Longitudinal and transverse spin transfer to $\Lambda$ and $\overline{\Lambda}$ hyperons in polarized $p$+$p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdulhamid, Muhammad ; Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 109 (2024) 012004, 2024.
Inspire Record 2703253 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.144919

The longitudinal and transverse spin transfers to $\Lambda$ ($\overline{\Lambda}$) hyperons in polarized proton-proton collisions are expected to be sensitive to the helicity and transversity distributions, respectively, of (anti-)strange quarks in the proton, and to the corresponding polarized fragmentation functions. We report improved measurements of the longitudinal spin transfer coefficient, $D_{LL}$, and the transverse spin transfer coefficient, $D_{TT}$, to $\Lambda$ and $\overline{\Lambda}$ in polarized proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The data set includes longitudinally polarized proton-proton collisions with an integrated luminosity of 52 pb$^{-1}$, and transversely polarized proton-proton collisions with a similar integrated luminosity. Both data sets have about twice the statistics of previous results and cover a kinematic range of $|\eta_{\Lambda(\overline{\Lambda})}|$$<$ 1.2 and transverse momentum $p_{T,{\Lambda(\overline{\Lambda})}}$ up to 8 GeV/$c$. We also report the first measurements of the hyperon spin transfer coefficients $D_{LL}$ and $D_{TT}$ as a function of the fractional jet momentum $z$ carried by the hyperon, which can provide more direct constraints on the polarized fragmentation functions.

35 data tables

'$D_{LL}$ as a function of $\cos\theta^{*}$ at $0 < \eta_{\Lambda(\overline{\Lambda})} < 1.2$ and $3 < p_{T} < 4 GeV/c$'

'$D_{TT}$ as a function of $\cos\theta^{*}$ at $0 < \eta_{jet} < 1.0$ and $0.5 < z < 0.7$'

'$\Lambda$ $D_{LL}$ as a function of $p_{T}$ at $0 < \eta_{\Lambda(\overline{\Lambda})} < 1.2$'

More…

Global polarization of $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ hyperons in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=19.6$ and $27$ GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdulhamid, M.I. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 108 (2023) 014910, 2023.
Inspire Record 2659670 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.140936

In relativistic heavy-ion collisions, a global spin polarization, $P_\mathrm{H}$, of $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ hyperons along the direction of the system angular momentum was discovered and measured across a broad range of collision energies and demonstrated a trend of increasing $P_\mathrm{H}$ with decreasing $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$. A splitting between $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ polarization may be possible due to their different magnetic moments in a late-stage magnetic field sustained by the quark-gluon plasma which is formed in the collision. The results presented in this study find no significant splitting at the collision energies of $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=19.6$ and $27$ GeV in the RHIC Beam Energy Scan Phase II using the STAR detector, with an upper limit of $P_{\bar{\Lambda}}-P_{\Lambda}<0.24$% and $P_{\bar{\Lambda}}-P_{\Lambda}<0.35$%, respectively, at a 95% confidence level. We derive an upper limit on the na\"ive extraction of the late-stage magnetic field of $B<9.4\cdot10^{12}$ T and $B<1.4\cdot10^{13}$ T at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=19.6$ and $27$ GeV, respectively, although more thorough derivations are needed. Differential measurements of $P_\mathrm{H}$ were performed with respect to collision centrality, transverse momentum, and rapidity. With our current acceptance of $|y|<1$ and uncertainties, we observe no dependence on transverse momentum and rapidity in this analysis. These results challenge multiple existing model calculations following a variety of different assumptions which have each predicted a strong dependence on rapidity in this collision-energy range.

5 data tables

The first-order event-plane resolution determined by the STAR EPD as a function of collision centrality is roughly doubled in comparison to previous analyses using the STAR BBC. We see $R_{\rm EP}^{(1)}$ peak for mid-central collisions.

The mid-central $P_{\rm H}$ measurements reported in this work are shown alongside previous measurements in the upper panel, and are consistent with previous measurements at the energies studied here. The difference between integrated $P_{\bar{\Lambda}}$ and $P_{\Lambda}$ is shown at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$=19.6 and 27 GeV alongside previous measurements in the lower panel. The splittings observed with these high-statistics data sets are consistent with zero. Statistical uncertainties are represented as lines while systematic uncertainties are represented as boxes. The previous $P_{\bar{\Lambda}}-P_{\Lambda}$ result at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=7.7$ GeV is outside the axis range, but is consistent with zero within $2\sigma$.

