Production of light (anti)nuclei in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 82 (2022) 289, 2022.
Inspire Record 1981685 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.128684

The study of the production of nuclei and antinuclei in pp collisions has proven to be a powerful tool to investigate the formation mechanism of loosely bound states in high-energy hadronic collisions. In this paper, the production of protons, deuterons and $^3$He and their charge conjugates at midrapidity is studied as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity in inelastic pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=5.02$ TeV using the ALICE detector. Within the uncertainties, the yields of nuclei in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=5.02$ TeV are compatible with those in pp collisions at different energies and to those in p-Pb collisions when compared at similar multiplicities. The measurements are compared with the expectations of coalescence and Statistical Hadronisation Models. The results suggest a common formation mechanism behind the production of light nuclei in hadronic interactions and confirm that they do not depend on the collision energy but on the number of produced particles.

43 data tables

(Anti)proton spectrum in V0M multiplicity class I

(Anti)proton spectrum in V0M multiplicity class II

(Anti)proton spectrum in V0M multiplicity class III

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Production of light (anti)nuclei in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{s} $ = 13 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
JHEP 01 (2022) 106, 2022.
Inspire Record 1928822 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.115571

Understanding the production mechanism of light (anti)nuclei is one of the key challenges of nuclear physics and has important consequences for astrophysics, since it provides an input for indirect dark-matter searches in space. In this paper, the latest results about the production of light (anti)nuclei in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV are presented, focusing on the comparison with the predictions of coalescence and thermal models. For the first time, the coalescence parameters $B_2$ for deuterons and $B_3$ for helions are compared with parameter-free theoretical predictions that are directly constrained by the femtoscopic measurement of the source radius in the same event class. A fair description of the data with a Gaussian wave function is observed for both deuteron and helion, supporting the coalescence mechanism for the production of light (anti)nuclei in pp collisions. This method paves the way for future investigations of the internal structure of more complex nuclear clusters, including the hypertriton.

24 data tables

(Anti)proton spectrum in HM V0M multiplicity class

(Anti)proton spectrum in HM I V0M multiplicity class

(Anti)proton spectrum in HM II V0M multiplicity class

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Production of light-flavor hadrons in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}~=~7\text { and }\sqrt{s} = 13 \, \text { TeV} $

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 81 (2021) 256, 2021.
Inspire Record 1797443 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.100303

The production of $\pi^{\pm}$, $\rm{K}^{\pm}$, $\rm{K}^{0}_{S}$, $\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$, $\rm{p}$, $\phi(1020)$, $\Lambda$, $\Xi^{-}$, $\Omega^{-}$, and their antiparticles was measured in inelastic proton-proton (pp) collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV at midrapidity ($|y|<0.5$) as a function of transverse momentum ($p_{\rm{T}}$) using the ALICE detector at the CERN LHC. Furthermore, the single-particle $p_{\rm{T}}$ distributions of $\rm{K}^{0}_{S}$, $\Lambda$, and $\overline{\Lambda}$ in inelastic pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV are reported here for the first time. The $p_{\rm{T}}$ distributions are studied at midrapidity within the transverse momentum range $0\leq p_{\rm{T}}\leq20$ GeV/$c$, depending on the particle species. The $p_{\rm{T}}$ spectra, integrated yields, and particle yield ratios are discussed as a function of collision energy and compared with measurements at lower $\sqrt{s}$ and with results from various general-purpose QCD-inspired Monte Carlo models. A hardening of the spectra at high $p_{\rm{T}}$ with increasing collision energy is observed, which is similar for all particle species under study. The transverse mass and $x_{\rm{T}}\equiv2p_{\rm{T}}/\sqrt{s}$ scaling properties of hadron production are also studied. As the collision energy increases from $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 to 13 TeV, the yields of non- and single-strange hadrons normalized to the pion yields remain approximately constant as a function of $\sqrt{s}$, while ratios for multi-strange hadrons indicate enhancements. The $p_{\rm{T}}$-differential cross sections of $\pi^{\pm}$, $\rm{K}^{\pm}$ and $\rm{p}$ ($\overline{\rm{p}}$) are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations, which are found to overestimate the cross sections for $\pi^{\pm}$ and $\rm{p}$ ($\overline{\rm{p}}$) at high $p_{\rm{T}}$.

