Longitudinal and azimuthal evolution of two-particle transverse momentum correlations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 804 (2020) 135375, 2020.
Inspire Record 1762340 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.93887

This paper presents the first measurements of the charge independent (CI) and charge dependent (CD) two-particle transverse momentum correlators $G_{2}^{\rm CI}$ and $G_{2}^{\rm CD}$ in Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\text{NN}}} = 2.76\;\text{\TeVe}$ by the ALICE collaboration. The two-particle transverse momentum correlator $G_{2}$ was introduced as a measure of the momentum current transfer between neighbouring system cells. The correlators are measured as a function of pair separation in pseudorapidity ($\Delta \eta$) and azimuth ($\Delta \varphi$) and as a function of collision centrality. From peripheral to central collisions, the correlator $G_{2}^{\rm CI}$ exhibits a longitudinal broadening while undergoing a monotonic azimuthal narrowing. By contrast, $G_{2}^{\rm CD}$ exhibits a narrowing along both dimensions. These features are not reproduced by models such as HIJING and AMPT. However, the observed narrowing of the correlators from peripheral to central collisions is expected to result from the stronger transverse flow profiles produced in more central collisions and the longitudinal broadening is predicted to be sensitive to momentum currents and the shear viscosity per unit of entropy density $\eta/s$ of the matter produced in the collisions. The observed broadening is found to be consistent with the hypothesized lower bound of $\eta/s$ and is in qualitative agreement with values obtained from anisotropic flow measurements.

12 data tables

Two-particle transverse momentum correlation $G_{2}^{\rm CI}$ for central (0-5%) Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76\;\text{TeV}$.

Two-particle transverse momentum correlation $G_{2}^{\rm CI}$ for semi-central (30-40%) Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76\;\text{TeV}$.

Two-particle transverse momentum correlation $G_{2}^{\rm CI}$ for perippheral (70-80%) Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76\;\text{TeV}$.

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Scattering studies with low-energy kaon-proton femtoscopy in proton-proton collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adhya, Souvik Priyam ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 124 (2020) 092301, 2020.
Inspire Record 1737592 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.93732

The study of the strength and behaviour of the antikaon-nucleon ($\mathrm{\overline{K}N}$) interaction constitutes one of the key focuses of the strangeness sector in low-energy Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In this letter a unique high-precision measurement of the strong interaction between kaons and protons, close and above the kinematic threshold, is presented. The femtoscopic measurements of the correlation function at low pair-frame relative momentum of (K$^+$ p $\oplus$ K$^-$ $\overline{\mathrm{p}}$) and (K$^-$ p $\oplus$ K$^+$ $\overline{\mathrm{p}}$) pairs measured in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 5, 7 and 13 TeV are reported. A structure observed around a relative momentum of 58 MeV/$c$ in the measured correlation function of (K$^-$ p $\oplus$ K$^+$ $\overline{\mathrm{p}}$) with a significance of 4.4. $\sigma$ constitutes the first experimental evidence for the opening of the $(\mathrm{\overline{K}^0 n} \oplus \mathrm{K^0 \overline{n}})$ isospin breaking channel due to the mass difference between charged and neutral kaons. The measured correlation functions have been compared to J\"{u}lich and Kyoto models in addition to the Coulomb potential. The high-precision data at low relative momenta presented in this work prove femtoscopy to be a powerful complementary tool to scattering experiments and provide new constraints above the $\mathrm{\overline{K}N}$ threshold for low-energy QCD chiral models.

7 data tables

K-p correlation function in p-p collisions at $\sqrt{s}=5$ TeV.

K-p correlation function in p-p collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV.

K-p correlation function in p-p collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV.

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Study of the $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ interaction with femtoscopy correlations in pp and p-Pb collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adhya, Souvik Priyam ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 797 (2019) 134822, 2019.
Inspire Record 1735349 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.90845

This work presents new constraints on the existence and the binding energy of a possible $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ bound state, the H-dibaryon, derived from $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ femtoscopic measurements by the ALICE collaboration. The results are obtained from a new measurement using the femtoscopy technique in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV and p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV, combined with previously published results from p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV. The $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ scattering parameter space, spanned by the inverse scattering length $f_0^{-1}$ and the effective range $d_0$, is constrained by comparing the measured $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ correlation function with calculations obtained within the Lednicky model. The data are compatible with hypernuclei results and lattice computations, both predicting a shallow attractive interaction, and permit to test different theoretical approaches describing the $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ interaction. The region in the $(f_0^{-1},d_0)$ plane which would accommodate a $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ bound state is substantially restricted compared to previous studies. The binding energy of the possible $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ bound state is estimated within an effective-range expansion approach and is found to be $B_{\Lambda\Lambda}=3.2^{+1.6}_{-2.4}\mathrm{(stat)}^{+1.8}_{-1.0}\mathrm{(syst)}$ MeV.

8 data tables

p-p correlation function in p-p collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV.

$\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ correlation function in p-p collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV.

$\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ correlation function in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV.

