Two-particle transverse momentum correlations in pp and p-Pb collisions at LHC energies

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-230, 2022.
Inspire Record 2182733 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.137819

Two-particle transverse momentum differential correlators, recently measured in Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energies, provide an additional tool to gain insights into particle production mechanisms and infer transport properties, such as the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, of the medium created in Pb-Pb collisions. The longitudinal long-range correlations and the large azimuthal anisotropy measured at low transverse momenta in small collision systems, namely pp and p-Pb, at LHC energies resemble manifestations of collective behaviour. This suggests that locally equilibrated matter may be produced in these small collision systems, similar to what is observed in Pb-Pb collisions. In this work, the same two-particle transverse momentum differential correlators are exploited in pp and p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV and $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV, respectively, to seek evidence for viscous effects. Specifically, the strength and shape of the correlators are studied as a function of the produced particle multiplicity to identify evidence for longitudinal broadening that might reveal the presence of viscous effects in these smaller systems. The measured correlators and their evolution from pp and p-Pb to Pb-Pb collisions are additionally compared to predictions from Monte Carlo event generators, and the potential presence of viscous effects is discussed.

24 data tables

Two-particle transverse momentum correlation $G_{2}^{\rm CD}$ for 0$-$5% multiplicity class pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7\;\text{TeV}$.

Two-particle transverse momentum correlation $G_{2}^{\rm CD}$ for 30$-$40% multiplicity class pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7\;\text{TeV}$.

Two-particle transverse momentum correlation $G_{2}^{\rm CD}$ for 70$-$80% multiplicity class pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7\;\text{TeV}$.

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Neutron emission in ultraperipheral Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = 5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-186, 2022.
Inspire Record 2149540 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.137763

In ultraperipheral collisions (UPCs) of relativistic nuclei without overlap of nuclear densities, the two nuclei are excited by the Lorentz-contracted Coulomb fields of their collision partners. In these UPCs, the typical nuclear excitation energy is below a few tens of MeV, and a small number of nucleons are emitted in electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) of primary nuclei, in contrast to complete nuclear fragmentation in hadronic interactions. The cross sections of emission of given numbers of neutrons in UPCs of $^{208}$Pb nuclei at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV were measured with the neutron zero degree calorimeters (ZDCs) of the ALICE detector at the LHC, exploiting a similar technique to that used in previous studies performed at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76$ TeV. In addition, the cross sections for the exclusive emission of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 forward neutrons in the EMD, not accompanied by the emission of forward protons, and thus mostly corresponding to the production of $^{207,206,205,204,203}$Pb, respectively, were measured for the first time. The predictions from the available models describe the measured cross sections well. These cross sections can be used for evaluating the impact of secondary nuclei on the LHC components, in particular, on superconducting magnets, and also provide useful input for the design of the Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh).

3 data tables

Fractions of EMD events (%) with given number of neutrons i on one side and no neutrons on the opposite side in ultra-peripheral Pb-Pb collisions

Measured cross section of emission of given number of neutrons i in UPC of Pb nuclei.

Measured cross sections of emission of given number of neutrons i without protons in UPC of Pb nuclei.


Anisotropic flow and flow fluctuations of identified hadrons in Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-122, 2022.
Inspire Record 2093750 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133152

