Anisotropic flow and flow fluctuations of identified hadrons in Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-122, 2022.
Inspire Record 2093750 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133152

The first measurements of elliptic flow of $\pi^\pm$, ${\rm K}^\pm$, p+$\overline{\rm p}$, ${\rm K_{S}^0}$, $\Lambda$+$\overline{\Lambda}$, $\phi$, $\Xi^-$+$\Xi^+$, and $\Omega^-$+$\Omega^+$ using multiparticle cumulants in Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV are presented. Results obtained with two- ($v_2\{2\}$) and four-particle cumulants ($v_2\{4\}$) are shown as a function of transverse momentum, $p_{\rm T}$, for various collision centrality intervals. Combining the data for both $v_2\{2\}$ and $v_2\{4\}$ also allows us to report the first measurements of the mean elliptic flow, elliptic flow fluctuations, and relative elliptic flow fluctuations for various hadron species. These observables probe the event-by-event eccentricity fluctuations in the initial state and the contributions from the dynamic evolution of the expanding quark-gluon plasma. The characteristic features observed in previous $p_{\rm T}$-differential anisotropic flow measurements for identified hadrons with two-particle correlations, namely the mass ordering at low $p_{\rm T}$ and the approximate scaling with the number of constituent quarks at intermediate $p_{\rm T}$, are similarly present in the four-particle correlations and the combinations of $v_2\{2\}$ and $v_2\{4\}$. In addition, a particle species dependence of flow fluctuations is observed that could indicate a significant contribution from final state hadronic interactions. The comparison between experimental measurements and CoLBT model calculations, which combine the various physics processes of hydrodynamics, quark coalescence, and jet fragmentation, illustrates their importance over a wide $p_{\rm T}$ range.

200 data tables

The $p_{T}$-differential $v_2$ measured with two-particle correlations with a pseudorapidity gap of $|\Delta \eta| > 0.8$ for different particle species and centralities in Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = 5.02$ TeV.

The $p_{T}$-differential $v_2$ measured with two-particle correlations with a pseudorapidity gap of $|\Delta \eta| > 0.8$ for different particle species and centralities in Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = 5.02$ TeV.

The $p_{T}$-differential $v_2$ measured with two-particle correlations with a pseudorapidity gap of $|\Delta \eta| > 0.8$ for different particle species and centralities in Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = 5.02$ TeV.

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Closing in on critical net-baryon fluctuations at LHC energies: cumulants up to third order in Pb$-$Pb collisions

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-111, 2022.
Inspire Record 2092559 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.135800

Fluctuation measurements are important sources of information on the mechanism of particle production at LHC energies. This article reports the first experimental results on third-order cumulants of the net-proton distributions in Pb$-$Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV recorded by the ALICE detector. The results on the second-order cumulants of net-proton distributions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ and $5.02$ TeV are also discussed in view of effects due to the global and local baryon number conservation. The results demonstrate the presence of long-range rapidity correlations between protons and antiprotons. Such correlations originate from the early phase of the collision. The experimental results are compared with HIJING and EPOS model calculations, and the dependence of the fluctuation measurements on the phase-space coverage is examined in the context of lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) and hadron resonance gas (HRG) model estimations. The measured third-order cumulants are consistent with zero within experimental uncertainties of about 4% and are described well by LQCD and HRG predictions.

14 data tables

Delta_eta dependence of Kappa_2(pi+-pi-)/<pi++pi>, momentum range: 0.6 < p < 1.5 GeV/c.

Delta_eta dependence of Kappa_2(K+-K-)/<K++K->, momentum range: 0.6 < p < 1.5 GeV/c.

Delta_eta dependence of Kappa_2(p-pbar)/<p+pbar>, momentum range: 0.6 < p < 1.5 GeV/c.

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Towards the understanding of the genuine three-body interaction for p$-$p$-$p and p$-$p$-\Lambda$

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-110, 2022.
Inspire Record 2092560 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.134041

Three-body nuclear forces play an important role in the structure of nuclei and hypernuclei and are also incorporated in models to describe the dynamics of dense baryonic matter, such as in neutron stars. So far, only indirect measurements anchored to the binding energies of nuclei can be used to constrain the three-nucleon force, and if hyperons are considered, the scarce data on hypernuclei impose only weak constraints on the three-body forces. In this work, we present the first direct measurement of the p$-$p$-$p and p$-$p$-\Lambda$ systems in terms of three-particle mixed moments carried out for pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV. Three-particle cumulants are extracted from the normalised mixed moments by applying the Kubo formalism, where the three-particle interaction contribution to these moments can be isolated after subtracting the known two-body interaction terms. A negative cumulant is found for the p$-$p$-$p system, hinting to the presence of a residual three-body effect while for p$-$p$-\Lambda$ the cumulant is consistent with zero. This measurement demonstrates the accessibility of three-baryon correlations at the LHC.