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First Observation of an Attractive Interaction between a Proton and a Cascade Baryon

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adhya, Souvik Priyam ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 123 (2019) 112002, 2019.
Inspire Record 1731784 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.91131

This work presents the first experimental observation of the attractive strong interaction between a proton and a multi-strange baryon (hyperon) $\Xi^-$. The result is extracted from two-particle correlations of combined $\rm{p}-\Xi^{-}$$\oplus$$\rm{\bar{p}}-\bar{\Xi}^{+}$ pairs measured in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV at the LHC with ALICE. The measured correlation function is compared with the prediction obtained assuming only an attractive Coulomb interaction and a standard deviation in the range $[3.6,5.3]$ is found. Since the measured $\rm{p}-\Xi^{-}$$\oplus$$\rm{\bar{p}}-\bar{\Xi}^{+}$ correlation is significantly enhanced with respect to the Coulomb prediction, the presence of an additional, strong, attractive interaction is evident. The data are compatible with recent lattice calculations by the HAL-QCD Collaboration, with a standard deviation in the range $ [1.8,3.7]$. The lattice potential predicts a shallow repulsive $\Xi^-$ interaction within pure neutron matter at saturation densities and this implies stiffer equations of state for neutron-rich matter including hyperons. Implications of the strong interaction for the modeling of neutron stars are discussed.

2 data tables

The p$-$p $\oplus$ $\overline{\mathrm{p}}-\overline{\mathrm{p}}$ correlation function.

The p$-\Xi^{-}$ $\oplus$ $\overline{\mathrm{p}}-\overline{\Xi}^{-}$ correlation function.


One-dimensional charged kaon femtoscopy in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adhya, Souvik Priyam ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 100 (2019) 024002, 2019.
Inspire Record 1727337 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.90683

The correlations of identical charged kaons were measured in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV by the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The femtoscopic invariant radii and correlation strengths were extracted from one-dimensional kaon correlation functions and were compared with those obtained in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV and $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV, respectively. The presented results also complement the identical-pion femtoscopic data published by the ALICE collaboration. The extracted radii increase with increasing charged-particle multiplicity and decrease with increasing pair transverse momentum. At comparable multiplicities, the radii measured in p-Pb collisions are found to be close to those observed in pp collisions. The obtained femtoscopic parameters are reproduced by the EPOS 3 hadronic interaction model and disfavor models with large initial size or strong collective expansion at low multiplicities.

8 data tables

Correlation function as a function of pair relative momentum for 0-20% multiplicity class and pair transverse momentum range (0.2-0.5) GeV/c.

Correlation function as a function of pair relative momentum for 0-20% multiplicity class and pair transverse momentum range (0.5-1.0) GeV/c.

Correlation function as a function of pair relative momentum for 20-40% multiplicity class and pair transverse momentum range (0.2-0.5) GeV/c.

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Measuring K$^0_{\rm S}$K$^{\rm{\pm}}$ interactions using pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Torales - Acosta, Fernando ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 790 (2019) 22-34, 2019.
Inspire Record 1695028 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.88298

We present the first measurements of femtoscopic correlations between the K$^0_{\rm S}$ and K$^{\rm \pm}$ particles in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV measured by the ALICE experiment. The observed femtoscopic correlations are consistent with final-state interactions proceeding solely via the $a_0(980)$ resonance. The extracted kaon source radius and correlation strength parameters for K$^0_{\rm S}$K$^{\rm -}$ are found to be equal within the experimental uncertainties to those for K$^0_{\rm S}$K$^{\rm +}$. Results of the present study are compared with those from identical-kaon femtoscopic studies also performed with pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV by ALICE and with a K$^0_{\rm S}$K$^{\rm \pm}$ measurement in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV. Combined with the Pb-Pb results, our pp analysis is found to be compatible with the interpretation of the $a_0(980)$ having a tetraquark structure instead of that of a diquark.

19 data tables

Raw K0s K+ correlation function for all kT

Raw K0s K+ correlation function for kT < 0.85 GeV/c

Raw K0s K+ correlation function for kT > 0.85 GeV/c

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p-p, p-$\Lambda$ and $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ correlations studied via femtoscopy in pp reactions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Torales - Acosta, Fernando ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 99 (2019) 024001, 2019.
Inspire Record 1675759 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.89305

We report on the first femtoscopic measurement of baryon pairs, such as p-p, p-$\Lambda$ and $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$, measured by ALICE at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. This study demonstrates the feasibility of such measurements in pp collisions at ultrarelativistic energies. The femtoscopy method is employed to constrain the hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon interactions, which are still rather poorly understood. A new method to evaluate the influence of residual correlations induced by the decays of resonances and experimental impurities is hereby presented. The p-p, p-$\Lambda$ and $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ correlation functions were fitted simultaneously with the help of a new tool developed specifically for the femtoscopy analysis in small colliding systems 'Correlation Analysis Tool using the Schr\"odinger Equation' (CATS). Within the assumption that in pp collisions the three particle pairs originate from a common source, its radius is found to be equal to $r_{0} = 1.144\pm0.019$ (stat) $^{+0.069}_{-0.012}$ (syst) fm. The sensitivity of the measured p-$\Lambda$ correlation is tested against different scattering parameters which are defined by the interaction among the two particles, but the statistics is not sufficient yet to discriminate among different models. The measurement of the $\Lambda$-$\Lambda$ correlation function constrains the phase space spanned by the effective range and scattering length of the strong interaction. Discrepancies between the measured scattering parameters and the resulting correlation functions at LHC and RHIC energies are discussed in the context of various models.