$P_{\rm H}$ measurements are shown as a function of collision centrality at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$=19.6 and 27 GeV. Statistical uncertainties are represented as lines while systematic uncertainties are represented as boxes. $P_{\rm H}$ increases with collision centrality at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$=19.6 and 27 GeV, as expected from an angular-momentum-driven phenomenon.

More…

Event-by-event correlations between $\Lambda$ ($\bar{\Lambda}$) hyperon global polarization and handedness with charged hadron azimuthal separation in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\text{NN}}} = 27 \text{ GeV}$ from STAR

The STAR collaboration Abdulhamid, M.I. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 108 (2023) 014909, 2023.
Inspire Record 2652850 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.140262

Global polarizations ($P$) of $\Lambda$ ($\bar{\Lambda}$) hyperons have been observed in non-central heavy-ion collisions. The strong magnetic field primarily created by the spectator protons in such collisions would split the $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ global polarizations ($\Delta P = P_{\Lambda} - P_{\bar{\Lambda}} < 0$). Additionally, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) predicts topological charge fluctuations in vacuum, resulting in a chirality imbalance or parity violation in a local domain. This would give rise to an imbalance ($\Delta n = \frac{N_{\text{L}} - N_{\text{R}}}{\langle N_{\text{L}} + N_{\text{R}} \rangle} \neq 0$) between left- and right-handed $\Lambda$ ($\bar{\Lambda}$) as well as a charge separation along the magnetic field, referred to as the chiral magnetic effect (CME). This charge separation can be characterized by the parity-even azimuthal correlator ($\Delta\gamma$) and parity-odd azimuthal harmonic observable ($\Delta a_{1}$). Measurements of $\Delta P$, $\Delta\gamma$, and $\Delta a_{1}$ have not led to definitive conclusions concerning the CME or the magnetic field, and $\Delta n$ has not been measured previously. Correlations among these observables may reveal new insights. This paper reports measurements of correlation between $\Delta n$ and $\Delta a_{1}$, which is sensitive to chirality fluctuations, and correlation between $\Delta P$ and $\Delta\gamma$ sensitive to magnetic field in Au+Au collisions at 27 GeV. For both measurements, no correlations have been observed beyond statistical fluctuations.

19 data tables

Figure 1

Figure 2ab

Figure 2c

More…

Observation of the electromagnetic field effect via charge-dependent directed flow in heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

The STAR collaboration Abdulhamid, M.I. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, J. ; et al.
Phys.Rev.X 14 (2024) 011028, 2024.
Inspire Record 2649979 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.139915

Non-central collisions between ultra-relativistic heavy nuclei can produce strong magnetic fields on the order of $10^{18}$ Gauss, and the evolution of the electromagnetic field could leave an imprint on the final-state particles. In particular, particles and anti-particles with opposite charges will receive opposite contributions to their rapidity-odd directed flow, $v_1(\mathsf{y})$. Here we present the charge-dependent measurements of $dv_1/d\mathsf{y}$ near midrapidity for $\pi^{\pm}$, $K^{\pm}$, and $p(\bar{p})$ in Au+Au and isobar ($_{44}^{96}$Ru+$_{44}^{96}$Ru and $_{40}^{96}$Zr+$_{40}^{96}$Zr) collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 200 GeV, and in Au+Au at 27 GeV, recorded by the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The combined dependence of the $v_1$ signal on collision system, particle species, and collision centrality can be qualitatively and semi-quantitatively understood as several effects on constituent quarks. While the results in central events can be explained by the $u$ and $d$ quarks transported from initial-state nuclei, those in peripheral events reveal the contributions from the Faraday induction and Coulomb effect for the first time in heavy-ion collisions.

9 data tables

Directed flow of $p$ and $\bar{p}$ vs rapidity in Au+Au 200 GeV 50-80% centrality.

Directed flow of $p$ and $\bar{p}$ vs rapidity in Zr+Zr and Ru+Ru 200 GeV (combined) 50-80% centrality.

