Systematic study of nuclear effects in $p$ $+$Al, $p$ $+$Au, $d$ $+$Au, and $^{3}$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV using $\pi^0$ production

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
549 authors from 81 institutions, 21 pages, 13 figures, and 3 tables. Data from 2008, 2014, and 2015. Physical Review C. Plain text data tables for the points plotted in figures for this and previous PHENIX publications are (or will be) publicly available at http://www.phenix.bnl.gov/papers.html, 2021.
Inspire Record 1965617 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115023

The PHENIX collaboration presents a systematic study of $\pi^0$ production from $p$ $+$ $p$, $p$ $+$Al, $p$ $+$Au, $d$ $+$Au, and $^{3}$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV. Measurements were performed with different centrality selections as well as the total inelastic, 0%--100%, selection for all collision systems. For 0%--100% collisions, the nuclear modification factors, $R_{xA}$, are consistent with unity for $p_T$ above 8 GeV/$c$, but exhibit an enhancement in peripheral collisions and a suppression in central collisions. The enhancement and suppression characteristics are similar for all systems for the same centrality class. It is shown that for high-$p_T$-$\pi^0$ production, the nucleons in the $d$ and $^3$He interact mostly independently with the Au nucleus and that the counter intuitive centrality dependence is likely due to a physical correlation between multiplicity and the presence of a hard scattering process. These observations disfavor models where parton energy loss has a significant contribution to nuclear modifications in small systems. Nuclear modifications at lower $p_T$ resemble the Cronin effect -- an increase followed by a peak in central or inelastic collisions and a plateau in peripheral collisions. The peak height has a characteristic ordering by system size as $p$ $+$Au $>$ $d$ $+$Au $>$ $^{3}$He$+$Au $>$ $p$ $+$Al. For collisions with Au ions, current calculations based on initial state cold nuclear matter effects result in the opposite order, suggesting the presence of other contributions to nuclear modifications, in particular at lower $p_T$.

28 data tables

Differential cross section of $\pi^0$ in p+p collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV

Invariant yield of $\pi^0$ from (a) p+Al, (b) p+Au, (c) d+Au, and (d) $^{3}$HeAu in different centrality selections at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV

Nuclear modification factors from inelastic (a) p+Al, (b) p+Au, (c) d+Au, and (d) $^{3}$HeAu collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV. The right boxes are the $N_{coll}$ uncertainties from the Glauber model, while the left box represents the overall normalization uncertainty from p+p collisions

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Observation of $D_{s}^{\pm}/D^0$ enhancement in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; Adams, J.R. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 127 (2021) 092301, 2021.
Inspire Record 1843268 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101172

We report on the first measurement of charm-strange meson $D_s^{\pm}$ production at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}$ = 200 GeV from the STAR experiment. The yield ratio between strange ($D_{s}^{\pm}$) and non-strange ($D^{0}$) open-charm mesons is presented and compared to model calculations. A significant enhancement, relative to a PYTHIA simulation of $p$+$p$ collisions, is observed in the $D_{s}^{\pm}/D^0$ yield ratio in Au+Au collisions over a large range of collision centralities. Model calculations incorporating abundant strange-quark production in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and coalescence hadronization qualitatively reproduce the data. The transverse-momentum integrated yield ratio of $D_{s}^{\pm}/D^0$ at midrapidity is consistent with a prediction from a statistical hadronization model with the parameters constrained by the yields of light and strange hadrons measured at the same collision energy. These results suggest that the coalescence of charm quarks with strange quarks in the QGP plays an important role in $D_{s}^{\pm}$ meson production in heavy-ion collisions.

10 data tables

The $KK\pi$ invariant mass distribution (Counts per 8 MeV/$c^{2}$ bin) for right-sign combinations in 0-80% Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}$ = 200 GeV.

$D_s^{\pm}$ invariant yield as a function of $p_{T}$ in 0-10% centrality bin of Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}$ = 200 GeV. The $p_T$ bins are 1.5 < $p_T$ < 2.5 GeV/c, 2.5 < $p_T$ < 3.5 GeV/c, 3.5 < $p_T$ < 5.0 GeV/c and 5.0 < $p_T$ < 8.0 GeV/c.

$D_s^{\pm}$ invariant yield as a function of $p_{T}$ in 10-40% centrality bin of Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}$ = 200 GeV. The $p_T$ bins are 1.0 < $p_T$ < 2.0 GeV/c, 2.0 < $p_T$ < 2.5 GeV/c, 2.5 < $p_T$ < 3.5 GeV/c, 3.5 < $p_T$ < 5.0 GeV/c and 5.0 < $p_T$ < 8.0 GeV/c.

