Measurement of Interaction between Antiprotons

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Nature 527 (2015) 345-348, 2015.
Inspire Record 1385105 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.71504

One of the primary goals of nuclear physics is to understand the force between nucleons, which is a necessary step for understanding the structure of nuclei and how nuclei interact with each other. Rutherford discovered the atomic nucleus in 1911, and the large body of knowledge about the nuclear force since acquired was derived from studies made on nucleons or nuclei. Although antinuclei up to antihelium-4 have been discovered and their masses measured, we have no direct knowledge of the nuclear force between antinucleons. Here, we study antiproton pair correlations among data taken by the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and show that the force between two antiprotons is attractive. In addition, we report two key parameters that characterize the corresponding strong interaction: namely, the scattering length (f0) and effective range (d0). As direct information on the interaction between two antiprotons, one of the simplest systems of antinucleons, our result provides a fundamental ingredient for understanding the structure of more complex antinuclei and their properties.

2 data tables

Correlation function for proton-proton pairs (top), antiproton-antiproton pairs (middle), and the ratio of the former to the latter (bottom).

Measurements of the singlet s-wave scattering length (f0) and the effective range (d0) from this and other experiments.


Centrality dependence of identified particle elliptic flow in relativistic heavy ion collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=7.7–62.4 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 93 (2016) 014907, 2016.
Inspire Record 1395151 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.71527

Elliptic flow (v_2) values for identified particles at midrapidity in Au + Au collisions measured by the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at sqrt{s_{NN}}= 7.7--62.4 GeV are presented for three centrality classes. The centrality dependence and the data at sqrt{s_{NN}}= 14.5 GeV are new. Except at the lowest beam energies we observe a similar relative v_2 baryon-meson splitting for all centrality classes which is in agreement within 15% with the number-of-constituent quark scaling. The larger v_2 for most particles relative to antiparticles, already observed for minimum bias collisions, shows a clear centrality dependence, with the largest difference for the most central collisions. Also, the results are compared with A Multiphase Transport Model and fit with a Blast Wave model.

392 data tables

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Pion Production in 650-MeV p-p Collisions

Guzhavin, V.M. ; Kliger, G.K. ; Kolganov, V.Z. ; et al.
Sov.Phys.JETP 19 (1964) 847-854, 1964.
Inspire Record 1387586 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.70070

The angular and energy distributions of pions produced by 650-MeV protons and pion-nucleon correlations were studied using a liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. The present investigation indicates that the experimental angular distributions of neutral and charged pions are consis- tent with the assumption of isotopic spin conservation. The contributions of rrN subsystem states with isospin T 11'N = 7' 2 and % are measured; the contribution of the latter is 72 ± 3%.

1 data table

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Centrality and transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow of multistrange hadrons and $\phi$ meson in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 116 (2016) 062301, 2016.
Inspire Record 1383879 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.71571

We present high precision measurements of elliptic flow near midrapidity ($|y|<1.0$) for multi-strange hadrons and $\phi$ meson as a function of centrality and transverse momentum in Au+Au collisions at center of mass energy $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 200 GeV. We observe that the transverse momentum dependence of $\phi$ and $\Omega$ $v_{2}$ is similar to that of $\pi$ and $p$, respectively, which may indicate that the heavier strange quark flows as strongly as the lighter up and down quarks. This observation constitutes a clear piece of evidence for the development of partonic collectivity in heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energy. Number of constituent quark scaling is found to hold within statistical uncertainty for both 0-30$\%$ and 30-80$\%$ collision centrality. There is an indication of the breakdown of previously observed mass ordering between $\phi$ and proton $v_{2}$ at low transverse momentum in the 0-30$\%$ centrality range, possibly indicating late hadronic interactions affecting the proton $v_{2}$.

