experiment measured at slightly lower beam energy. We compare our data to state-of-the-art transport model calculations (PHSD, IQMD, PHQMD, GiBUU and SMASH) and find substantial differences between the measurement and the results of these calculations.

11 data tables

Mid-rapidity and forward rapidity transverse momentum distributions ($p_{t}$) for charged pion for the 10$\%$most central events.

Reduced transverse mass distribution for negatively charged pions in rapidity bins of $\Delta y_{cm}$ = 0.1width between -0.65 and 0.75 for 0-10$\%$ most central events. The most backward rapidity is shown unscaledwhile for following rapidity slices are scaled up by succesive factors of 10.

Reduced transverse mass distribution for positively charged pions in rapidity bins of $\Delta y_{cm}$ = 0.1width between -0.65 and 0.75 for 0-10$\%$ most central events. The most backward rapidity is shown unscaledwhile for following rapidity slices are scaled up by succesive factors of 10.

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Proton-number fluctuations in $\sqrt {s_{NN}}$ =2.4 GeV Au + Au collisions studied with the High-Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer (HADES)

The HADES collaboration Adamczewski-Musch, J. ; Arnold, O. ; Behnke, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 024914, 2020.
Inspire Record 1781493 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.96305

We present an analysis of proton number fluctuations in $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.4 GeV Au+Au collisions measured with the High-Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer (HADES) at GSI. With the help of extensive detector simulations done with IQMD transport model events including nuclear clusters, various nuisance effects influencing the observed proton cumulants have been investigated. Acceptance and efficiency corrections have been applied as a function of fine grained rapidity and transverse momentum bins, as well as considering local track density dependencies. Next, the effects of volume changes within particular centrality selections have been considered and beyond-leading-order corrections have been applied to the data. The efficiency and volume corrected proton number moments and cumulants Kn of orders n = 1, . . . , 4 have been obtained as a function of centrality and phase-space bin, as well as the corresponding correlators C_n . We find that the observed correlators show a power-law scaling with the mean number of protons, i.e. $C_n \propto <N>^n$, indicative of mostly long-range multi-particle correlations in momentum space. We also present a comparison of our results with Au+Au collision data obtained at RHIC at similar centralities, but higher $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$.

20 data tables

$N_{part}$ distributions in Au+Au collisions for 8 centrality bins obtained from rescaled and modified $N_{hit}$ distributions (solid lines in Fig. 21b)

Efficiency and N2LO volume-corrected proton cumulant ratio $K_2/K_1$ plotted as a function of the rapidity acceptance

Efficiency and N2LO volume-corrected proton cumulant ratio $K_3/K_2$ plotted as a function of the rapidity acceptance

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Version 2
Probing dense baryon-rich matter with virtual photons

The HADES collaboration Adamczewski-Musch, J. ; Arnold, O. ; Behnke, C. ; et al.
Nature Phys. 15 (2019) 1040-1045, 2019.
Inspire Record 1758156 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.90846

About 10 μs after the Big Bang, the universe was filled—in addition to photons and leptons—with strong-interaction matter consisting of quarks and gluons, which transitioned to hadrons at temperatures close to kT = 150 MeV and densities several times higher than those found in nuclei. This quantum chromodynamics (QCD) matter can be created in the laboratory as a transient state by colliding heavy ions at relativistic energies. The different phases in which QCD matter may exist depend for example on temperature, pressure or baryochemical potential, and can be probed by studying the emission of electromagnetic radiation. Electron–positron pairs emerge from the decay of virtual photons, which immediately decouple from the strong interaction, and thus provide information about the properties of QCD matter at various stages. Here, we report the observation of virtual photon emission from baryon-rich QCD matter. The spectral distribution of the electron–positron pairs is nearly exponential, providing evidence for a source of temperature in excess of 70 MeV with constituents whose properties have been modified, thus reflecting peculiarities of strong-interaction QCD matter. Its bulk properties are similar to the dense matter formed in the final state of a neutron star merger, as apparent from recent multimessenger observation.

10 data tables

Reconstructed $e^{+} e^{-}$ mass distribution from Au+Au collisions.

Reconstructed $e^{+} e^{-}$ mass distribution from Au+Au collisions.

Reconstructed $e^{+} e^{-}$ mass distribution from Au+Au collisions.