The first measurements of elliptic flow of $\pi^\pm$, ${\rm K}^\pm$, p+$\overline{\rm p}$, ${\rm K_{S}^0}$, $\Lambda$+$\overline{\Lambda}$, $\phi$, $\Xi^-$+$\Xi^+$, and $\Omega^-$+$\Omega^+$ using multiparticle cumulants in Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV are presented. Results obtained with two- ($v_2\{2\}$) and four-particle cumulants ($v_2\{4\}$) are shown as a function of transverse momentum, $p_{\rm T}$, for various collision centrality intervals. Combining the data for both $v_2\{2\}$ and $v_2\{4\}$ also allows us to report the first measurements of the mean elliptic flow, elliptic flow fluctuations, and relative elliptic flow fluctuations for various hadron species. These observables probe the event-by-event eccentricity fluctuations in the initial state and the contributions from the dynamic evolution of the expanding quark-gluon plasma. The characteristic features observed in previous $p_{\rm T}$-differential anisotropic flow measurements for identified hadrons with two-particle correlations, namely the mass ordering at low $p_{\rm T}$ and the approximate scaling with the number of constituent quarks at intermediate $p_{\rm T}$, are similarly present in the four-particle correlations and the combinations of $v_2\{2\}$ and $v_2\{4\}$. In addition, a particle species dependence of flow fluctuations is observed that could indicate a significant contribution from final state hadronic interactions. The comparison between experimental measurements and CoLBT model calculations, which combine the various physics processes of hydrodynamics, quark coalescence, and jet fragmentation, illustrates their importance over a wide $p_{\rm T}$ range.

200 data tables

The $p_{T}$-differential $v_2$ measured with two-particle correlations with a pseudorapidity gap of $|\Delta \eta| > 0.8$ for different particle species and centralities in Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = 5.02$ TeV.

The $p_{T}$-differential $v_2$ measured with two-particle correlations with a pseudorapidity gap of $|\Delta \eta| > 0.8$ for different particle species and centralities in Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = 5.02$ TeV.

The $p_{T}$-differential $v_2$ measured with two-particle correlations with a pseudorapidity gap of $|\Delta \eta| > 0.8$ for different particle species and centralities in Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = 5.02$ TeV.

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Closing in on critical net-baryon fluctuations at LHC energies: cumulants up to third order in Pb$-$Pb collisions

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-111, 2022.
Inspire Record 2092559 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.135800

Fluctuation measurements are important sources of information on the mechanism of particle production at LHC energies. This article reports the first experimental results on third-order cumulants of the net-proton distributions in Pb$-$Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV recorded by the ALICE detector. The results on the second-order cumulants of net-proton distributions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ and $5.02$ TeV are also discussed in view of effects due to the global and local baryon number conservation. The results demonstrate the presence of long-range rapidity correlations between protons and antiprotons. Such correlations originate from the early phase of the collision. The experimental results are compared with HIJING and EPOS model calculations, and the dependence of the fluctuation measurements on the phase-space coverage is examined in the context of lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) and hadron resonance gas (HRG) model estimations. The measured third-order cumulants are consistent with zero within experimental uncertainties of about 4% and are described well by LQCD and HRG predictions.

14 data tables

Delta_eta dependence of Kappa_2(pi+-pi-)/<pi++pi>, momentum range: 0.6 < p < 1.5 GeV/c.

Delta_eta dependence of Kappa_2(K+-K-)/<K++K->, momentum range: 0.6 < p < 1.5 GeV/c.

Delta_eta dependence of Kappa_2(p-pbar)/<p+pbar>, momentum range: 0.6 < p < 1.5 GeV/c.

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Towards the understanding of the genuine three-body interaction for p$-$p$-$p and p$-$p$-\Lambda$

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-110, 2022.
Inspire Record 2092560 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.134041

Three-body nuclear forces play an important role in the structure of nuclei and hypernuclei and are also incorporated in models to describe the dynamics of dense baryonic matter, such as in neutron stars. So far, only indirect measurements anchored to the binding energies of nuclei can be used to constrain the three-nucleon force, and if hyperons are considered, the scarce data on hypernuclei impose only weak constraints on the three-body forces. In this work, we present the first direct measurement of the p$-$p$-$p and p$-$p$-\Lambda$ systems in terms of three-particle mixed moments carried out for pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV. Three-particle cumulants are extracted from the normalised mixed moments by applying the Kubo formalism, where the three-particle interaction contribution to these moments can be isolated after subtracting the known two-body interaction terms. A negative cumulant is found for the p$-$p$-$p system, hinting to the presence of a residual three-body effect while for p$-$p$-\Lambda$ the cumulant is consistent with zero. This measurement demonstrates the accessibility of three-baryon correlations at the LHC.