23 data tables

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Probing parton dynamics of QCD matter with $\Omega$ and $\phi$ production

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 93 (2016) 021903, 2016.
Inspire Record 1378002 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72068

We present measurements of $\Omega$ and $\phi$ production at mid-rapidity from Au+Au collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27 and 39 GeV by the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Motivated by the coalescence formation mechanism for these strange hadrons, we study the ratios of $N(\Omega^{-}+\Omega^{+})/(2N(\phi))$. These ratios as a function of transverse momentum ($p_T$) fall on a consistent trend at high collision energies, but start to show deviations in peripheral collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 19.6, 27 and 39 GeV, and in central collisions at 11.5 GeV in the intermediate $p_T$ region of 2.4-3.6 GeV/c. We further evaluate empirically the strange quark $p_T$ distributions at hadronization by studying the $\Omega/\phi$ ratios scaled by the number of constituent quarks. The NCQ-scaled $\Omega/\phi$ ratios show a suppression of strange quark production in central collisions at 11.5 GeV compared to $\sqrt{s_{NN}} >= 19.6$ GeV. The shapes of the presumably thermal strange quark distributions in 0-60% most central collisions at 7.7 GeV show significant deviations from those in 0-10% most central collisions at higher energies. These features suggest that there is likely a change of the underlying strange quark dynamics in the transition from quark-matter to hadronic matter at collision energies below 19.6 GeV.

85 data tables

Phi Meson Spectra.

Phi Meson Spectra.

Phi Meson Spectra.

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Azimuthal anisotropy in U$+$U and Au$+$Au collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 115 (2015) 222301, 2015.
Inspire Record 1373553 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.71502

Collisions between prolate uranium nuclei are used to study how particle production and azimuthal anisotropies depend on initial geometry in heavy-ion collisions. We report the two- and four-particle cumulants, $v_2\{2\}$ and $v_2\{4\}$, for charged hadrons from U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 193 GeV and Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV. Nearly fully overlapping collisions are selected based on the amount of energy deposited by spectators in the STAR Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDCs). Within this sample, the observed dependence of $v_2\{2\}$ on multiplicity demonstrates that ZDC information combined with multiplicity can preferentially select different overlap configurations in U+U collisions. An initial-state model with gluon saturation describes the slope of $v_2\{2\}$ as a function of multiplicity in central collisions better than one based on Glauber with a two-component multiplicity model.

20 data tables

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Observation of charge asymmetry dependence of pion elliptic flow and the possible chiral magnetic wave in heavy-ion collisions

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 114 (2015) 252302, 2015.
Inspire Record 1358666 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72237

We present measurements of $\pi^-$ and $\pi^+$ elliptic flow, $v_2$, at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} =$ 200, 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 11.5 and 7.7 GeV, as a function of event-by-event charge asymmetry, $A_{ch}$, based on data from the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that $\pi^-$ ($\pi^+$) elliptic flow linearly increases (decreases) with charge asymmetry for most centrality bins at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} = \text{27 GeV}$ and higher. At $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} = \text{200 GeV}$, the slope of the difference of $v_2$ between $\pi^-$ and $\pi^+$ as a function of $A_{ch}$ exhibits a centrality dependence, which is qualitatively similar to calculations that incorporate a chiral magnetic wave effect. Similar centrality dependence is also observed at lower energies.

10 data tables

The distribution of observed charge asymmetry from STAR data.

Pion $v_2${2} as a function of observed charge asymmetry.

$v_2$ difference between $\pi^-$ and $\pi^+$ as a function of charge asymmetry with the tracking efficiency correction, for 30-40% central Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV. The errors are statistical only.

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Measurements of Dielectron Production in Au$+$Au Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV from the STAR Experiment

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 92 (2015) 024912, 2015.
Inspire Record 1357992 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73504