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Version 2
Sub-threshold production of K$^{0}_{s}$ mesons and ${\Lambda}$ hyperons in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.4 GeV

The HADES collaboration Adamczewski-Musch, J. ; Arnold, O. ; Behnke, C. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 793 (2019) 457-463, 2019.
Inspire Record 1709767 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.90954

We present first data on sub-threshold production of K0 s mesons and {\Lambda} hyperons in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.4 GeV. We observe an universal <Apart> scaling of hadrons containing strangeness, independent of their corresponding production thresholds. Comparing the yields, their <Apart> scaling, and the shapes of the rapidity and the pt spectra to state-of-the-art transport model (UrQMD, HSD, IQMD) predictions, we find that none of the latter can simultaneously describe all observables with reasonable \c{hi}2 values.

18 data tables

Example of $K^{0}_{S}$ signal for 0-40% most central events, over mixed-event background for the bin $-0.05 < y_{cm} < 0.05$ and reduced transverse masses between $80-120 MeV/c^{2}$.

Example of $\Lambda$ signal for 0-40% most central events, over mixed-event background for the bin $-0.05 < y_{cm} < 0.05$ and reduced transverse masses between $100-150 MeV/c^{2}$.

Reduced transverse mass ($m_{t}-m_{0}$) spectra of $K^{0}_{S}$ for the 0-40% most central events.

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Collision Energy Dependence of Moments of Net-Kaon Multiplicity Distributions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adams, J.R. ; Adkins, J.K. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 785 (2018) 551-560, 2018.
Inspire Record 1621460 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.98573

Fluctuations of conserved quantities such as baryon number, charge, and strangeness are sensitive to the correlation length of the hot and dense matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions and can be used to search for the QCD critical point. We report the first measurements of the moments of net-kaon multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV. The collision centrality and energy dependence of the mean ($M$), variance ($\sigma^2$), skewness ($S$), and kurtosis ($\kappa$) for net-kaon multiplicity distributions as well as the ratio $\sigma^2/M$ and the products $S\sigma$ and $\kappa\sigma^2$ are presented. Comparisons are made with Poisson and negative binomial baseline calculations as well as with UrQMD, a transport model (UrQMD) that does not include effects from the QCD critical point. Within current uncertainties, the net-kaon cumulant ratios appear to be monotonic as a function of collision energy.

43 data tables

Raw $\Delta N_k$ distributions in Au+Au collisions at 7.7 GeV for 0–5%, 30–40%, and 70–80% collision centralities at midrapidity. The distributions are not corrected for the finite centrality bin width effect nor the reconstruction efficiency.

Raw $\Delta N_k$ distributions in Au+Au collisions at 11.5 GeV for 0–5%, 30–40%, and 70–80% collision centralities at midrapidity. The distributions are not corrected for the finite centrality bin width effect nor the reconstruction efficiency.

Raw $\Delta N_k$ distributions in Au+Au collisions at 14.5 GeV for 0–5%, 30–40%, and 70–80% collision centralities at midrapidity. The distributions are not corrected for the finite centrality bin width effect nor the reconstruction efficiency.

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Charged-particle multiplicity distributions over a wide pseudorapidity range in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=$ 0.9, 7, and 8 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, S. ; Adamová, D. ; Adolfsson, J. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 77 (2017) 852, 2017.
Inspire Record 1614477 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.78802

We present the charged-particle multiplicity distributions over a wide pseudorapidity range ($-3.4<\eta<5.0$) for pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=$ 0.9, 7, and 8 TeV at the LHC. Results are based on information from the Silicon Pixel Detector and the Forward Multiplicity Detector of ALICE, extending the pseudorapidity coverage of the earlier publications and the high-multiplicity reach. The measurements are compared to results from the CMS experiment and to PYTHIA, PHOJET and EPOS LHC event generators, as well as IP-Glasma calculations.

90 data tables

Multiplicity distribution in the pseudorapidity region -2.0 to 2.0 for NSD collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV.

Multiplicity distribution in the pseudorapidity region -2.4 to 2.4 for NSD collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV.

Multiplicity distribution in the pseudorapidity region -3.0 to 3.0 for NSD collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV.