4 data tables

The p$-$p $\oplus$ $\overline{\mathrm{p}}-\overline{\mathrm{p}}$ correlation function.

The p$-\Lambda$ $\oplus$ $\overline{\mathrm{p}}-\overline{\Lambda}$ correlation function.

The $\Lambda-\Lambda$ $\oplus$ $\overline{\Lambda}-\overline{\Lambda}$ correlation function.

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Kaon femtoscopy in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 96 (2017) 064613, 2017.
Inspire Record 1621809 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.79128

We present the results of three-dimensional femtoscopic analyses for charged and neutral kaons recorded by ALICE in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV. Femtoscopy is used to measure the space-time characteristics of particle production from the effects of quantum statistics and final-state interactions in two-particle correlations. Kaon femtoscopy is an important supplement to that of pions because it allows one to distinguish between different model scenarios working equally well for pions. In particular, we compare the measured 3D kaon radii with a purely hydrodynamical calculation and a model where the hydrodynamic phase is followed by a hadronic rescattering stage. The former predicts an approximate transverse mass ($m_{\mathrm{T}}$) scaling of source radii obtained from pion and kaon correlations. This $m_{\mathrm{T}}$ scaling appears to be broken in our data, which indicates the importance of the hadronic rescattering phase at LHC energies. A $k_{\mathrm{T}}$ scaling of pion and kaon source radii is observed instead. The time of maximal emission of the system is estimated using the three-dimensional femtoscopic analysis for kaons. The measured emission time is larger than that of pions. Our observation is well supported by the hydrokinetic model predictions.

23 data tables

Out projection of raw 3D LCMS K+- K+- correlation function for 0.2 < kT < 0.4 GeV/c bin.

Side projection of raw 3D LCMS K+- K+- correlation function for 0.2 < kT < 0.4 GeV/c bin

Long projection of raw 3D LCMS K+- K+- correlation function for 0.2 < kT < 0.4 GeV/c bin

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Measuring K$^0_{\rm S}$K$^{\rm \pm}$ interactions using Pb-Pb collisions at ${\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76}$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adolfsson, Jonatan ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 774 (2017) 64-77, 2017.
Inspire Record 1599554 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.80522

We present the first ever measurements of femtoscopic correlations between the K$^0_{\rm S}$ and K$^{\rm \pm}$ particles. The analysis was performed on the data from Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV measured by the ALICE experiment. The observed femtoscopic correlations are consistent with final-state interactions proceeding via the $a_0(980)$ resonance. The extracted kaon source radius and correlation strength parameters for K$^0_{\rm S}$K$^{\rm -}$ are found to be equal within the experimental uncertainties to those for K$^0_{\rm S}$K$^{\rm +}$. Comparing the results of the present study with those from published identical-kaon femtoscopic studies by ALICE, mass and coupling parameters for the $a_0$ resonance are constrained. Our results are also compatible with the interpretation of the $a_0$ having a tetraquark structure over that of a diquark.

13 data tables

Raw K0s K+ correlation function for all kT bin

Raw K0s K+ correlation function for kT < 0.675 GeV/c bin

Raw K0s K+ correlation function for kT > 0.675 GeV/c bin

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Azimuthally differential pion femtoscopy in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 118 (2017) 222301, 2017.
Inspire Record 1512303 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77905

We present the first azimuthally differential measurements of the pion source size relative to the second harmonic event plane in Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon-nucleon pair of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV. The measurements have been performed in the centrality range 0-50% and for pion pair transverse momenta $0.2 < k_{\rm T} < 0.7$ GeV/$c$. We find that the $R_{\rm side}$ and $R_{\rm out}$ radii, which characterize the pion source size in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the pion transverse momentum, oscillate out of phase, similar to what was observed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The final-state source eccentricity, estimated via $R_{\rm side}$ oscillations, is found to be significantly smaller than the initial-state source eccentricity, but remains positive; indicating that even after a stronger expansion in the in-plane direction, the pion source at the freeze-out is still elongated in the out-of-plane direction. The 3+1D hydrodynamic calculations are in qualitative agreement with observed centrality and transverse momentum $R_{\rm side}$ oscillations, but systematically underestimate the oscillation magnitude.

56 data tables

The azimuthal dependence of $R_{out}^{2}$ as a function of $\Delta\varphi=\varphi_{\mathrm{pair}}-\Psi_{\mathrm EP,2}$ for the centrality 20--30% and different $k_{\mathrm{T}}$ ranges.

The azimuthal dependence of $R_{out}^{2}$ as a function of $\Delta\varphi=\varphi_{\mathrm{pair}}-\Psi_{\mathrm EP,2}$ for the centrality 20--30% and different $k_{\mathrm{T}}$ ranges.

The azimuthal dependence of $R_{out}^{2}$ as a function of $\Delta\varphi=\varphi_{\mathrm{pair}}-\Psi_{\mathrm EP,2}$ for the centrality 20--30% and different $k_{\mathrm{T}}$ ranges.