Directed flow of $p$ and $\bar{p}$ vs rapidity in Au+Au 27 GeV 50-80% centrality.

More…

Hyperon polarization along the beam direction relative to the second and third harmonic event planes in isobar collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The STAR collaboration Abdulhamid, Muhammad ; Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 131 (2023) 202301, 2023.
Inspire Record 2643014 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.139081

The polarization of $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ hyperons along the beam direction has been measured relative to the second and third harmonic event planes in isobar Ru+Ru and Zr+Zr collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. This is the first experimental evidence of the hyperon polarization by the triangular flow originating from the initial density fluctuations. The amplitudes of the sine modulation for the second and third harmonic results are comparable in magnitude, increase from central to peripheral collisions, and show a mild $p_T$ dependence. The azimuthal angle dependence of the polarization follows the vorticity pattern expected due to elliptic and triangular anisotropic flow, and qualitatively disagree with most hydrodynamic model calculations based on thermal vorticity and shear induced contributions. The model results based on one of existing implementations of the shear contribution lead to a correct azimuthal angle dependence, but predict centrality and $p_T$ dependence that still disagree with experimental measurements. Thus, our results provide stringent constraints on the thermal vorticity and shear-induced contributions to hyperon polarization. Comparison to previous measurements at RHIC and the LHC for the second-order harmonic results shows little dependence on the collision system size and collision energy.

5 data tables

$sgn(\alpha_H)\langle\cos(\theta_p^{\ast})\rangle$ of $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ as a function of hyperon azimuthal angle relative to the second-order event plane in isobar collisions at 200 GeV.

$sgn(\alpha_H)\langle\cos(\theta_p^{\ast})\rangle$ of $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ as a function of hyperon azimuthal angle relative to the third-order event plane in isobar collisions at 200 GeV.

$P_z$ sine coefficients of $\Lambda+\bar{\Lambda}$ as a function of centrality in isobar collisions at 200 GeV.

More…

Measurement of electrons from open heavy-flavor hadron decays in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=200$ GeV with the STAR detector

The STAR collaboration Abdulhamid, M.I. ; Aboona, B.E. ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
JHEP 06 (2023) 176, 2023.
Inspire Record 2641480 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.139080

We report a new measurement of the production of electrons from open heavy-flavor hadron decays (HFEs) at mid-rapidity ($|y|<$ 0.7) in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=200$ GeV. Invariant yields of HFEs are measured for the transverse momentum range of $3.5 < p_{\rm T} < 9$ GeV/$c$ in various configurations of the collision geometry. The HFE yields in head-on Au+Au collisions are suppressed by approximately a factor of 2 compared to that in $p$+$p$ collisions scaled by the average number of binary collisions, indicating strong interactions between heavy quarks and the hot and dense medium created in heavy-ion collisions. Comparison of these results with models provides additional tests of theoretical calculations of heavy quark energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma.

6 data tables

Ratios of NPE (non-photonic electron) to PHE (photonic electron) as a function of $p_{\rm T}$ in 0-10% central (yellow circles) and 40-80% peripheral (green squares) Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=200$ GeV. Vertical bars represent statistical uncertainties while boxes represent systematic uncertainties. Horizontal bars indicate the bin width.

Invariant yields of electrons from decays of prompt $J/\psi$ (dot-dashed line), $\Upsilon$ (dotted line), Drell-Yan (long dash-dotted line), light vector mesons (long dashed line) and the combined HDE (hadron decayed electron) contribution (solid line), estimated utilizing experimental measurements, theoretical calculations, and PYTHIA and $\rm E_{VT}G_{EN}$ event generators, in 0-10% central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=200$ GeV. Color bands represent systematic uncertainties.

Invariant yields of electrons from decays of prompt $J/\psi$ (dot-dashed line), $\Upsilon$ (dotted line), Drell-Yan (long dash-dotted line), light vector mesons (long dashed line) and the combined HDE (hadron decayed electron) contribution (solid line), estimated utilizing experimental measurements, theoretical calculations, and PYTHIA and $\rm E_{VT}G_{EN}$ event generators, in 40-80% central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=200$ GeV. Color bands represent systematic uncertainties.