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Beam Energy Dependence of Jet-Quenching Effects in Au+Au Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{ \mathrm{NN}}}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adams, J.R. ; Adkins, J.K. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 121 (2018) 032301, 2018.
Inspire Record 1609067 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.100537

We report measurements of the nuclear modification factor, $R_{ \mathrm{CP}}$, for charged hadrons as well as identified $\pi^{+(-)}$, $K^{+(-)}$, and $p(\overline{p})$ for Au+Au collision energies of $\sqrt{s_{_{ \mathrm{NN}}}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV. We observe a clear high-$p_{\mathrm{T}}$ net suppression in central collisions at 62.4 GeV for charged hadrons which evolves smoothly to a large net enhancement at lower energies. This trend is driven by the evolution of the pion spectra, but is also very similar for the kaon spectra. While the magnitude of the proton $R_{ \mathrm{CP}}$ at high $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ does depend on collision energy, neither the proton nor the anti-proton $R_{ \mathrm{CP}}$ at high $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ exhibit net suppression at any energy. A study of how the binary collision scaled high-$p_{\mathrm{T}}$ yield evolves with centrality reveals a non-monotonic shape that is consistent with the idea that jet-quenching is increasing faster than the combined phenomena that lead to enhancement.

118 data tables

Charged hadron RCP for RHIC BES energies. The uncertainty bands at unity on the right side of the plot correspond to the pT-independent uncertainty in Ncoll scaling with the color in the band corresponding to the color of the data points for that energy. The vertical uncertainty bars correspond to statistical uncertainties and the boxes to systematic uncertainties.

Identified particle (Pion Plus) RCP for RHIC BES energies. The colored shaded boxes describe the point-to-point systematic uncertainties. The uncertainty bands at unity on the right side of the plot correspond to the pT -independent uncertainty in Ncoll scaling with the color in the band corresponding to the color of the data points for that energy.

Identified particle (Pion Minus) RCP for RHIC BES energies. The colored shaded boxes describe the point-to-point systematic uncertainties. The uncertainty bands at unity on the right side of the plot correspond to the pT -independent uncertainty in Ncoll scaling with the color in the band corresponding to the color of the data points for that energy.

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Prompt and nonprompt J/$\psi$ production and nuclear modification in $p$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\text{NN}}}= 8.16$ TeV

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, R. ; Adeva, B. ; Adinolfi, M. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 774 (2017) 159-178, 2017.
Inspire Record 1606329 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.79799

The production of J/$\psi$ mesons is studied in proton-lead collisions at the centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair $\sqrt{s_{\text{NN}}}=8.16$ TeV with the LHCb detector at the LHC. The double differential cross-sections of prompt and nonprompt J/$\psi$ production are measured as functions of the J/$\psi$ transverse momentum and rapidity in the nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass frame. Forward-to-backward ratios and nuclear modification factors are determined. The results are compared with theoretical calculations based on collinear factorisation using nuclear parton distribution functions, on the colour glass condensate or on coherent energy loss models.

16 data tables

The total integrated cross sections for prompt $J/\psi$ production, assuming no polarisation, and $J/\psi$ production from $b$-hadron decays in the rapidity range $1.5 < y^* < 4.0$ in the nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass frame measured in the proton-lead beam configuration and transverse momentum 0-14 GeV/c. The first quoted uncertainty indicates the bin-by-bin correlated systematic uncertainty and the second is the bin-by-bin uncorrelated systematic uncertainty.

The total integrated cross sections for prompt $J/\psi$ production, assuming no polarisation, and $J/\psi$ production from $b$-hadron decays in the rapidity range $-5.0 < y^* < -2.5$ in the nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass frame measured in the lead-proton beam configuration and transverse momentum 0-14 GeV/c. The first quoted uncertainty indicates the bin-by-bin correlated systematic uncertainty and the second is the bin-by-bin uncorrelated systematic uncertainty

The double-differential cross sections for prompt $J/\psi$ production, assuming no polarisation, as a function of transverse momentum for the rapidity range $1.5 < y^* < 4.0$ in the nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass frame. The first quoted uncertainty indicates the bin-by-bin correlated systematic uncertainty and the second is the bin-by-bin uncorrelated systematic uncertainty.