11 data tables

The (p-p)-p correlation function obtained using the data-driven approach

The (p-p)-$\Lambda$ correlation function obtained using the data-driven approach

The p-(p-$\Lambda$) correlation function obtained using the data-driven approach

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Constraining the ${\rm\overline{K}N}$ coupled channel dynamics using femtoscopic correlations at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-107, 2022.
Inspire Record 2088954 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132766

The interaction of $\rm{K}^{-}$ with protons is characterised by the presence of several coupled channels, systems like ${\rm \overline{K}^0}$n and $\pi\Sigma$ with a similar mass and the same quantum numbers as the $\rm{K}^{-}$p state. The strengths of these couplings to the $\rm{K}^{-}$p system are of crucial importance for the understanding of the nature of the $\Lambda(1405)$ resonance and of the attractive $\rm{K}^{-}$p strong interaction. In this article, we present measurements of the $\rm{K}^{-}$p correlation functions in relative momentum space obtained in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}~=~13$ TeV, in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}~=~5.02$ TeV, and (semi)peripheral Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}~=~5.02$ TeV. The emitting source size, composed of a core radius anchored to the $\rm{K}^{+}$p correlation and of a resonance halo specific to each particle pair, varies between 1 and 2 fm in these collision systems. The strength and the effects of the ${\rm \overline{K}^0}$n and $\pi\Sigma$ inelastic channels on the measured $\rm{K}^{-}$p correlation function are investigated in the different colliding systems by comparing the data with state-of-the-art models of chiral potentials. A novel approach to determine the conversion weights $\omega$, necessary to quantify the amount of produced inelastic channels in the correlation function, is presented. In this method, particle yields are estimated from thermal model predictions, and their kinematic distribution from blast-wave fits to measured data. The comparison of chiral potentials to the measured $\rm{K}^{-}$p interaction indicates that, while the $\pi\Sigma-\rm{K}^{-}$p dynamics is well reproduced by the model, the coupling to the ${\rm \overline{K}^0}$n channel in the model is currently underestimated.

17 data tables

K$^+$p (K$^+$p $\oplus$ K$^-\overline{\mathrm p}$) correlation function in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV.

K$^+$p (K$^+$p $\oplus$ K$^-\overline{\mathrm p}$) correlation function in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}=5.02 $ TeV (0-20%).

K$^+$p (K$^+$p $\oplus$ K$^-\overline{\mathrm p}$) correlation function in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV (20-40%).

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$\Sigma(1385)^{\pm}$ resonance production in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-104, 2022.
Inspire Record 2088201 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.134042

Hadronic resonances are used to probe the hadron gas produced in the late stage of heavy-ion collisions since they decay on the same timescale, of the order of 1 to 10 fm/$c$, as the decoupling time of the system. In the hadron gas, (pseudo)elastic scatterings among the products of resonances that decayed before the kinetic freeze-out and regeneration processes counteract each other, the net effect depending on the resonance lifetime, the duration of the hadronic phase, and the hadronic cross sections at play. In this context, the $\Sigma(1385)^{\pm}$ particle is of particular interest as models predict that regeneration dominates over rescattering despite its relatively short lifetime of about 5.5 fm/$c$. The first measurement of the $\Sigma(1385)^{\pm}$ resonance production at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}= 5.02$ TeV with the ALICE detector is presented in this Letter. The resonances are reconstructed via their hadronic decay channel, $\Lambda\pi$, as a function of the transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) and the collision centrality. The results are discussed in comparison with the measured yield of pions and with expectations from the statistical hadronization model as well as commonly employed event generators, including PYTHIA8/Angantyr and EPOS3 coupled to the UrQMD hadronic cascade afterburner. None of the models can describe the data. For $\Sigma(1385)^{\pm}$, a similar behaviour as ${\rm K}^{*} (892)^{0}$ is observed in data unlike the predictions of EPOS3 with afterburner.