More…

Elliptic Flow of Heavy-Flavor Decay Electrons in Au+Au Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}$ = 27 and 54.4 GeV at RHIC

The STAR collaboration
Phys.Lett.B 844 (2023) 138071, 2023.
Inspire Record 2638989 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.138996

We report on new measurements of elliptic flow ($v_2$) of electrons from heavy-flavor hadron decays at mid-rapidity ($|y|<0.8$) in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}$ = 27 and 54.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. Heavy-flavor decay electrons ($e^{\rm HF}$) in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}$ = 54.4 GeV exhibit a non-zero $v_2$ in the transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) region of $p_{\rm T}<$ 2 GeV/$c$ with the magnitude comparable to that at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}=200$ GeV. The measured $e^{\rm HF}$$v_2$ at 54.4 GeV is also consistent with the expectation of their parent charm hadron $v_2$ following number-of-constituent-quark scaling as other light and strange flavor hadrons at this energy. These suggest that charm quarks gain significant collectivity through the evolution of the QCD medium and may reach local thermal equilibrium in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}=54.4$ GeV. The measured $e^{\rm HF}$$v_2$ in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}=$ 27 GeV is consistent with zero within large uncertainties. The energy dependence of $v_2$ for different flavor particles ($\pi,\phi,D^{0}/e^{\rm HF}$) shows an indication of quark mass hierarchy in reaching thermalization in high-energy nuclear collisions.

6 data tables

Heavy-flavor decay electron $v_2$ as a function of electron $p_{\rm T}$ in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}$ = 54.4 GeV.

Heavy-flavor decay electron $v_2$ as a function of electron $p_{\rm T}$ in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}$ = 27 GeV.

Energy dependence of $v_2$ for $\pi^{\pm}$, $\phi$, $D^0$ and $e^{\rm HF}$ at the same transverse mass value $\left<k_{\rm T}\right>=\left<m_{\rm T}-m_0\right>$ = 0.93 GeV/$c^2$. The data points are from or interpolated from STAR and ALICE measurements. The $e^{\rm HF}$ $v_2$ shown here is at the same parent $D^0$ meson transverse mass position using the decay kinematics calculated from PYTHIA6. Data points at the same energy are shifted horizontally for clarity. Error bars depict combined statistical and systematic uncertainties.

More…

Energy Dependence of Intermittency for Charged Hadrons in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Abdulhamid, Muhammad ; Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 845 (2023) 138165, 2023.
Inspire Record 2626682 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.137849

Density fluctuations near the QCD critical point can be probed via an intermittency analysis in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We report the first measurement of intermittency in Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{_{NN}}}$ = 7.7-200 GeV measured by the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The scaled factorial moments of identified charged hadrons are analyzed at mid-rapidity and within the transverse momentum phase space. We observe a power-law behavior of scaled factorial moments in Au$+$Au collisions and a decrease in the extracted scaling exponent ($\nu$) from peripheral to central collisions. The $\nu$ is consistent with a constant for different collisions energies in the mid-central (10-40%) collisions. Moreover, the $\nu$ in the 0-5% most central Au$+$Au collisions exhibits a non-monotonic energy dependence that reaches a possible minimum around $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{_{NN}}}$ = 27 GeV. The physics implications on the QCD phase structure are discussed.

53 data tables

The scaled factorial moments, $F_{q}(M)$($q=$ 2-6), of identified charged hadrons ($h^{\pm}$) multiplicity in the most central (0-5\%) Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{_{NN}}}$ = 7.7 GeV.

The scaled factorial moments, $F_{q}(M)$($q=$ 2-6), of identified charged hadrons ($h^{\pm}$) multiplicity in the most central (0-5\%) Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{_{NN}}}$ = 19.6 GeV.

The scaled factorial moments, $F_{q}(M)$($q=$ 2-6), of identified charged hadrons ($h^{\pm}$) multiplicity in the most central (0-5\%) Au$+$Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{_{NN}}}$ = 39 GeV.