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Test of lepton universality with $B^{0} \rightarrow K^{*0}\ell^{+}\ell^{-}$ decays

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, R. ; Adeva, B. ; Adinolfi, M. ; et al.
JHEP 08 (2017) 055, 2017.
Inspire Record 1599846 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77815

A test of lepton universality, performed by measuring the ratio of the branching fractions of the $B^{0} \rightarrow K^{*0}\mu^{+}\mu^{-}$ and $B^{0} \rightarrow K^{*0}e^{+}e^{-}$ decays, $R_{K^{*0}}$, is presented. The $K^{*0}$ meson is reconstructed in the final state $K^{+}\pi^{-}$, which is required to have an invariant mass within 100$\mathrm{\,MeV}c^2$ of the known $K^{*}(892)^{0}$ mass. The analysis is performed using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 3$\mathrm{\,fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8$\mathrm{\,TeV}$. The ratio is measured in two regions of the dilepton invariant mass squared, $q^{2}$, to be \begin{eqnarray*} R_{K^{*0}} = \begin{cases} 0.66~^{+~0.11}_{-~0.07}\mathrm{\,(stat)} \pm 0.03\mathrm{\,(syst)} & \textrm{for } 0.045 < q^{2} < 1.1~\mathrm{\,GeV^2}c^4 \, , \\ 0.69~^{+~0.11}_{-~0.07}\mathrm{\,(stat)} \pm 0.05\mathrm{\,(syst)} & \textrm{for } 1.1\phantom{00} < q^{2} < 6.0~\mathrm{\,GeV^2}c^4 \, . \end{cases} \end{eqnarray*} The corresponding 95.4\% confidence level intervals are $[0.52, 0.89]$ and $[0.53, 0.94]$. The results, which represent the most precise measurements of $R_{K^{*0}}$ to date, are compatible with the Standard Model expectations at the level of 2.1--2.3 and 2.4--2.5 standard deviations in the two $q^{2}$ regions, respectively.

2 data tables

Distributions of the $R(K^{*0})$ delta log-likelihood, $-(\ln L - \ln L_{best})$, for the three trigger categories combined in the low-q2 bin ($0.045 < q^2 < 1.1$ GeV$^{2}/c^4$).

Distributions of the $R(K^{*0})$ delta log-likelihood, $-(\ln L - \ln L_{best})$, for the three trigger categories combined in the central-q2 bin ($1.1 < q^2 < 6.0$ GeV$^{2}/c^4$).


Version 3
Deep sub-threshold $\phi$ production in Au+Au collisions

The HADES collaboration Adamczewski-Musch, J. ; Arnold, O. ; Behnke, C. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 778 (2018) 403-407, 2018.
Inspire Record 1519164 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.92099

We present data on charged kaons (K+-) and {\phi} mesons in Au(1.23A GeV)+Au collisions. It is the first simultaneous measurement of K and {\phi} mesons in central heavy-ion collisions below a kinetic beam energy of 10A GeV. The {\phi}/K- multiplicity ratio is found to be surprisingly high with a value of 0.52 +- 0.16 and shows no dependence on the centrality of the collision. Consequently, the different slopes of the K+ and K- transverse-mass spectra can be explained solely by feed- down, which substantially softens the spectra of K- mesons. Hence, in contrast to the commonly adapted argumentation in literature, the different slopes do not necessarily imply diverging freeze- out temperatures of K+ and K- mesons caused by different couplings to baryons.

13 data tables

Acceptance and efficiency corrected transverse-mass spectra around mid-rapidity.

$K^{+}$ signal and the corresponding background fit for the region covering mid-rapidity and $m_{t}−m_{0}$ between 25 and 50 $MeV/c^{2}$.

$K^{-}$ signal and the corresponding background fit for the region covering mid-rapidity and $m_{t}−m_{0}$ between 50 and 75 $MeV/c^{2}$.

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Precise determination of the CKM matrix element $\left| V_{cb}\right|$ with $\bar B^0 \to D^{*\,+} \, \ell^- \, \bar \nu_\ell$ decays with hadronic tagging at Belle

The Belle collaboration Abdesselam, A. ; Adachi, I. ; Adamczyk, K. ; et al.
2017.
Inspire Record 1512299 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.76987