11 data tables

$p_{\rm{T}}$-differential yield of $\Sigma^{*+}$ + cc in Pb-Pb collisions with centre-of-mass energy/nucleon=5.02 TeV (0-10% multiplicity class).

$p_{\rm{T}}$-differential yield of $\Sigma^{*+}$ + cc in Pb-Pb collisions with centre-of-mass energy/nucleon=5.02 TeV (30-50% multiplicity class).

$p_{\rm{T}}$-differential yield of $\Sigma^{*+}$ + cc in Pb-Pb collisions with centre-of-mass energy/nucleon=5.02 TeV (50-90% multiplicity class).

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Dielectron production at midrapidity at low transverse momentum in peripheral and semi-peripheral Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-068, 2022.
Inspire Record 2071861 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.134246

The first measurement of the ${\rm e}^{+}{\rm e}^{-}$ pair production at low lepton pair transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T,ee}$) and low invariant mass ($m_{\rm ee}$) in non-central Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV at the LHC is presented. The dielectron production is studied with the ALICE detector at midrapidity ($|\eta_{\rm e}| < 0.8$) as a function of invariant mass ($0.4 \leq m_{\rm ee} < 2.7$ GeV/$c^2$) in the 50$-$70% and 70$-$90% centrality classes for $p_{\rm T,ee} < 0.1$ GeV/$c$, and as a function of $p_{\rm T,ee}$ in three $m_{\rm ee}$ intervals in the most peripheral Pb$-$Pb collisions. Below a $p_{\rm T,ee}$ of 0.1 GeV/$c$, a clear excess of ${\rm e}^{+}{\rm e}^{-}$ pairs is found compared to the expectations from known hadronic sources and predictions of thermal radiation from the medium. The $m_{\rm ee}$ excess spectra are reproduced, within uncertainties, by different predictions of the photon$-$photon production of dielectrons, where the photons originate from the extremely strong electromagnetic fields generated by the highly Lorentz-contracted Pb nuclei. Lowest-order quantum electrodynamic (QED) calculations, as well as a model that takes into account the impact-parameter dependence of the average transverse momentum of the photons, also provide a good description of the $p_{\rm T,ee}$ spectra. The measured $\sqrt{\langle p_{\rm T,ee}^{2} \rangle}$ of the excess $p_{\rm T,ee}$ spectrum in peripheral Pb$-$Pb collisions is found to be comparable to the values observed previously at RHIC in a similar phase-space region.

10 data tables

Differential $e^+e^-$ yield in 50--70\% Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV as a function of $m_{\rm ee}$ for $p_{\rm T,ee} < 0.1$ GeV/$c$. Electrons are measured within $|\eta_{\rm e}| < 0.8$ and $p_{\rm T,e} > 0.2$ GeV/$c$. The quoted upper limits correspond to a 90% confidence level.

Differential $e^+e^-$ yield in 70--90\% Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV as a function of $m_{\rm ee}$ for $p_{\rm T,ee} < 0.1$ GeV/$c$. Electrons are measured within $|\eta_{\rm e}| < 0.8$ and $p_{\rm T,e} > 0.2$ GeV/$c$.

Differential excess $e^+e^-$ yield in 50--70\% Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV as a function of $m_{\rm ee}$ for $p_{\rm T,ee} < 0.1$ GeV/$c$. Electrons are measured within $|\eta_{\rm e}| < 0.8$ and $p_{\rm T,e} > 0.2$ GeV/$c$. The quoted upper limits correspond to a 90% confidence level.

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W$^\pm$-boson production in p$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 8.16$ TeV and PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-076, 2022.
Inspire Record 2071184 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133034