11 data tables

The (p-p)-p correlation function obtained using the data-driven approach

The (p-p)-$\Lambda$ correlation function obtained using the data-driven approach

The p-(p-$\Lambda$) correlation function obtained using the data-driven approach

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Constraining the ${\rm\overline{K}N}$ coupled channel dynamics using femtoscopic correlations at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-107, 2022.
Inspire Record 2088954 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132766

The interaction of $\rm{K}^{-}$ with protons is characterised by the presence of several coupled channels, systems like ${\rm \overline{K}^0}$n and $\pi\Sigma$ with a similar mass and the same quantum numbers as the $\rm{K}^{-}$p state. The strengths of these couplings to the $\rm{K}^{-}$p system are of crucial importance for the understanding of the nature of the $\Lambda(1405)$ resonance and of the attractive $\rm{K}^{-}$p strong interaction. In this article, we present measurements of the $\rm{K}^{-}$p correlation functions in relative momentum space obtained in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}~=~13$ TeV, in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}~=~5.02$ TeV, and (semi)peripheral Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}~=~5.02$ TeV. The emitting source size, composed of a core radius anchored to the $\rm{K}^{+}$p correlation and of a resonance halo specific to each particle pair, varies between 1 and 2 fm in these collision systems. The strength and the effects of the ${\rm \overline{K}^0}$n and $\pi\Sigma$ inelastic channels on the measured $\rm{K}^{-}$p correlation function are investigated in the different colliding systems by comparing the data with state-of-the-art models of chiral potentials. A novel approach to determine the conversion weights $\omega$, necessary to quantify the amount of produced inelastic channels in the correlation function, is presented. In this method, particle yields are estimated from thermal model predictions, and their kinematic distribution from blast-wave fits to measured data. The comparison of chiral potentials to the measured $\rm{K}^{-}$p interaction indicates that, while the $\pi\Sigma-\rm{K}^{-}$p dynamics is well reproduced by the model, the coupling to the ${\rm \overline{K}^0}$n channel in the model is currently underestimated.

17 data tables

K$^+$p (K$^+$p $\oplus$ K$^-\overline{\mathrm p}$) correlation function in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV.

K$^+$p (K$^+$p $\oplus$ K$^-\overline{\mathrm p}$) correlation function in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}=5.02 $ TeV (0-20%).

K$^+$p (K$^+$p $\oplus$ K$^-\overline{\mathrm p}$) correlation function in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV (20-40%).

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First measurement of $\rm \Omega_c^0$ production in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-106, 2022.
Inspire Record 2088206 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.136180

The inclusive production of the charm-strange baryon $\rm \Omega_c^0$ is measured for the first time via its hadronic decay into $\rm \Omega^-\pi^+$ at midrapidity ($|y|<0.5$) in proton-proton (pp) collisions at the centre-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) differential cross section multiplied by the branching ratio is presented in the interval $2<p_{\rm T}<12~{\rm GeV}/c$. The $p_{\rm T}$ dependence of the $\rm \Omega_c^0$-baryon production relative to the prompt $\rm D^0$-meson and to the prompt $\rm \Xi_c^0$-baryon production is compared to various models that take different hadronisation mechanisms into consideration. In the measured $p_{\rm T}$ interval, the ratio of the $p_{\rm T}$-integrated cross sections of $\rm \Omega_c^0$ and prompt $\Lambda_{\rm c}^{+}$ baryons multiplied by the $\rm \Omega^-\pi^+$ branching ratio is found to be larger by a factor of about 20 with a significance of about 4$\sigma$ when compared to $\rm e^+e^-$ collisions.

3 data tables

The $p_{\rm T}$-differential production cross section of inclusive $\rm \Omega_c^0$ baryons multiplied by the branching ratio into $\rm \Omega^-\pi^+$ for $|{\it y}|<0.5$ in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV.