The precise determination of the CKM matrix element $\left| V_{cb}\right|$ is important for carrying out tests of the flavour sector of the Standard Model. In this article we present a preliminary analysis of the $\bar B^0 \to D^{*\,+} \, \ell^- \, \bar \nu_\ell$ decay mode and its charge conjugate, selected in events that contain a fully reconstructed $B$-meson, using 772 million $e^+ \, e^- \to \Upsilon(4S) \to B \bar B$ events recorded by the Belle detector at KEKB. Unfolded differential decay rates of four kinematic variables fully describing the $\bar B^0 \to D^{*\,+} \, \ell^- \, \bar \nu_\ell$ decay in the $B$-meson rest frame are presented. We measure the total branching fraction $\mathcal{B}( \bar B^0 \to D^{*\,+} \, \ell^- \, \bar \nu_\ell ) = \left(4.95 \pm 0.11 \pm 0.22 \right) \times 10^{-2}$, where the errors are statistical and systematic respectively. The value of $\left|V_{cb} \right|$ is determined to be $\left( 37.4 \pm 1.3 \right) \times 10^{-3}$. Both results are in good agreement with current world averages.

5 data tables

The unfolded differential rate as a function of $w$.

The unfolded differential rate as a function of $\cos\theta_\nu$.

The unfolded differential rate as a function of $\cos\theta_\ell$.

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Measurements of jet quenching with semi-inclusive hadron+jet distributions in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 96 (2017) 024905, 2017.
Inspire Record 1512115 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77790

The STAR Collaboration reports the measurement of semi-inclusive distributions of charged-particle jets recoiling from a high transverse momentum hadron trigger, in central and peripheral Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. Charged jets are reconstructed with the anti-kT algorithm for jet radii R between 0.2 and 0.5 and with low infrared cutoff of track constituents ($p_T>0.2$ GeV/c). A novel mixed-event technique is used to correct the large uncorrelated background present in heavy ion collisions. Corrected recoil jet distributions are reported at mid-rapidity, for charged-jet transverse momentum $p_T^\mathrm{jet,ch}<30$ GeV/c. Comparison is made to similar measurements for Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV, to calculations for p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV based on the PYTHIA Monte Carlo generator and on a Next-to-Leading Order perturbative QCD approach, and to theoretical calculations incorporating jet quenching. The recoil jet yield is suppressed in central relative to peripheral collisions, with the magnitude of the suppression corresponding to medium-induced charged energy transport out of the jet cone of $2.8\pm0.2\mathrm{(stat)}\pm1.5\mathrm{(sys)}$ GeV/c, for $10<p_T^\mathrm{jet,ch}<20$ GeV/c and R = 0.5. No medium-induced change in jet shape is observed for $R<0.5$. The azimuthal distribution of low-$p_T^\mathrm{jet,ch}$ recoil jets may be enhanced at large azimuthal angles to the trigger axis, due to scattering off quasi-particles in the hot QCD medium. Measurement of this distribution gives a 90% statistical confidence upper limit to the yield enhancement at large deflection angles in central Au+Au collisions of $50\pm30\mathrm{(sys)\%}$ of the large-angle yield in p+pcollisions predicted by PYTHIA.

42 data tables

Distribution of p_{T,jet}^{reco,ch} for Au + Au collisions at \sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV for R = 0.2 jets in central events.

Distribution of p_{T,jet}^{reco,ch} for Au + Au collisions at \sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV for R = 0.2 jets in central events, mixed events.

Distribution of p_{T,jet}^{reco,ch} for Au + Au collisions at \sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV for R = 0.2 jets in peripheral events.

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Bulk Properties of the Medium Produced in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions from the Beam Energy Scan Program

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 96 (2017) 044904, 2017.
Inspire Record 1510593 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.76977

We present measurements of bulk properties of the matter produced in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV using identified hadrons ($\pi^\pm$, $K^\pm$, $p$ and $\bar{p}$) from the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Midrapidity ($|y|<$0.1) results for multiplicity densities $dN/dy$, average transverse momenta $\langle p_T \rangle$ and particle ratios are presented. The chemical and kinetic freeze-out dynamics at these energies are discussed and presented as a function of collision centrality and energy. These results constitute the systematic measurements of bulk properties of matter formed in heavy-ion collisions over a broad range of energy (or baryon chemical potential) at RHIC.

106 data tables

The average number of participating nucleons (⟨Npart⟩) for various collision centralities in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7–39 GeV.

Midrapidity (|y| < 0.1) transverse momentum spectra for (b) π- in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7 GeV for different centralities. The spectra for centralities other than 0–5% are scaled for clarity as shown in the figure. The curves represent the Bose-Einstein, mT -exponential, and double-exponential function fits to 0–5% central data for pions, kaons, and (anti)protons, respectively. The uncertainties are statistical and systematic added in quadrature.