The production of the W$^\pm$ bosons measured in p$-$Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon$-$nucleon collision $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 8.16$ TeV and Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV with ALICE at the LHC is presented. The W$^\pm$ bosons are measured via their muonic decay channel, with the muon reconstructed in the pseudorapidity region $-4 < \eta^\mu_{\rm lab} < -2.5$ with transverse momentum $p_{\rm T}^\mu > 10$ GeV/$c$. While in Pb$-$Pb collisions the measurements are performed in the forward ($2.5 < y^\mu_{\rm cms} < 4$) rapidity region, in p$-$Pb collisions, where the centre-of-mass frame is boosted with respect to the laboratory frame, the measurements are performed in the backward ($-4.46 < y^\mu_{\rm cms} < -2.96$) and forward ($2.03 < y^\mu_{\rm cms} < 3.53$) rapidity regions. The W$^{-}$ and W$^{+}$ production cross sections, lepton-charge asymmetry, and nuclear modification factors are evaluated as a function of the muon rapidity. In order to study the production as a function of the p$-$Pb collision centrality, the production cross sections of the W$^{-}$ and W$^{+}$ bosons are combined and normalised to the average number of binary nucleon$-$nucleon collision $\langle N_\mathrm{coll} \rangle$. In Pb$-$Pb collisions, the same measurements are presented as a function of the collision centrality. Study of the binary scaling of the W$^\pm$-boson cross sections in p$-$Pb and Pb$-$Pb collisions is also reported. The results are compared with perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations, with and without nuclear modifications of the Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs), as well as with available data at the LHC. Significant deviations from the theory expectations are found in the two collision systems, indicating that the measurements can provide additional constraints for the determination of nuclear PDF (nPDFs) and in particular of the light-quark distributions.

12 data tables

d$\sigma$ / d$y$ of muons from W decays in p-Pb, in full fiducial region

d$\sigma$ / d$y$ of muons from W decays in p-Pb, in rapidity bins

Lepton-charge asymmetry $A_{ch} = \frac{N_{\mu^+} - N_{\mu^-}}{N_{\mu^+} + N_{\mu^-}}$ in p-Pb

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Photoproduction of low-$p_{\rm T}$ J/$\psi$ from peripheral to central Pb$-$Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-071, 2022.
Inspire Record 2071183 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.134024

An excess of J/$\psi$ yield at very low transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T} < 0.3$ GeV/$c$), originating from coherent photoproduction, is observed in peripheral and semicentral hadronic Pb$-$Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV. The measurement is performed with the ALICE detector via the dimuon decay channel at forward rapidity ($2.5<y<4$). The nuclear modification factor at very low $p_{\rm T}$ and the coherent photoproduction cross section are measured as a function of centrality down to the 10% most central collisions. These results extend the previous study at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV, confirming the clear excess over hadronic production in the $p_{\rm T}$ range 0$-$0.3 GeV/$c$ and the centrality range 70$-$90%, and establishing an excess with a significance greater than 5$\sigma$ also in the 50$-$70% and 30$-$50% centrality ranges. The results are compared with earlier measurements at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV and with different theoretical predictions aiming at describing how coherent photoproduction occurs in hadronic interactions with nuclear overlap.

5 data tables

J/$\psi$ nuclear modification factor as a function of $\langle N_{\rm part}\rangle$ measured in the rapidity range 2.5 < y < 4 for $p_{\rm T}$ < 0.3 GeV/c. The centrality-correlated uncertainty of 7.2% is not included.

J/$\psi$ nuclear modification factor as a function of $\langle N_{\rm part} \rangle$ measured in the rapidity range 2.5 < y < 4 for 0.3 < $p_{\rm T}$ < 1 GeV/c. The centrality-correlated uncertainty of 6.6% is not included.

J/$\psi$ nuclear modification factor as a function of $\langle N_{\rm part} \rangle$ measured in the rapidity range 2.5 < y < 4 for 1 < $p_{\rm T}$ < 2 GeV/c. The centrality-correlated uncertainty of 6.2% is not included.

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Elliptic flow of charged particles at midrapidity relative to the spectator plane in Pb-Pb and Xe-Xe collisions

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-061, 2022.
Inspire Record 2070420 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.134258