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Insight into particle production mechanisms via angular correlations of identified particles in pp collisions at $\sqrt{\mathrm{s}}=7$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 77 (2017) 569, 2017.
Inspire Record 1507157 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.78803

Two-particle angular correlations were measured in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV for pions, kaons, protons, and lambdas, for all particle/anti-particle combinations in the pair. Data for mesons exhibit an expected peak dominated by effects associated with mini-jets and are well reproduced by general purpose Monte Carlo generators. However, for baryon-baryon and anti-baryon--anti-baryon pairs, where both particles have the same baryon number, a near-side anti-correlation structure is observed instead of a peak. This effect is interpreted in the context of baryon production mechanisms in the fragmentation process. It currently presents a challenge to Monte Carlo models and its origin remains an open question.

6 data tables

$\Delta\eta$ integrated projections of correlation functions for combined pairs of $\rm pp+\overline{p}\overline{p}$, $\rm p\Lambda+\overline{p}\overline{\Lambda}$, and $\Lambda\Lambda+\overline{\Lambda}\overline{\Lambda}$.

$\Delta\eta$ integrated projections of correlation functions for combined pairs of $\rm p\overline{p}$, $\rm p\overline{\Lambda}+\overline{p}\Lambda$, and $\Lambda\overline{\Lambda}$.

$\Delta\eta$ integrated projections of correlation functions for combined pairs of $\rm pp+\overline{p}\overline{p}$ for two transverse momentum intervals (a) $0.5 < p_{\rm T} < 1.25$ GeV/$c$ and (b) $1.25 < p_{\rm T} < 2.5$ GeV/$c$.

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Measurement of azimuthal correlations of D mesons and charged particles in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV and p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 77 (2017) 245, 2017.
Inspire Record 1464839 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77274

The azimuthal correlations of D mesons and charged particles were measured with the ALICE detector in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV and p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. D$^0$, D$^+$, and D$^{*+}$ mesons and their charge conjugates with transverse momentum $3<p_{\rm T}<16$ GeV/$c$ and rapidity in the nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass system $|y_{\rm cms}|<0.5$ (pp collisions) and $-0.96<y_{\rm cms}<0.04$ (p-Pb collisions) were correlated to charged particles with $p_{\rm T}>0.3$ Gev/$c$. The properties of the correlation peak induced by the jet containing the D meson, described in terms of the yield of charged particles in the peak and peak width, are compatible within uncertainties between the two collision systems, and described by Monte-Carlo simulations based on the PYTHIA, POWHEG and EPOS 3 event generators.

41 data tables

Comparison of the azimuthal-correlation distributions of D mesons and charged particles obtained for D$^0$, D$^{+}$ and D$^{*+}$ mesons for $5 < p_{\rm T} < 8$ GeV/$c$, charged particles $p_{\rm T} > 1$ GeV/$c$, in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV. Rapidity range for the D mesons is $|y^{\rm D}_{\rm cms}| < 0.5$. Correlations are integrated for $|\Delta\eta|=|\eta_{\rm ch}-\eta_{\rm D}| < 1$. The azimuthal-correlation distributions are reported in the range $0 < \Delta\varphi < \pi$.

Comparison of the azimuthal-correlation distributions of D mesons and charged particles obtained for D$^0$, D$^{+}$ and D$^{*+}$ mesons for $8 < p_{\rm T} < 16$ GeV/$c$, charged particles $p_{\rm T} > 1$ GeV/$c$, in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV. Rapidity range for the D mesons is $-0.96 < y^{\rm D}_{\rm cms} < 0.04$. Correlations are integrated for $|\Delta\eta|=|\eta_{\rm ch}-\eta_{\rm D}| < 1$. The azimuthal-correlation distributions are reported in the range $0 < \Delta\varphi < \pi$.

Azimuthal correlation of D mesons (${\rm D}^{0}$, ${\rm D}^{+}$, ${\rm D}^{*+}$ average) with $3 < p_{\rm T} < 5~{\rm GeV}/c$ and $|y_{\rm cms}| < 0.5$ and charged particles with $p_{\rm T} > 0.3~{\rm GeV}/c$ for $|\Delta\eta| = |\eta_{\rm ch}-\eta_{\rm D}| < 1$ measured in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 7~{\rm TeV}$.

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Multiplicity and transverse momentum evolution of charge-dependent correlations in pp, p–Pb, and Pb–Pb collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 76 (2016) 86, 2016.
Inspire Record 1394672 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72546

We report on two-particle charge-dependent correlations in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions as a function of the pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle difference, $\mathrm{\Delta}\eta$ and $\mathrm{\Delta}\varphi$ respectively. These correlations are studied using the balance function that probes the charge creation time and the development of collectivity in the produced system. The dependence of the balance function on the event multiplicity as well as on the trigger and associated particle transverse momentum ($p_{\mathrm{T}}$) in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = 7$, 5.02, and 2.76 TeV, respectively, are presented. In the low transverse momentum region, for $0.2 < p_{\mathrm{T}} < 2.0$ GeV/$c$, the balance function becomes narrower in both $\mathrm{\Delta}\eta$ and $\mathrm{\Delta}\varphi$ directions in all three systems for events with higher multiplicity. The experimental findings favor models that either incorporate some collective behavior (e.g. AMPT) or different mechanisms that lead to effects that resemble collective behavior (e.g. PYTHIA8 with color reconnection). For higher values of transverse momenta the balance function becomes even narrower but exhibits no multiplicity dependence, indicating that the observed narrowing with increasing multiplicity at low $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ is a feature of bulk particle production.