47 data tables

Transverse momentum spectrum of $\pi^{+} + \pi^{-}$ measured at midrapidity ($|y|<0.5$) in inelastic pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV. The normalization uncertainty of $\pm2.6\%$ is excluded.

Transverse momentum spectrum of $K^{+} + K^{-}$ measured at midrapidity ($|y|<0.5$) in inelastic pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV. The normalization uncertainty of $\pm2.6\%$ is excluded.

Transverse momentum spectrum of $K^{0}_{S}$ measured at midrapidity ($|y|<0.5$) in inelastic pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV. The normalization uncertainty of $\pm2.6\%$ is excluded.

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(Anti-)deuteron production in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13 \ \text {TeV}$

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, S. ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 80 (2020) 889, 2020.
Inspire Record 1784203 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.97183

The study of (anti-)deuteron production in pp collisions has proven to be a powerful tool to investigate the formation mechanism of loosely bound states in high energy hadronic collisions. In this paper the production of (anti-)deuterons is studied as a function of the charged particle multiplicity in inelastic pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV using the ALICE experiment. Thanks to the large number of accumulated minimum bias events, it has been possible to measure (anti-)deuteron production in pp collisions up to the same charged particle multiplicity ($\rm{d} N_{ch}/\rm{d}\eta\sim26$) as measured in p-Pb collisions at similar centre-of-mass energies. Within the uncertainties, the deuteron yield in pp collisions resembles the one in p-Pb interactions, suggesting a common formation mechanism behind the production of light nuclei in hadronic interactions. In this context the measurements are compared with the expectations of coalescence and Statistical Hadronisation Models (SHM).

43 data tables

Transverse momentum distributions of deuterons in the I V0M multiplicity class

Transverse momentum distributions of deuterons in the II V0M multiplicity class

Transverse momentum distributions of deuterons in the III V0M multiplicity class

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Multiplicity dependence of $\pi $, K, and p production in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 80 (2020) 693, 2020.
Inspire Record 1784041 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.96821

This paper presents the measurements of $\pi^{\pm}$, $\rm{K}^{\pm}$, $\rm{p}$ and $\bar{\rm{p}}$ transverse momentum ($p_{\rm{T}}$) spectra as a function of charged-particle multiplicity density in proton-proton (pp) collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. Such study allows us to isolate the center-of-mass energy dependence of light-flavour particle production. The measurements reported here cover a $p_{\rm{T}}$ range from 0.1 GeV/$c$ to 20 GeV/$c$ and are done in the rapidity interval $|y|<0.5$. The $p_{\rm{T}}$-differential particle ratios exhibit an evolution with multiplicity, similar to that observed in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, which is qualitatively described by some of the hydrodynamical and pQCD-inspired models discussed in this paper. Furthermore, the $p_{\rm{T}}$-integrated hadron-to-pion yield ratios measured in pp collisions at two different center-of-mass energies are consistent when compared at similar multiplicities. This also extends to strange and multistrange hadrons, suggesting that, at LHC energies, particle hadrochemistry scales with particle multiplicity the same way under different collision energies and colliding systems.