Midrapidity (|y| < 0.1) transverse momentum spectra for (a) π+ in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7 GeV for different centralities. The spectra for centralities other than 0–5% are scaled for clarity as shown in the figure. The curves represent the Bose-Einstein, mT -exponential, and double-exponential function fits to 0–5% central data for pions, kaons, and (anti)protons, respectively. The uncertainties are statistical and systematic added in quadrature.

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Global $\Lambda$ hyperon polarization in nuclear collisions: evidence for the most vortical fluid

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Nature 548 (2017) 62-65, 2017.
Inspire Record 1510474 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77494

The extreme temperatures and energy densities generated by ultra-relativistic collisions between heavy nuclei produce a state of matter with surprising fluid properties. Non-central collisions have angular momentum on the order of 1000$\hbar$, and the resulting fluid may have a strong vortical structure that must be understood to properly describe the fluid. It is also of particular interest because the restoration of fundamental symmetries of quantum chromodynamics is expected to produce novel physical effects in the presence of strong vorticity. However, no experimental indications of fluid vorticity in heavy ion collisions have so far been found. Here we present the first measurement of an alignment between the angular momentum of a non-central collision and the spin of emitted particles, revealing that the fluid produced in heavy ion collisions is by far the most vortical system ever observed. We find that $\Lambda$ and $\overline{\Lambda}$ hyperons show a positive polarization of the order of a few percent, consistent with some hydrodynamic predictions. A previous measurement that reported a null result at higher collision energies is seen to be consistent with the trend of our new observations, though with larger statistical uncertainties. These data provide the first experimental access to the vortical structure of the "perfect fluid" created in a heavy ion collision. They should prove valuable in the development of hydrodynamic models that quantitatively connect observations to the theory of the Strong Force. Our results extend the recent discovery of hydrodynamic spin alignment to the subatomic realm.

2 data tables

Lambda and AntiLambda polarization as a function of collision energy. Systematic errorbars include those associated with particle identification (tiny), uncertainty in the value of the hyperon decay paramter (2%) and reaction plane resolution (2%) and detector efficiency corrections (4%). The dominant systematic error comes from statistical fluctuations in the "signal" in the combinatoric background

RESOLUTION UNCORRECTED Lambda and AntiLambda polarization as a function of collision energy. Systematic errorbars include those associated with particle identification (tiny), uncertainty in the value of the hyperon decay paramter (2%) and reaction plane resolution (2%) and detector efficiency corrections (4%). The dominant systematic error comes from statistical fluctuations in the "signal" in the combinatoric background


Constraining the initial conditions and temperature dependent viscosity with three-particle correlations in Au+Au collisions

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 790 (2019) 81-88, 2019.
Inspire Record 1510301 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101355

We present three-particle mixed-harmonic correlations $\la \cos (m\phi_a + n\phi_b - (m+n) \phi_c)\ra$ for harmonics $m,n=1-3$ for charged particles in $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$200 GeV Au+Au collisions at RHIC. These measurements provide information on the three-dimensional structure of the initial collision zone and are important for constraining models of a subsequent low-viscosity quark-gluon plasma expansion phase. We investigate correlations between the first, second and third harmonics predicted as a consequence of fluctuations in the initial state. The dependence of the correlations on the pseudorapidity separation between particles show hints of a breaking of longitudinal invariance. We compare our results to a number of state-of-the art hydrodynamic calculations with different initial states and temperature dependent viscosities. These measurements provide important steps towards constraining the temperature dependent transport and the longitudinal structure of the initial state at RHIC.

2 data tables

Dependence of mixed harmonic correlators $C_{1,2,3}$ and $C_{2,2,4}$ on relative pseudorapidity.

Centrality dependence of mixed harmonic correlators $C_{m,n,m+n}$.