More…

First Observation of Directed Flow of Hypernuclei $^3_{\Lambda}$H and $^4_{\Lambda}$H in $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 3 GeV Au+Au Collisions at RHIC

The STAR collaboration Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 130 (2023) 212301, 2023.
Inspire Record 2605845 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.136028

We report here the first observation of directed flow ($v_1$) of the hypernuclei $^3_{\Lambda}$H and $^4_{\Lambda}$H in mid-central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 3 GeV at RHIC. These data are taken as part of the beam energy scan program carried out by the STAR experiment. From 165 $\times$ 10$^{6}$ events in 5%-40% centrality, about 8400 $^3_{\Lambda}$H and 5200 $^4_{\Lambda}$H candidates are reconstructed through two- and three-body decay channels. We observe that these hypernuclei exhibit significant directed flow. Comparing to that of light nuclei, it is found that the midrapidity $v_1$ slopes of $^3_{\Lambda}$H and $^4_{\Lambda}$H follow baryon number scaling, implying that the coalescence is the dominant mechanism for these hypernuclei production in such collisions.

8 data tables

$\Lambda$ hyperon and hypernuclei directed flow $v_1$, shown as a function of rapidity, from the $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 3 GeV 5-40% mid-central Au+Au collisions. In the case of $^{3}_{\Lambda}$H $v_1$, both two-body (dots) and three-body (triangles) decays are used. The linear terms of the fitting for $#Lambda$, $^{3}_{\Lambda}$H and $^{4}_{\Lambda}$H are shown as the yellow-red lines. The rapidity dependence of $v_1$ for $p$, $d$, $t$, $^3$He, and $^4$He are also shown as open markers (circles, diamonds, up-triangles, down-triangles and squares), and the linear terms of the fitting results are shown as dashed lines in the positive rapidity region.

$\Lambda$ hyperon and hypernuclei directed flow $v_1$, shown as a function of rapidity, from the $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 3 GeV 5-40% mid-central Au+Au collisions. In the case of $^{3}_{\Lambda}$H $v_1$, both two-body (dots) and three-body (triangles) decays are used. The linear terms of the fitting for $#Lambda$, $^{3}_{\Lambda}$H and $^{4}_{\Lambda}$H are shown as the yellow-red lines. The rapidity dependence of $v_1$ for $p$, $d$, $t$, $^3$He, and $^4$He are also shown as open markers (circles, diamonds, up-triangles, down-triangles and squares), and the linear terms of the fitting results are shown as dashed lines in the positive rapidity region.

$\Lambda$ hyperon and hypernuclei directed flow $v_1$, shown as a function of rapidity, from the $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 3 GeV 5-40% mid-central Au+Au collisions. In the case of $^{3}_{\Lambda}$H $v_1$, both two-body (dots) and three-body (triangles) decays are used. The linear terms of the fitting for $#Lambda$, $^{3}_{\Lambda}$H and $^{4}_{\Lambda}$H are shown as the yellow-red lines. The rapidity dependence of $v_1$ for $p$, $d$, $t$, $^3$He, and $^4$He are also shown as open markers (circles, diamonds, up-triangles, down-triangles and squares), and the linear terms of the fitting results are shown as dashed lines in the positive rapidity region.

More…

Beam energy dependence of the linear and mode-coupled flow harmonics in Au+Au collisions

The STAR collaboration Aboona, Bassam ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adams, Joseph ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 839 (2023) 137755, 2023.
Inspire Record 2634985 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.135974

The linear and mode-coupled contributions to higher-order anisotropic flow are presented for Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 27, 39, 54.4, and 200 GeV and compared to similar measurements for Pb+Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The coefficients and the flow harmonics' correlations, which characterize the linear and mode-coupled response to the lower-order anisotropies, indicate a beam energy dependence consistent with an influence from the specific shear viscosity ($\eta/s$). In contrast, the dimensionless coefficients, mode-coupled response coefficients, and normalized symmetric cumulants are approximately beam-energy independent, consistent with a significant role from initial-state effects. These measurements could provide unique supplemental constraints to (i) distinguish between different initial-state models and (ii) delineate the temperature ($T$) and baryon chemical potential ($\mu_{B}$) dependence of the specific shear viscosity $\frac{\eta}{s} (T, \mu_B)$.

13 data tables

Comparison of the integrated three-particle correlators for Au+Au collisions at 54.4 GeV.

Comparison of the integrated three-particle correlators for Au+Au collisions at 39.0 GeV.

Comparison of the integrated three-particle correlators for Au+Au collisions at 27.0 GeV.

More…