79 data tables

Balance function in $\Delta\eta$ 0_5%.

Balance function in $\Delta\eta$ 30_40%.

Balance function in $\Delta\eta$ 70_80%.

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One-dimensional pion, kaon, and proton femtoscopy in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm {NN}}}$ =2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 92 (2015) 054908, 2015.
Inspire Record 1379971 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72256

The size of the particle emission region in high-energy collisions can be deduced using the femtoscopic correlations of particle pairs at low relative momentum. Such correlations arise due to quantum statistics and Coulomb and strong final state interactions. In this paper, results are presented from femtoscopic analyses of $\pi^{\pm}\pi^{\pm}$, ${\rm K}^{\pm}{\rm K}^{\pm}$, ${\rm K}^{0}_S{\rm K}^{0}_S$, ${\rm pp}$, and ${\rm \overline{p}}{\rm \overline{p}}$ correlations from Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}=2.76$ TeV by the ALICE experiment at the LHC. One-dimensional radii of the system are extracted from correlation functions in terms of the invariant momentum difference of the pair. The comparison of the measured radii with the predictions from a hydrokinetic model is discussed. The pion and kaon source radii display a monotonic decrease with increasing average pair transverse mass $m_{\rm T}$ which is consistent with hydrodynamic model predictions for central collisions. The kaon and proton source sizes can be reasonably described by approximate $m_{\rm T}$-scaling.

33 data tables

Correlation function for ${\rm K^{\pm}}{\rm K^{\pm}}$ for centrality 0-10% and $\left < k_{\rm T} \right > = 0.35$ GeV/$c$.

Correlation function for ${\rm K^{ 0}_S}{\rm K^{ 0}_S}$ for centrality 0-10% and $\left < k_{\rm T} \right > = 0.48$ GeV/$c$.

Correlation function for ${\rm \overline{p}}{\rm \overline{p}}$ for centrality 0-10% and $\left < k_{\rm T} \right > = 1.0$ GeV/$c$.

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Forward-backward multiplicity correlations in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{s} $ = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
JHEP 05 (2015) 097, 2015.
Inspire Record 1342496 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.68880

The strength of forward-backward (FB) multiplicity correlations is measured by the ALICE detector in proton-proton (pp) collisions at $\sqrt{s}=0.9$, 2.76 and 7 TeV. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region ($|\eta| < 0.8$) for the transverse momentum $p_{\rm T}>0.3$ GeV/$c$. Two separate pseudorapidity windows of width ($\delta \eta$) ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 are chosen symmetrically around $\eta=0$. The multiplicity correlation strength ($b_{\rm cor}$) is studied as a function of the pseudorapidity gap ($\eta_{\rm gap}$) between the two windows as well as the width of these windows. The correlation strength is found to decrease with increasing $\eta_{\rm gap}$ and shows a non-linear increase with $\delta\eta$. A sizable increase of the correlation strength with the collision energy, which cannot be explained exclusively by the increase of the mean multiplicity inside the windows, is observed. The correlation coefficient is also measured for multiplicities in different configurations of two azimuthal sectors selected within the symmetric FB $\eta$-windows. Two different contributions, the short-range (SR) and the long-range (LR), are observed. The energy dependence of $b_{\rm cor}$ is found to be weak for the SR component while it is strong for the LR component. Moreover, the correlation coefficient is studied for particles belonging to various transverse momentum intervals chosen to have the same mean multiplicity. Both SR and LR contributions to $b_{\rm cor}$ are found to increase with $p_{\rm T}$ in this case. Results are compared to PYTHIA and PHOJET event generators and to a string-based phenomenological model. The observed dependencies of $b_{\rm cor}$ add new constraints on phenomenological models.

11 data tables

Correlation strength $b_{\rm corr}$ for $\eta$-windows in $p_{\rm T}$ range $0.3-1.5$ (GeV/c) at $\sqrt{s}=0.9$ TeV.

Correlation strength $b_{\rm corr}$ for $\eta$-windows in $p_{\rm T}$ range $0.3-1.5$ (GeV/c) at $\sqrt{s}=2.76$ TeV.

Correlation strength $b_{\rm corr}$ for $\eta$-windows in $p_{\rm T}$ range $0.3-1.5$ (GeV/c) at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV.

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Event-by-event mean ${p}_{\mathbf {T}}$ fluctuations in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 74 (2014) 3077, 2014.
Inspire Record 1307102 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66332

Event-by-event fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum of charged particles produced in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV, and Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV are studied as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the LHC. Dynamical fluctuations indicative of correlated particle emission are observed in all systems. The results in pp collisions show little dependence on collision energy. The Monte Carlo event generators PYTHIA and PHOJET are in qualitative agreement with the data. Peripheral Pb-Pb data exhibit a similar multiplicity dependence as that observed in pp. In central Pb-Pb, the results deviate from this trend, featuring a significant reduction of the fluctuation strength. The results in Pb--Pb are in qualitative agreement with previous measurements in Au-Au at lower collision energies and with expectations from models that incorporate collective phenomena.