Harmonic decomposition of three-particle azimuthal correlations at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 98 (2018) 034918, 2018.
Inspire Record 1510300 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.96955

We present measurements of three-particle correlations for various harmonics in Au+Au collisions at energies ranging from $\sqrt{s_{{\rm NN}}}=7.7$ to 200 GeV using the STAR detector. The quantity $\langle\cos(m\phi_1+n\phi_2-(m+n)\phi_3)\rangle$ is evaluated as a function of $\sqrt{s_{{\rm NN}}}$, collision centrality, transverse momentum, $p_T$, pseudo-rapidity difference, $\Delta\eta$, and harmonics ($m$ and $n$). These data provide detailed information on global event properties like the three-dimensional structure of the initial overlap region, the expansion dynamics of the matter produced in the collisions, and the transport properties of the medium. A strong dependence on $\Delta\eta$ is observed for most harmonic combinations consistent with breaking of longitudinal boost invariance. Data reveal changes with energy in the two-particle correlation functions relative to the second-harmonic event-plane and provide ways to constrain models of heavy-ion collisions over a wide range of collision energies.

18 data tables

The centrality dependence of the C$_{m,n,m+n}$ correlations versus N$_{part}$ for charged hadrons with p$_{T}>0.2$ GeV/c and $\eta<1$ from 200 GeV Au+Au collisions.

The centrality dependence of the C$_{m,n,m+n}$ correlations versus N$_{part}$ for charged hadrons with p$_{T}>0.2$ GeV/c and $\eta<1$ from 62.4 GeV Au+Au collisions.

The centrality dependence of the C$_{m,n,m+n}$ correlations versus N$_{part}$ for charged hadrons with p$_{T}>0.2$ GeV/c and $\eta<1$ from 39 GeV Au+Au collisions.

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Measurement of $D^0$ Azimuthal Anisotropy at Midrapidity in Au+Au Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 118 (2017) 212301, 2017.
Inspire Record 1510298 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101749

We report the first measurement of the elliptic anisotropy ($v_2$) of the charm meson $D^0$ at mid-rapidity ($|y|$\,$<$\,1) in Au+Au collisions at \sNN = 200\,GeV. The measurement was conducted by the STAR experiment at RHIC utilizing a new high-resolution silicon tracker. The measured $D^0$ $v_2$ in 0--80\% centrality Au+Au collisions can be described by a viscous hydrodynamic calculation for transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) less than 4\,GeV/$c$. The $D^0$ $v_2$ as a function of transverse kinetic energy ($m_{\rm T} - m_0$, where $m_{\rm T} = \sqrt{p_{\rm T}^2 + m_0^2}$) is consistent with that of light mesons in 10--40\% centrality Au+Au collisions. These results suggest that charm quarks have achieved local thermal equilibrium with the medium created in such collisions. Several theoretical models, with the temperature--dependent, dimensionless charm spatial diffusion coefficient ($2{\pi}TD_s$) in the range of $\sim$2--12, are able to simultaneously reproduce our $D^0$ $v_2$ result and our previously published results for the $D^0$ nuclear modification factor.

2 data tables

Azimuthal anisotropy $v_2$ as a function of $p_{\rm T}$ for $D^0$ in 10%–40% centrality Au+Au collisions.

Azimuthal anisotropy $v_2$ as a function of $p_{\rm T}$ for $D^0$ in 0%–80% centrality Au+Au collisions.


Measurement of the cross section and longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for di-jet production in polarized $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 95 (2017) 071103, 2017.
Inspire Record 1493842 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77208

We report the first measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry $A_{LL}$ for mid-rapidity di-jet production in polarized $pp$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV. The di-jet cross section was measured and is shown to be consistent with next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD predictions. $A_{LL}$ results are presented for two distinct topologies, defined by the jet pseudorapidities, and are compared to predictions from several recent NLO global analyses. The measured asymmetries, the first such correlation measurements, support those analyses that find positive gluon polarization at the level of roughly 0.2 over the region of Bjorken-$x > 0.05$.

10 data tables

Data simulation comparison (with arbitrary normalization). Di-jet invariant mass.

Data simulation comparison (with arbitrary normalization). Difference between jet pseudorapidities.

Data simulation comparison (with arbitrary normalization). Difference between jet azimuthal angles.

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Dijet imbalance measurements in $Au+Au$ and $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200$ GeV at STAR

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 119 (2017) 062301, 2017.
Inspire Record 1486427 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.102941

We report the first di-jet transverse momentum asymmetry measurements from Au+Au and p+p collisions at RHIC. The two highest-energy back-to-back jets reconstructed from fragments with transverse momenta above 2 GeV/c display a significantly stronger momentum imbalance in heavy-ion collisions than in the p+p reference. When re-examined with correlated soft particles included, we observe that these di-jets then exhibit a unique new feature -- momentum balance is restored to that observed in p+p for a jet resolution parameter of R=0.4, while re-balancing is not attained with a smaller value of R=0.2.