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Transverse single-spin asymmetries of midrapidity $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ mesons in polarized $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Aidala, C. ; Akiba, Y. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 103 (2021) 052009, 2021.
Inspire Record 1833997 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.105043

We present a measurement of the transverse single-spin asymmetry for $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ mesons in $p^\uparrow$$+$$p$ collisions in the pseudorapidity range $|\eta|<0.35$ and at a center-of-mass energy of 200 GeV with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. In comparison with previous measurements in this kinematic region, these results have a factor of 3 smaller uncertainties. As hadrons, $\pi^0$ and $\eta$ mesons are sensitive to both initial- and final-state nonperturbative effects for a mix of parton flavors. Comparisons of the differences in their transverse single-spin asymmetries have the potential to disentangle the possible effects of strangeness, isospin, or mass. These results can constrain the twist-3 trigluon collinear correlation function as well as the gluon Sivers function.

2 data tables

Data from Figs. 2, 4, and 5 of the transverse single-spin asymmetry of neutral pions measured at $|\eta|<0.35$ in $p^\uparrow$$+$$p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV. An additional scale uncertainty of 3.4\% due to the polarization uncertainty is not shown. The total $\sigma_{\rm syst}$ in the lowest $p_T$ bin includes an additional systematic uncertainty of $1.06\times10^{-4}$ from bunch shuffling.

Data from Figs. 3 and 4 of the transverse single-spin asymmetry of eta mesons measured at $|\eta|<0.35$ in $p^\uparrow$$+$$p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV. An additional scale uncertainty of 3.4\% due to the polarization uncertainty is not shown. The total $\sigma_{\rm syst}$ in the lowest $p_T$ bin includes an additional systematic uncertainty of $6.20\times10^{-4}$ from bunch shuffling.


Investigation of the linear and mode-coupled flow harmonics in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt {S_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; Adams, J.R. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 809 (2020) 135728, 2020.
Inspire Record 1802752 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95353

Flow harmonics ($\textit{v}_{n}$) of the Fourier expansion for the azimuthal distributions of hadrons are commonly employed to quantify the azimuthal anisotropy of particle production relative to the collision symmetry planes. While lower order Fourier coefficients ($\textit{v}_{2}$ and $\textit{v}_{3}$) are more directly related to the corresponding eccentricities of the initial state, the higher-order flow harmonics ($\textit{v}_{n>3}$) can be induced by a mode-coupled response to the lower-order anisotropies, in addition to a linear response to the same-order anisotropies. These higher-order flow harmonics and their linear and mode-coupled contributions can be used to more precisely constrain the initial conditions and the transport properties of the medium in theoretical models. The multiparticle azimuthal cumulant method is used to measure the linear and mode-coupled contributions in the higher-order anisotropic flow, the mode-coupled response coefficients, and the correlations of the event plane angles for charged particles as functions of centrality and transverse momentum in Au+Au collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy \roots = 200 GeV. The results are compared to similar LHC measurements as well as to several viscous hydrodynamic calculations with varying initial conditions.

5 data tables

3-particle integrated correlators

The integrated $v_{4}$ and $v_{5}$

The integrated $\chi_{4,22}$, $\rho_{4,22}$, $\chi_{5,23}$ and $\rho_{5,23}$

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Measurement of inclusive charged-particle jet production in Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; Adams, J.R. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 054913, 2020.
Inspire Record 1798665 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95120

The STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider reports the first measurement of inclusive jet production in peripheral and central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$~=~200 GeV. Jets are reconstructed with the anti-k$_{T}$ algorithm using charged tracks with pseudo--rapidity $|\eta|<1.0$ and transverse momentum $0.2<p_{T}<30$ GeV/$c$, with jet resolution parameter $R$~=~0.2, 0.3, and 0.4. The large background yield uncorrelated with the jet signal is observed to be dominated by statistical phase space, consistent with a previous coincidence measurement. This background is suppressed by requiring a high transverse-momentum (high-$p_T$) leading hadron in accepted jet candidates. The bias imposed by this requirement is assessed, and the $p_T$-region in which the bias is small is identified. Inclusive charged-particle jet distributions are reported in peripheral and central Au+Au collisions for $5<p_{T,jet}^{ch}<25$ GeV/$c$ and $5<p_{T,jet}^{ch}<30$ GeV/$c$, respectively. The charged-particle jet inclusive yield is suppressed for central Au+Au collisions, compared to both the peripheral Au+Au yield from this measurement and to the $pp$ yield calculated using the PYTHIA event generator. The magnitude of the suppression is consistent with that of inclusive hadron production at high $p_T$, and that of semi-inclusive recoil jet yield when expressed in terms of energy loss due to medium-induced energy transport. Comparison of inclusive charged-particle jet yields for different values of $R$ exhibits no significant evidence for medium-induced broadening of the transverse jet profile for $R<0.4$ in central Au+Au collisions. The measured distributions are consistent with theoretical model calculations that incorporate jet quenching.