8 data tables

Relative fluctuation $\sqrt{C_m}/M(p_{\rm T})_m$ as a function of $\langle {\rm d}N_{\rm ch}/{\rm d}\eta \rangle$ in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9 TeV.

Relative fluctuation $\sqrt{C_m}/M(p_{\rm T})_m$ as a function of $\langle {\rm d}N_{\rm ch}/{\rm d}\eta \rangle$ in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76 TeV.

Relative fluctuation $\sqrt{C_m}/M(p_{\rm T})_m$ as a function of $\langle {\rm d}N_{\rm ch}/{\rm d}\eta \rangle$ in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV.

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Two- and three-pion quantum statistics correlations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{{s}_{NN}} =$ 2.76 TeV at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 89 (2014) 024911, 2014.
Inspire Record 1262523 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.69985

Correlations induced by quantum statistics are sensitive to the spatio-temporal extent as well as dynamics of particle emitting sources in heavy-ion collisions. In addition, such correlations can be used to search for the presence of a coherent component of pion production. Two and three-pion correlations of same and mixed-charge are measured at low relative momentum to estimate the coherent fraction of charged pions in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV at the LHC with ALICE. The genuine three-pion quantum statistics correlation is found to be suppressed relative to the two-pion correlation based on the assumption of fully chaotic pion emission. The suppression is observed to decrease with triplet momentum. The observed suppression at low triplet momentum may correspond to a coherent fraction in charged pion emission of 23% $\pm$ 8%.

19 data tables

C2 versus qinv for same-charge pions in six kT intervals. 0-5% centrality.

C2 versus qinv for mixed-charge pions in six kT intervals. 0-5% centrality.

C2 versus qinv for same-charge pions in six kT intervals. 45-50% centrality.

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Long-range angular correlations of $\rm \pi$, K and p in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 726 (2013) 164-177, 2013.
Inspire Record 1242302 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.61628

Angular correlations between unidentified charged trigger particles and various species of charged associated particles (unidentified particles, pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons) are measured by the ALICE detector in p-Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV in the transverse-momentum range $0.3 < p_{\rm T} < 4$ GeV/$c$. The correlations expressed as associated yield per trigger particle are obtained in the pseudorapidity range $|\eta_{\rm lab}|<0.8$. Fourier coefficients are extracted from the long-range correlations projected onto the azimuthal angle difference and studied as a function of $p_{\rm T}$ and in intervals of event multiplicity. In high-multiplicity events, the second-order coefficient for protons, $v_2^p$, is observed to be smaller than that for pions, $v_2^\pi$, up to about $p_{\rm T} = 2$ GeV/$c$. To reduce correlations due to jets, the per-trigger yield measured in low-multiplicity events is subtracted from that in high-multiplicity events. A two-ridge structure is obtained for all particle species. The Fourier decomposition of this structure shows that the second-order coefficients for pions and kaons are similar. The $v_2^p$ is found to be smaller at low $p_{\rm T}$ and larger at higher $p_{\rm T}$ than $v_2^pi$, with a crossing occurring at about 2 GeV. This is qualitatively similar to the elliptic-flow pattern observed in heavy-ion collisions. A mass ordering effect at low transverse momenta is consistent with expectations from hydrodynamic model calculations assuming a collectively expanding system.

20 data tables

The Fourier coefficients V2(2PC,sub) extracted for all charged particles as a function of PT from the correlation in the 0-20% multiplicity class after subraction of the correlation from the 60-100% event class.

The Fourier coefficients V2(2PC,sub) extracted for charged pions as a function of PT from the correlation in the 0-20% multiplicity class after subraction of the correlation from the 60-100% event class.

The Fourier coefficients V2(2PC,sub) extracted for charged kaons as a function of PT from the correlation in the 0-20% multiplicity class after subraction of the correlation from the 60-100% event class.

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Directed Flow of Charged Particles at Midrapidity Relative to the Spectator Plane in Pb-Pb Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 111 (2013) 232302, 2013.
Inspire Record 1238980 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.61769

The directed flow of charged particles at mid-rapidity is measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\rm{NN}}=2.76$ TeV relative to the collision symmetry plane defined by the spectator nucleons. A negative slope of the rapidity-odd directed flow component with approximately 3 times smaller magnitude than found at the highest RHIC energy is observed. This suggests a smaller longitudinal tilt of the initial system and disfavors the strong fireball rotation predicted for the LHC energies. The rapidity-even directed flow component is measured for the first time with spectators and found to be independent of pseudorapidity with a sign change at transverse momenta $p_{\rm T}$ between $1.2$ and $1.7$ GeV/$c$. Combined with the observation of a vanishing rapidity-even $p_{\rm T}$ shift along the spectator deflection this is strong evidence for dipole-like initial density fluctuations in the overlap zone of the nuclei. Similar trends in the rapidity-even directed flow and the estimate from two-particle correlations at mid-rapidity, which is larger by about a factor of 40, indicate a weak correlation between fluctuating participant and spectator symmetry planes. These observations open new possibilities for investigation of the initial conditions in heavy-ion collisions with spectator nucleons.