$\rm BR(\Omega_{c}^{0} \rightarrow \Omega^{-}\pi^{+}) \times {\it \sigma}(\Omega_{c}^{0})/{\it \sigma}(D^{0})$ as a function of $p_{\rm T}$ in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV for $|{\it y}|<0.5$.

$\rm BR(\Omega_{c}^{0} \rightarrow \Omega^{-}\pi^{+}) \times {\it \sigma}(\Omega_{c}^{0})/{\it \sigma}(\Xi_c^0)$ as a function of $p_{\rm T}$ in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV for $|{\it y}|<0.5$.


$\Sigma(1385)^{\pm}$ resonance production in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-104, 2022.
Inspire Record 2088201 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.134042

Hadronic resonances are used to probe the hadron gas produced in the late stage of heavy-ion collisions since they decay on the same timescale, of the order of 1 to 10 fm/$c$, as the decoupling time of the system. In the hadron gas, (pseudo)elastic scatterings among the products of resonances that decayed before the kinetic freeze-out and regeneration processes counteract each other, the net effect depending on the resonance lifetime, the duration of the hadronic phase, and the hadronic cross sections at play. In this context, the $\Sigma(1385)^{\pm}$ particle is of particular interest as models predict that regeneration dominates over rescattering despite its relatively short lifetime of about 5.5 fm/$c$. The first measurement of the $\Sigma(1385)^{\pm}$ resonance production at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}= 5.02$ TeV with the ALICE detector is presented in this Letter. The resonances are reconstructed via their hadronic decay channel, $\Lambda\pi$, as a function of the transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) and the collision centrality. The results are discussed in comparison with the measured yield of pions and with expectations from the statistical hadronization model as well as commonly employed event generators, including PYTHIA8/Angantyr and EPOS3 coupled to the UrQMD hadronic cascade afterburner. None of the models can describe the data. For $\Sigma(1385)^{\pm}$, a similar behaviour as ${\rm K}^{*} (892)^{0}$ is observed in data unlike the predictions of EPOS3 with afterburner.

11 data tables

$p_{\rm{T}}$-differential yield of $\Sigma^{*+}$ + cc in Pb-Pb collisions with centre-of-mass energy/nucleon=5.02 TeV (0-10% multiplicity class).

$p_{\rm{T}}$-differential yield of $\Sigma^{*+}$ + cc in Pb-Pb collisions with centre-of-mass energy/nucleon=5.02 TeV (30-50% multiplicity class).

$p_{\rm{T}}$-differential yield of $\Sigma^{*+}$ + cc in Pb-Pb collisions with centre-of-mass energy/nucleon=5.02 TeV (50-90% multiplicity class).

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Dielectron production at midrapidity at low transverse momentum in peripheral and semi-peripheral Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-068, 2022.
Inspire Record 2071861 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.134246

The first measurement of the ${\rm e}^{+}{\rm e}^{-}$ pair production at low lepton pair transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T,ee}$) and low invariant mass ($m_{\rm ee}$) in non-central Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV at the LHC is presented. The dielectron production is studied with the ALICE detector at midrapidity ($|\eta_{\rm e}| < 0.8$) as a function of invariant mass ($0.4 \leq m_{\rm ee} < 2.7$ GeV/$c^2$) in the 50$-$70% and 70$-$90% centrality classes for $p_{\rm T,ee} < 0.1$ GeV/$c$, and as a function of $p_{\rm T,ee}$ in three $m_{\rm ee}$ intervals in the most peripheral Pb$-$Pb collisions. Below a $p_{\rm T,ee}$ of 0.1 GeV/$c$, a clear excess of ${\rm e}^{+}{\rm e}^{-}$ pairs is found compared to the expectations from known hadronic sources and predictions of thermal radiation from the medium. The $m_{\rm ee}$ excess spectra are reproduced, within uncertainties, by different predictions of the photon$-$photon production of dielectrons, where the photons originate from the extremely strong electromagnetic fields generated by the highly Lorentz-contracted Pb nuclei. Lowest-order quantum electrodynamic (QED) calculations, as well as a model that takes into account the impact-parameter dependence of the average transverse momentum of the photons, also provide a good description of the $p_{\rm T,ee}$ spectra. The measured $\sqrt{\langle p_{\rm T,ee}^{2} \rangle}$ of the excess $p_{\rm T,ee}$ spectrum in peripheral Pb$-$Pb collisions is found to be comparable to the values observed previously at RHIC in a similar phase-space region.