11 data tables

Normalized AJ distributions for Au+Au HT data (filled symbols) and p+p HT $\oplus$ Au+Au MB (open symbols). The red circles points are for jets found using only constituents with $p^{Cut}_{T} > 2$ GeV/$c$ and the black squares for matched jets found using constituents with $p^{Cut}_{T} > 0.2$ GeV/$c$. In all cases $R = 0.4$.

$p_{T}^{Part}$ vs. $p_{T}^{Det}$ for Leading jets with $R = 0.4$.

$p_{T}^{Part}$ vs. $p_{T}^{Det}$ for Leading jets with $R = 0.2$.

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$\Upsilon$ production in U + U collisions at $\sqrt{{s}_{NN}}=$ 193 GeV measured with the STAR experiment

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 94 (2016) 064904, 2016.
Inspire Record 1482939 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.98624

We present a measurement of the inclusive production of Upsilon mesons in U+U collisions at 193 GeV at mid-rapidity (|y| < 1). Previous studies in central Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV show a suppression of Upsilon(1S+2S+3S) production relative to expectations from the Upsilon yield in p+p collisions scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions (Ncoll), with an indication that the Upsilon(1S) state is also suppressed. The present measurement extends the number of participant nucleons in the collision (Npart) by 20% compared to Au+Au collisions, and allows us to study a system with higher energy density. We observe a suppression in both the Upsilon(1S+2S+3S) and Upsilon(1S) yields in central U+U data, which consolidates and extends the previously observed suppression trend in Au+Au collisions.

5 data tables

(Color online) $\Upsilon$(1S+2S+3S) (a) and $\Upsilon$(1S) (b) $R_{AA}$ vs. $N_{part}$ in $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV U+U collisions (solid circles), compared to 200 GeV RHIC Au+Au (solid squares [13] and hollow crosses [32]), and 2.76 TeV LHC Pb+Pb data (solid diamonds [33]). A 95% lower confidence bound is indicated for the 30-60% centrality U+U data (see text). Each point is plotted at the center of its bin. Centrality integrated (0-60%) U+U and Au+Au data are also shown as open circles and squares, respectively.

(Color online) $\Upsilon$(1S+2S+3S) (a) and $\Upsilon$(1S) (b) $R_{AA}$ vs. $N_{part}$ in $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV U+U collisions (solid circles), compared to 200 GeV RHIC Au+Au (solid squares [13] and hollow crosses [32]), and 2.76 TeV LHC Pb+Pb data (solid diamonds [33]). A 95% lower confidence bound is indicated for the 30-60% centrality U+U data (see text). Each point is plotted at the center of its bin. Centrality integrated (0-60%) U+U and Au+Au data are also shown as open circles and squares, respectively.

(Color online) $\Upsilon$(1S+2S+3S) (a) and $\Upsilon$(1S) (b) $R_{AA}$ vs. $N_{part}$ in $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV U+U collisions (solid circles), compared to different models [36–38], described in the text. The 95% lower confidence bound is indicated for the 30-60% centrality U+U data (see text). Each point is plotted at the center of its bin. Centrality integrated (0-60%) U+U and Au+Au data are also shown as open circles and squares, respectively.

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Charge-dependent directed flow in Cu+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 118 (2017) 012301, 2017.
Inspire Record 1481225 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77581

We present the first measurement of charge-dependent directed flow in Cu+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV. The results are presented as a function of the particle transverse momentum and pseudorapidity for different centralities. A finite difference between the directed flow of positive and negative charged particles is observed that qualitatively agrees with the expectations from the effects of the initial strong electric field between two colliding ions with different nuclear charges. The measured difference in directed flow is much smaller than that obtained from the parton-hadron-string-dynamics (PHSD) model, which suggests that most of the electric charges, i.e. quarks and antiquarks, have not yet been created during the lifetime of the strong electric field, which is of the order of, or less than, 1fm/$c$.

16 data tables

$p_{\rm T}$ dependence of directed flow in centrality 10-20%.

$p_{\rm T}$ dependence of directed flow in centrality 20-30%.

$p_{\rm T}$ dependence of directed flow in centrality 30-40%.