12 data tables

Correlation between x components of the Q-vector of projectile (Qpx) and target (Qtx) spectators, MEAN(QpxQtx).

Correlation between y components of the Q-vector of projectile (Qpy) and target (Qty) spectators, MEAN(QpyQty).

Correlation between x and y components of the Q-vector of projectile (Qpx) and target (Qty) spectators, MEAN(QpxQty).

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Charge correlations using the balance function in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 723 (2013) 267-279, 2013.
Inspire Record 1211186 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.60298

In high-energy heavy-ion collisions, the correlations between the emitted particles can be used as a probe to gain insight into the charge creation mechanisms. In this Letter, we report the first results of such studies using the electric charge balance function in the relative pseudorapidity ($\Delta\eta$) and azimuthal angle ($\Delta\varphi$) in Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The width of the balance function decreases with growing centrality (i.e. for more central collisions) in both projections. This centrality dependence is not reproduced by HIJING, while AMPT, a model which incorporates strings and parton rescattering, exhibits qualitative agreement with the measured correlations in $\Delta\varphi$ but fails to describe the correlations in $\Delta\eta$. A thermal blast-wave model incorporating local charge conservation and tuned to describe the $p_{\rm T}$ spectra and v$_2$ measurements reported by ALICE, is used to fit the centrality dependence of the width of the balance function and to extract the average separation of balancing charges at freeze-out. The comparison of our results with measurements at lower energies reveals an ordering with $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$: the balance functions become narrower with increasing energy for all centralities. This is consistent with the effect of larger radial flow at the LHC energies but also with the late stage creation scenario of balancing charges. However, the relative decrease of the balance function widths in $\Delta\eta$ and $\Delta\varphi$ with centrality from the highest SPS to the LHC energy exhibits only small differences. This observation cannot be interpreted solely within the framework where the majority of the charge is produced at a later stage in the evolution of the heavy--ion collision.

8 data tables

The Balance Function as a function of the relative pseudorapidity of two charged particles for the centrality class 0-5%. Also shown in the second column is the result from the mixed data set.

The Balance Function as a function of the relative pseudorapidity of two charged particles for the centrality class 30-40%.

The Balance Function as a function of the relative pseudorapidity of two charged particles for the centrality class 70-80%.

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Long-range angular correlations on the near and away side in $p$-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 719 (2013) 29-41, 2013.
Inspire Record 1206610 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.60292

Angular correlations between charged trigger and associated particles are measured by the ALICE detector in p-Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV for transverse momentum ranges within 0.5 < $p_{\rm T}^{\rm assoc}$ < $p_{\rm T}^{\rm trig}$ < 4 GeV/$c$. The correlations are measured over two units of pseudorapidity and full azimuthal angle in different intervals of event multiplicity, and expressed as associated yield per trigger particle. Two long-range ridge-like structures, one on the near side and one on the away side, are observed when the per-trigger yield obtained in low-multiplicity events is subtracted from the one in high-multiplicity events. The excess on the near-side is qualitatively similar to that recently reported by the CMS collaboration, while the excess on the away-side is reported for the first time. The two-ridge structure projected onto azimuthal angle is quantified with the second and third Fourier coefficients as well as by near-side and away-side yields and widths. The yields on the near side and on the away side are equal within the uncertainties for all studied event multiplicity and $p_{\rm T}$ bins, and the widths show no significant evolution with event multiplicity or $p_{\rm T}$. These findings suggest that the near-side ridge is accompanied by an essentially identical away-side ridge.

4 data tables

The Fourier coefficient V2 for different multiplicity classes and overlapping PT_trig and PT_assoc intervals. Note that all multiplicity classes have the values from the 60-100% multiplicity class subtracted.

The Fourier coefficient V3 for different multiplicity classes and overlapping PT_trig and PT_assoc intervals. Note that all multiplicity classes have the values from the 60-100% multiplicity class subtracted.

The near-side ridge yields per unit pseudorapidiy difference between the trigger and associated particle in regions of differing PT_trig and PT_assoc bins for different multiplicity classes. Note that all multiplicity classes have the values from the 60-100% multiplicity class subtracted.

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Net-Charge Fluctuations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s}_{NN} = 2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 110 (2013) 152301, 2013.
Inspire Record 1123802 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.60476

We report the first measurement of the net-charge fluctuations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV, measured with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The dynamical fluctuations per unit entropy are observed to decrease when going from peripheral to central collisions. An additional reduction in the amount of fluctuations is seen in comparison to the results from lower energies. We examine the dependence of fluctuations on the pseudorapidity interval, which may account for the dilution of fluctuations during the evolution of the system. We find that the fluctuations at LHC are smaller compared to the measurements at the Relativistic heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and as such, closer to what has been theoretically predicted for the formation of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP).

7 data tables

The measured NU(+-DYN) as a function of the centrality of the collisions, expressed as the number of participating nucleons, for two values of midrapidity range.

NU(+-DYN), corrected for charge conservation and finite acceptance effects, as a function of the centrality of the collisions, expressed as the number of participating nucleons, for two values of midrapidity range.