10 data tables

Differential $e^+e^-$ yield in 50--70\% Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV as a function of $m_{\rm ee}$ for $p_{\rm T,ee} < 0.1$ GeV/$c$. Electrons are measured within $|\eta_{\rm e}| < 0.8$ and $p_{\rm T,e} > 0.2$ GeV/$c$. The quoted upper limits correspond to a 90% confidence level.

Differential $e^+e^-$ yield in 70--90\% Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV as a function of $m_{\rm ee}$ for $p_{\rm T,ee} < 0.1$ GeV/$c$. Electrons are measured within $|\eta_{\rm e}| < 0.8$ and $p_{\rm T,e} > 0.2$ GeV/$c$.

Differential excess $e^+e^-$ yield in 50--70\% Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV as a function of $m_{\rm ee}$ for $p_{\rm T,ee} < 0.1$ GeV/$c$. Electrons are measured within $|\eta_{\rm e}| < 0.8$ and $p_{\rm T,e} > 0.2$ GeV/$c$. The quoted upper limits correspond to a 90% confidence level.

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W$^\pm$-boson production in p$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 8.16$ TeV and PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-076, 2022.
Inspire Record 2071184 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133034

The production of the W$^\pm$ bosons measured in p$-$Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon$-$nucleon collision $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 8.16$ TeV and Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV with ALICE at the LHC is presented. The W$^\pm$ bosons are measured via their muonic decay channel, with the muon reconstructed in the pseudorapidity region $-4 < \eta^\mu_{\rm lab} < -2.5$ with transverse momentum $p_{\rm T}^\mu > 10$ GeV/$c$. While in Pb$-$Pb collisions the measurements are performed in the forward ($2.5 < y^\mu_{\rm cms} < 4$) rapidity region, in p$-$Pb collisions, where the centre-of-mass frame is boosted with respect to the laboratory frame, the measurements are performed in the backward ($-4.46 < y^\mu_{\rm cms} < -2.96$) and forward ($2.03 < y^\mu_{\rm cms} < 3.53$) rapidity regions. The W$^{-}$ and W$^{+}$ production cross sections, lepton-charge asymmetry, and nuclear modification factors are evaluated as a function of the muon rapidity. In order to study the production as a function of the p$-$Pb collision centrality, the production cross sections of the W$^{-}$ and W$^{+}$ bosons are combined and normalised to the average number of binary nucleon$-$nucleon collision $\langle N_\mathrm{coll} \rangle$. In Pb$-$Pb collisions, the same measurements are presented as a function of the collision centrality. Study of the binary scaling of the W$^\pm$-boson cross sections in p$-$Pb and Pb$-$Pb collisions is also reported. The results are compared with perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations, with and without nuclear modifications of the Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs), as well as with available data at the LHC. Significant deviations from the theory expectations are found in the two collision systems, indicating that the measurements can provide additional constraints for the determination of nuclear PDF (nPDFs) and in particular of the light-quark distributions.

12 data tables

d$\sigma$ / d$y$ of muons from W decays in p-Pb, in full fiducial region

d$\sigma$ / d$y$ of muons from W decays in p-Pb, in rapidity bins

Lepton-charge asymmetry $A_{ch} = \frac{N_{\mu^+} - N_{\mu^-}}{N_{\mu^+} + N_{\mu^-}}$ in p-Pb

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