24 data tables

$\pi^{+} + \pi^{-}$ transverse momentum spectra in V0M multilpicity classes

$\pi^{+} + \pi^{-}$ transverse momentum spectra in V0M multilpicity classes

$K^{+} + K^{-}$ transverse momentum spectra in V0M multilpicity classes

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Production of (anti-)$^3$He and (anti-)$^3$H in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 101 (2020) 044906, 2020.
Inspire Record 1762356 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.94416

The transverse momentum ($p_{\rm{T}}$) differential yields of (anti-)$^3$He and (anti-)$^3$H measured in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV with ALICE at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are presented. The ratios of the $p_{\rm{T}}$-integrated yields of (anti-)$^3$He and (anti-)$^3$H to the proton yields are reported, as well as the $p_{\rm{T}}$ dependence of the coalescence parameters $B_3$ for (anti-)$^3$He and (anti-)$^3$H. For (anti-)$^3$He, the results obtained in four classes of the mean charged-particle multiplicity density are also discussed. These results are compared to predictions from a canonical statistical hadronization model and coalescence approaches. An upper limit on the total yield of $^4\bar{\mathrm{He}}$ is determined.

24 data tables

Transverse momentum spectra of (anti-)$^3\mathrm{He}$ measured in $\mathrm{INEL}>0$ p--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$

Transverse momentum spectra of (anti-)$^3\mathrm{H}$ measured in $\mathrm{INEL}>0$ p--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$

$^3\overline{\mathrm{He}} /\,^3\mathrm{He}$ ratio in $\mathrm{INEL}>0$ p--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$

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Centrality and transverse momentum dependence of inclusive J/ψ production at midrapidity in Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 805 (2020) 135434, 2020.
Inspire Record 1762353 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.94384

The inclusive J/$\psi$ meson production in Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon-nucleon collision of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV at midrapidity ($|y|$ < 0.9) is reported by the ALICE Collaboration. The measurements are performed in the dielectron decay channel, as a function of event centrality and J/$\psi$ transverse momentum $p_{\rm T}$, down to $p_{\rm T}$ = 0 GeV/$c$. The J/$\psi$ mean transverse momentum $\langle p_{\rm T} \rangle$ and $r_{\rm AA}$ ratio, defined as $\langle p^{\rm 2}_{\rm T} \rangle_{\rm PbPb}/\langle p^{\rm 2}_{\rm T} \rangle_{\rm pp}$, are evaluated. Both observables show a centrality dependence decreasing towards central (head-on) collisions. The J/$\psi$ nuclear modification factor $R_{\rm AA}$ exhibits a strong $p_{\rm T}$ dependence with a large suppression at high $p_{\rm T}$ and an increase to unity for decreasing $p_{\rm T}$. When integrating over the measured momentum range $p_{\rm T}$ < 10 GeV/$c$, the J/$\psi$ $R_{\rm AA}$ shows a weak centrality dependence. Each measurement is compared with results at lower center-of-mass energies and with ALICE measurements at forward rapidity, as well as to theory calculations. All reported features of the J/$\psi$ production at low $p_{\rm T}$ are consistent with a dominant contribution to the J/$\psi$ yield originating from charm quark (re)combination.

7 data tables

Transverse momentum dependence of the inclusive J/$\psi$ yields in Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV at midrapidity in the centrality intervals 0$-$20%, 20$-$40%, and 40$-$90%.

Inclusive J/$\psi$ $\langle p_{\rm T} \rangle$ in Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV at midrapidity as a function of the mean number of participant nucleons.

Inclusive J/$\psi$ $r_{\rm AA} = \langle p^{2}_{\rm T} \rangle_{\rm PbPb} / \langle p^{2}_{\rm T} \rangle_{\rm pp}$ in Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV at midrapidity as a function of the mean number of participant nucleons. The correlated systematic uncertainty due to the pp reference is not included and amounts to 4.7%, shown as the red box around unity in the paper figure.