Measurements of the elliptic flow coefficient relative to the collision plane defined by the spectator neutrons $v_2${$\Psi_{\rm SP}$} in collisions of Pb ions at center-of-mass energy per nucleon-nucleon pair $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$=2.76 TeV and Xe ions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$=5.44 TeV are reported. The results are presented for charged particles produced at midrapidity as a function of centrality and transverse momentum. The ratio between $v_2${$\Psi_{\rm SP}$} and the elliptic flow coefficient relative to the participant plane $v_2$4, estimated using four-particle correlations, deviates by up to 20% from unity depending on centrality. This observation differs strongly from the magnitude of the corresponding eccentricity ratios predicted by the TRENTo and the elliptic power models of initial state fluctuations that are tuned to describe the participant plane anisotropies. The differences can be interpreted as a decorrelation of the neutron spectator plane and the reaction plane because of fragmentation of the remnants from the colliding nuclei, which points to an incompleteness of current models of initial state fluctuations. A significant transverse momentum dependence of the ratio $v_2${$\Psi_{\rm SP}$}/$v_2${4} is observed in all but the most central collisions, which may help to understand whether momentum anisotropies at low and intermediate transverse momentum have a common origin in initial state fluctuations. The ratios of $v_2${$\Psi_{\rm SP}$} and $v_2${4} to the corresponding initial state eccentricities for Xe-Xe and Pb-Pb collisions at similar initial entropy density show a difference of $(7.0 \pm 0.9)$% with an additional variation of +1.8% when including RHIC data in the TRENTo parameter extraction. These observations provide new experimental constraints for viscous effects in the hydrodynamic modeling of the expanding quark-gluon plasma.

13 data tables

Centrality dependence of $v_2\{\Psi_{\mathrm{SP}}\}$, $v_2\{2,|\Delta\eta|>1\}$, and $v_2\{4\}$ in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76~\mathrm{TeV}$.

Centrality dependence of $v_2\{\Psi_{\mathrm{SP}}\}$, $v_2\{2,|\Delta\eta|>1\}$, and $v_2\{4\}$ in Xe-Xe collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.44~\mathrm{TeV}$.

Centrality dependence of $v_2\{\Psi_{\mathrm{SP}}\}/v_2\{4\}$ and $v_2\{2,|\Delta\eta|>1\}/v_2\{4\}$ in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76~\mathrm{TeV}$.

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Measurements of the groomed jet radius and momentum splitting fraction with the soft drop and dynamical grooming algorithms in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration
CERN-EP-2022-056, 2022.
Inspire Record 2070421 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133033

This article presents measurements of the groomed jet radius and momentum splitting fraction in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=5.02$ TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Inclusive charged-particle jets are reconstructed at midrapidity using the anti-$k_{\rm{T}}$ algorithm for transverse momentum $60< p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\rm{ch\; jet}}<80$ GeV/$c$. We report results using two different grooming algorithms: soft drop and, for the first time, dynamical grooming. For each grooming algorithm, a variety of grooming settings are used in order to explore the impact of collinear radiation on these jet substructure observables. These results are compared to perturbative calculations that include resummation of large logarithms at all orders in the strong coupling constant. We find good agreement of the theoretical predictions with the data for all grooming settings considered.

12 data tables

Groomed jet momentum splitting fraction $z_{{\mathrm{g}}}$ $60<p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\mathrm{ch\;jet}}<80$ GeV/$c$, soft drop $z_{\mathrm{cut}}=0.1, \beta=0$. Note: The first bin corresponds to the Soft Drop untagged fraction. For the "trkeff" and "generator" systematic uncertainty sources, the signed systematic uncertainty breakdowns ($\pm$ vs. $\mp$), denote correlation across bins (both within this table, and across tables). For the remaining sources ("unfolding") no correlation information is specified ($\pm$ is always used).

Groomed jet momentum splitting fraction $z_{{\mathrm{g}}}$ $60<p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\mathrm{ch\;jet}}<80$ GeV/$c$, soft drop $z_{\mathrm{cut}}=0.1, \beta=1$. Note: The first bin corresponds to the Soft Drop untagged fraction. For the "trkeff" and "generator" systematic uncertainty sources, the signed systematic uncertainty breakdowns ($\pm$ vs. $\mp$), denote correlation across bins (both within this table, and across tables). For the remaining sources ("unfolding") no correlation information is specified ($\pm$ is always used).

Groomed jet momentum splitting fraction $z_{{\mathrm{g}}}$ $60<p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\mathrm{ch\;jet}}<80$ GeV/$c$, soft drop $z_{\mathrm{cut}}=0.1, \beta=2$. Note: The first bin corresponds to the Soft Drop untagged fraction. For the "trkeff" and "generator" systematic uncertainty sources, the signed systematic uncertainty breakdowns ($\pm$ vs. $\mp$), denote correlation across bins (both within this table, and across tables). For the remaining sources ("unfolding") no correlation information is specified ($\pm$ is always used).

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