The measured and corrected NU(+-DYN) in P P collisions for two values of midrapidity range.

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Charge separation relative to the reaction plane in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}= 2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 110 (2013) 012301, 2013.
Inspire Record 1121161 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.60510

Measurements of charge dependent azimuthal correlations with the ALICE detector at the LHC are reported for Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV. Two- and three-particle charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in the pseudo-rapidity range $|\eta| < 0.8$ are presented as a function of the collision centrality, particle separation in pseudo-rapidity, and transverse momentum. A clear signal compatible with a charge-dependent separation relative to the reaction plane is observed, which shows little or no collision energy dependence when compared to measurements at RHIC energies. This provides a new insight for understanding the nature of the charge dependent azimuthal correlations observed at RHIC and LHC energies.

10 data tables

The centrality dependence of the three-particle charge-dependent correlator MEAN(COS(PHI(A)+COS(PHI(B)-2*PHI(RP)) measured with the cumulant method.

The centrality dependence of the correlator three-particle charge-dependent MEAN(COS(PHI(A)+COS(PHI(B)-2*PHI(RP)) measured from correlations with the reaction plane (RP) estimated using the TPC detector.

The centrality dependence of the correlator three-particle charge-dependent MEAN(COS(PHI(A)+COS(PHI(B)-2*PHI(RP)) measured from correlations with the reaction plane (RP) estimated using the VZERO detector.

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Harmonic decomposition of two-particle angular correlations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Aamodt, K. ; Abelev, B. ; Abrahantes Quintana, A. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 708 (2012) 249-264, 2012.
Inspire Record 927105 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.58523

Angular correlations between unidentified charged trigger ($t$) and associated ($a$) particles are measured by the ALICE experiment in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV for transverse momenta $0.25 < p_{T}^{t,\, a} < 15$ GeV/$c$, where $p_{T}^t > p_{T}^a$. The shapes of the pair correlation distributions are studied in a variety of collision centrality classes between 0 and 50% of the total hadronic cross section for particles in the pseudorapidity interval $|\eta| < 1.0$. Distributions in relative azimuth $\Delta\phi \equiv \phi^t - \phi^a$ are analyzed for $|\Delta\eta| \equiv |\eta^t - \eta^a| > 0.8$, and are referred to as "long-range correlations". Fourier components $V_{n\Delta} \equiv \langle \cos(n\Delta\phi)\rangle$ are extracted from the long-range azimuthal correlation functions. If particle pairs are correlated to one another through their individual correlation to a common symmetry plane, then the pair anisotropy $V_{n\Delta}(p_{T}^t, p_{T}^a)$ is fully described in terms of single-particle anisotropies $v_n (p_{T})$ as $V_{n\Delta}(p_{T}^t, p_{T}^a) = v_n(p_{T}^t) \, v_n(p_{T}^a)$. This expectation is tested for $1 \leq n \leq 5$ by applying a global fit of all $V_{n\Delta} (p_{T}^t, p_{T}^a)$ to obtain the best values $v_{n}\{GF\} (p_{T})$. It is found that for $2 \leq n \leq 5$, the fit agrees well with data up to $p_T^a \sim 3$-4 GeV/$c$, with a trend of increasing deviation as $p_{T}^t$ and $p_{T}^a$ are increased or as collisions become more peripheral. This suggests that no pair correlation harmonic can be described over the full $0.25 < p_{T} < 15$ GeV/$c$ range using a single $v_n(p_T)$ curve; such a description is however approximately possible for $2 \leq n \leq 5$ when $p_T^a < 4$ GeV/$c$. For the $n=1$ harmonic, however, a single $v_1(p_T$ curve is not obtained even within the reduced range $p_T^a < 4$ GeV/$c$.

100 data tables

Amplitudes of the VnDelta harmonics versus n for events with trigger particles having transverse momenta in the range 2-2.5 GeV and associated particles in the range 1.5-2.0 GeV for two centrality classes 0-2% and 2-10%. Note that in the paper the data are plotted multiplied by 100.

Amplitudes of the VnDelta harmonics versus n for events with trigger particles having transverse momenta in the range 2-2.5 GeV and associated particles in the range 1.5-2.0 GeV for three centrality classes 10-20%, 20-30% and 40-50%. Note that in the paper the data are plotted multiplied by 100.

Amplitudes of the VnDelta harmonics versus n for events with trigger particles having transverse momenta in the range 8-15 GeV and associated particles in the range 6-8 GeV for two centrality classes 40-50% and 0-20%. Note that in the paper the data are plotted multiplied by 100.

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Two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in central Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{{s}_{NN}} =$ 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Aamodt, K. ; Abrahantes Quintana, A. ; Adamova, D. ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 696 (2011) 328-337, 2011.
Inspire Record 881884 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.56743

The first measurement of two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in central Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV at the Large Hadron Collider is presented. We observe a growing trend with energy now not only for the longitudinal and the outward but also for the sideward pion source radius. The pion homogeneity volume and the decoupling time are significantly larger than those measured at RHIC.

14 data tables

Projections of the correlation function C.

Projections of the correlation function C.

Projections of the correlation function C.

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