We report on measurements of dielectron ($e^+e^-$) production in Au$+$Au collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 200 GeV per nucleon-nucleon pair using the STAR detector at RHIC. Systematic measurements of the dielectron yield as a function of transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) and collision centrality show an enhancement compared to a cocktail simulation of hadronic sources in the low invariant-mass region ($M_{ee}<$ 1 GeV/$c^2$). This enhancement cannot be reproduced by the $\rho$-meson vacuum spectral function. In minimum-bias collisions, in the invariant-mass range of 0.30 $-$ 0.76 GeV/$c^2$, integrated over the full $p_{\rm T}$ acceptance, the enhancement factor is 1.76 $\pm$ 0.06 (stat.) $\pm$ 0.26 (sys.) $\pm$ 0.29 (cocktail). The enhancement factor exhibits weak centrality and $p_{\rm T}$ dependence in STAR's accessible kinematic regions, while the excess yield in this invariant-mass region as a function of the number of participating nucleons follows a power-law shape with a power of 1.44 $\pm$ 0.10. Models that assume an in-medium broadening of the $\rho$ meson spectral function consistently describe the observed excess in these measurements. Additionally, we report on measurements of $\omega$ and $\phi$-meson production through their $e^+e^-$ decay channel. These measurements show good agreement with Tsallis Blast-Wave model predictions as well as, in the case of the $\phi$-meson, results through its $K^+K^-$ decay channel. In the intermediate invariant-mass region (1.1$<M_{ee}<$ 3 GeV/$c^2$), we investigate the spectral shapes from different collision centralities. Physics implications for possible in-medium modification of charmed hadron production and other physics sources are discussed.

50 data tables

Estimated electron purity vs. momentum in 200 GeV Au + Au collisions.

Acceptance correction factor for unlike-sign and like-sign pair difference from 200 GeV Au+Au minimum-bias collisions.

Ratio of the same-event like-sign to the mixed event unlike-sign distributions.

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Observation of Transverse Spin-Dependent Azimuthal Correlations of Charged Pion Pairs in $p^\uparrow+p$ at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 115 (2015) 242501, 2015.
Inspire Record 1357596 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73282

We report the observation of transverse polarization-dependent azimuthal correlations in charged pion pair production with the STAR experiment in $p^\uparrow+p$ collisions at RHIC. These correlations directly probe quark transversity distributions. We measure signals in excess of five standard deviations at high transverse momenta, at high pseudorapidities eta>0.5, and for pair masses around the mass of the rho-meson. This is the first direct transversity measurement in p+p collisions. Comparing the results to data from lepton-nucleon scattering will test the universality of these spin-dependent quantities.

15 data tables

$p_T$ asymmetries, $\eta$ < 0, maximum opening angle of 0.2.

$<M_{inv}>$ asymmetries, $\eta$ < 0, maximum opening angle of 0.2.

$p_T$ asymmetries, $\eta$ > 0, maximum opening angle 0.2.

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Long-range pseudorapidity dihadron correlations in $d$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=200$ GeV

The STAR collaboration Adamczyk, L. ; Adkins, J.K. ; Agakishiev, G. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 747 (2015) 265-271, 2015.
Inspire Record 1346551 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72303

Dihadron angular correlations in $d$+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=200$ GeV are reported as a function of the measured zero-degree calorimeter neutral energy and the forward charged hadron multiplicity in the Au-beam direction. A finite correlated yield is observed at large relative pseudorapidity ($\Delta\eta$) on the near side (i.e. relative azimuth $\Delta\phi\sim0$). This correlated yield as a function of $\Delta\eta$ appears to scale with the dominant, primarily jet-related, away-side ($\Delta\phi\sim\pi$) yield. The Fourier coefficients of the $\Delta\phi$ correlation, $V_{n}=\langle\cos n\Delta\phi\rangle$, have a strong $\Delta\eta$ dependence. In addition, it is found that $V_{1}$ is approximately inversely proportional to the mid-rapidity event multiplicity, while $V_{2}$ is independent of it with similar magnitude in the forward ($d$-going) and backward (Au-going) directions.

23 data tables

Correlated dihadron yield, per radian per unit of pseudorapidity, as a function of $\Delta\phi$ for 1.2 < $|\Delta\eta|$ < 1.8 in d+Au collisions, for low ZDC-Au activity data. Both the trigger and associated particles have 1 < $p_T$ < 3 GeV/c.

Correlated dihadron yield, per radian per unit of pseudorapidity, as a function of $\Delta\phi$ for 1.2 < $|\Delta\eta|$ < 1.8 in d+Au collisions, for high ZDC-Au activity data. Both the trigger and associated particles have 1 < $p_T$ < 3 GeV/c.

Correlated dihadron yield, per radian per unit of pseudorapidity, as a function of $\Delta\phi$ for -4.5 < $\Delta\eta$ < -2 in d+Au collisions, for low ZDC-Au activity data. Both the trigger and associated particles have 1 < $p_T$ < 3 GeV/c.

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