12 data tables

Corrected inclusive charged-particle jet distributions in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV for R=0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 in central (0-10%) Au+Au collisions for pTlead,min = 5 GeV/c. The first uncertainty is statistical (symmetric), followed by shape uncertainty (asymmetric) and correlated uncertainty (asymmetric).

Corrected inclusive charged-particle jet distributions in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV for R=0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 in peripheral (60-80%) Au+Au collisions for pTlead,min = 5 GeV/c. The first uncertainty is statistical (symmetric), followed by shape uncertainty (asymmetric) and correlated uncertainty (asymmetric).

Corrected inclusive charged-particle jet distributions in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV for R=0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 in central (0-10%) Au+Au collisions for pTlead,min = 7 GeV/c. The first uncertainty is statistical (symmetric), followed by shape uncertainty (asymmetric) and correlated uncertainty (asymmetric).

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Measurement of jet-medium interactions via direct photon-hadron correlations in Au$+$Au and $d$ $+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U. ; Adare, A. ; Afanasiev, S. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 054910, 2020.
Inspire Record 1798493 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101752

We present direct photon-hadron correlations in 200 GeV/A Au+Au, d+Au, and p+p collisions, for direct photon pT from 5–12 GeV/c, collected by the PHENIX Collaboration in the years from 2006 to 2011. We observe no significant modification of jet fragmentation in d+Au collisions, indicating that cold nuclear matter effects are small or absent. Hadrons carrying a large fraction of the quark's momentum are suppressed in Au+Au compared to p+p and d+Au. As the momentum fraction decreases, the yield of hadrons in Au+Au increases to an excess over the yield in p+p collisions. The excess is at large angles and at low hadron pT and is most pronounced for hadrons associated with lower momentum direct photons. Comparison to theoretical calculations suggests that the hadron excess arises from medium response to energy deposited by jets.

14 data tables

Per-trigger yield of hadrons associated to direct photons in Au+Au collisions for direct photon $p_T$ 5-9 GeV/$c$, compared with p+p baseline, in various $\xi$ bins.

Per-trigger yield of hadrons associated to direct photons in d+Au collisions for direct photon $p_T$ 7-9 GeV/$c$, compared with p+p baseline, in various $\xi$ bins.

Integrated away-side $\gamma_{dir}$-h per-trigger yields of Au+Au, d+Au, and p+p, as a function of $\xi$.

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Measurement of charged pion double spin asymmetries at midrapidity in longitudinally polarized $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt {s}$ = 510 GeV

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U.A. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 102 (2020) 032001, 2020.
Inspire Record 1789851 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.95883

The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured the longitudinal double spin asymmetries, $A_{LL}$, for charged pions at midrapidity ($|\eta|<0.35$) in longitudinally polarized $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV. These measurements are sensitive to the gluon spin contribution to the total spin of the proton in the parton momentum fraction $x$ range between 0.04 and 0.09. One can infer the sign of the gluon polarization from the ordering of pion asymmetries with charge alone. The asymmetries are found to be consistent with global quantum-chromodynamics fits of deep-inelastic scattering and data at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV, which show a nonzero positive contribution of gluon spin to the proton spin.

1 data table

Double-spin asymmetries $A_{LL}$ as a function of transverse momentum for positive and negative pions.


Nonmonotonic Energy Dependence of Net-Proton Number Fluctuations

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 126 (2021) 092301, 2021.
Inspire Record 1774673 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.101068

Observations from collisions of heavy-ion at relativistic energies have established the formation of a new phase of matter, Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), a deconfined state of quarks and gluons in a specific region of the temperature versus baryonic chemical potential phase diagram of strong interactions. A program to study the features of the phase diagram, such as a possible critical point, by varying the collision energy ($\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$), is performed at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) facility. Non-monotonic variation with $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ of moments of the net-baryon number distribution, related to the correlation length and the susceptibilities of the system, is suggested as a signature for a critical point. We report the first evidence of a non-monotonic variation in kurtosis $\times$ variance of the net-proton number (proxy for net-baryon number) distribution as a function of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ with 3.1$\sigma$ significance, for head-on (central) gold-on-gold (Au+Au) collisions measured using the STAR detector at RHIC. Non-central Au+Au collisions and models of heavy-ion collisions without a critical point show a monotonic variation as a function of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$.

10 data tables

Event-by-event net-proton multiplicity distributions for central (0-5$\%$) Au+Au collisions from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 200 GeV. The distributions are normalised to total number of events. The distributions are not corrected for proton and antiproton detection efficiency.

Cumulants of net-proton distributions in Au+Au collisions for nine energies from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 200 GeV for 0-5$\%$ and 70-80$\%$ centrality.

Cumulant ratios C3/C2 and C4/C2 of net-proton distributions in Au+Au collisions for eight energies from $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7 - 62.4 GeV for 0-5$\%$ centrality. Also given are the derivative of the polynomial fits to the C3/C2 and C4/C2 vs energy at each energy and the Skellam baselines for the ratios.

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Measurement of $J/\psi$ at forward and backward rapidity in $p+p$, $p+A$l, $p+A$u, and $^3$He$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200~{\rm GeV}$

The PHENIX collaboration Acharya, U. ; Adare, A. ; Aidala, C. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 102 (2020) 014902, 2020.
Inspire Record 1762446 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.98626

Charmonium is a valuable probe in heavy-ion collisions to study the properties of the quark gluon plasma, and is also an interesting probe in small collision systems to study cold nuclear matter effects, which are also present in large collision systems. With the recent observations of collective behavior of produced particles in small system collisions, measurements of the modification of charmonium in small systems have become increasingly relevant. We present the results of J/ψ measurements at forward and backward rapidity in various small collision systems, p+p, p+Al, p+Au and 3He+Au, at √sNN =200 GeV. The results are presented in the form of the observable RAB, the nuclear modification factor, a measure of the ratio of the J/ψ invariant yield compared to the scaled yield in p+p collisions. We examine the rapidity, transverse momentum, and collision centrality dependence of nuclear effects on J/ψ production with different projectile sizes p and 3He, and different target sizes Al and Au. The modification is found to be strongly dependent on the target size, but to be very similar for p+Au and 3He+Au. However, for 0%–20% central collisions at backward rapidity, the modification for 3He+Au is found to be smaller than that for p+Au, with a mean fit to the ratio of 0.89±0.03(stat)±0.08(syst), possibly indicating final state effects due to the larger projectile size.

36 data tables

J/psi invariant yields in p+p collisions as a function of pT at forward and backward rapidity. The statistical and systematic uncertainties vary point-to-point and are listed for each measured value. An additional global systematic uncertainty is provided in each column heading, which applies to all data points per column.

J/psi nuclear modification in p+Al, p+Au and 3He+Au collisions as a function of centrality and rapidity. The statistical and systematic uncertainties vary point-to-point and are listed for each measured value. An additional global systematic uncertainty is provided in each column heading, which applies to all data points per column.

J/psi nuclear modification in p+Al collisions as a function of centrality and rapidity. The statistical and systematic uncertainties vary point-to-point and are listed for each measured value. An additional global systematic uncertainty is provided in each column heading, which applies to all data points per column.

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Longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for inclusive jet and dijet production in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 510$ GeV

The STAR collaboration Adam, J. ; Adamczyk, L. ; Adams, J.R. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 100 (2019) 052005, 2019.
Inspire Record 1738738 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.105278

We report the first measurement of the inclusive jet and the dijet longitudinal double-spin asymmetries, $A_{LL}$, at midrapidity in polarized $pp$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s} = 510$ GeV. The inclusive jet $A_{LL}$ measurement is sensitive to the gluon helicity distribution down to a gluon momentum fraction of $x\approx 0.015$, while the dijet measurements, separated into four jet-pair topologies, provide constraints on the $x$ dependence of the gluon polarization. Both results are consistent with previous measurements made at $\sqrt{s}= 200$ GeV in the overlapping kinematic region, $x > 0.05$, and show good agreement with predictions from recent next-to-leading order global analyses.

56 data tables

Fractions of the next-to-leading-order cross section for inclusive jet production arising from quark-quark, quark-gluon and gluon-gluon scattering in pp collisions (200GeV)

Fractions of the next-to-leading-order cross section for inclusive jet production arising from quark-quark, quark-gluon and gluon-gluon scattering in pp collisions (500GeV)

The upper panel shows the jet yield vs detector jet pT in data and simulation for each of the three trigger categories. The lower three panels show the relative differences between data and simulation (JP0)

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