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Multiplicity dependence of light-flavor hadron production in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Torales - Acosta, Fernando ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 99 (2019) 024906, 2019.
Inspire Record 1684320 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.84282

Comprehensive results on the production of unidentified charged particles, $\pi^{\pm}$, $\rm{K}^{\pm}$, $\rm{K}^{0}_{S}$, $\rm{K}$*(892)$^{0}$, $\rm{p}$, $\overline{\rm{p}}$, $\phi$(1020), $\Lambda$, $\overline{\Lambda}$, $\Xi^{-}$, $\overline{\Xi}^{+}$, $\Omega^{-}$ and $\overline{\Omega}^{+}$ hadrons in proton-proton (pp) collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV at midrapidity ($|y| < 0.5$) as a function of charged-particle multiplicity density are presented. In order to avoid auto-correlation biases, the actual transverse momentum ($p_{\rm{T}}$) spectra of the particles under study and the event activity are measured in different rapidity windows. In the highest multiplicity class, the charged-particle density reaches about 3.5 times the value measured in inelastic collisions. While the yield of protons normalized to pions remains approximately constant as a function of multiplicity, the corresponding ratios of strange hadrons to pions show a significant enhancement that increases with increasing strangeness content. Furthermore, all identified particle to pion ratios are shown to depend solely on charged-particle multiplicity density, regardless of system type and collision energy. The evolution of the spectral shapes with multiplicity and hadron mass shows patterns that are similar to those observed in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energies. The obtained $p_{\rm{T}}$ distributions and yields are compared to expectations from QCD-based pp event generators as well as to predictions from thermal and hydrodynamic models. These comparisons indicate that traces of a collective, equilibrated system are already present in high-multiplicity pp collisions.

106 data tables

Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in V0M I multiplicity class

Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in V0M II multiplicity class

Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in V0M III multiplicity class

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Measurement of electrons from beauty-hadron decays in p-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02 $ TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 $ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
JHEP 07 (2017) 052, 2017.
Inspire Record 1486391 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77904

The production of beauty hadrons was measured via semi-leptonic decays at mid-rapidity with the ALICE detector at the LHC in the transverse momentum interval $1<p_{\rm T}<8$ GeV/$c$ in minimum-bias p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV and in $1.3<p_{\rm T}<8$ GeV/$c$ in the 20% most central Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV. The pp reference spectra at $\sqrt{s}=5.02$ TeV and $\sqrt{s}=2.76$ TeV, needed for the calculation of the nuclear modification factors $R_{\rm pPb}$ and $R_{\rm PbPb}$, were obtained by a pQCD-driven scaling of the cross section of electrons from beauty-hadron decays measured at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV. In the $p_{\rm T}$ interval $3<p_{\rm T}<8$ GeV/$c$ a suppression of the yield of electrons from beauty-hadron decays is observed in Pb-Pb compared to pp collisions. Towards lower $p_{\rm T}$, the $R_{\rm PbPb}$ values increase with large systematic uncertainties. The $R_{\rm pPb}$ is consistent with unity within systematic uncertainties and is well described by theoretical calculations that include cold nuclear matter effects in p-Pb collisions. The measured $R_{\rm pPb}$ and these calculations indicate that cold nuclear matter effects are small at high transverse momentum also in Pb-Pb collisions. Therefore, the observed reduction of $R_{\rm PbPb}$ below unity at high $p_{\rm T}$ may be ascribed to an effect of the hot and dense medium formed in Pb-Pb collisions.

4 data tables

Invariant cross section of electrons from beauty-hadron decays as a function of transverse momentum in minimum-bias p--Pb collisions in the rapidity interval $-1.06 < y_{\rm cms} < 0.14$. The systematic uncertainties do not include an additional p--Pb normalisation uncertainty of 3.7%.

Invariant yield of electrons from beauty-hadron decays as a function of transverse momentum in 20% most central Pb--Pb collisions.

Nuclear modification factor $R_{\text{pA}}$ of electrons from beauty-hadron decays as a function of transverse momentum for minimum-bias p--Pb collisions in the rapidity interval $-1.06 < y_{\rm cms} < 0.14$. The systematic uncertainties do not include a global normalisation uncertainty of 5.1%.

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Enhanced production of multi-strange hadrons in high-multiplicity proton-proton collisions

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Nature Phys. 13 (2017) 535-539, 2017.
Inspire Record 1471838 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77284

At sufficiently high temperature and energy density, nuclear matter undergoes a transition to a phase in which quarks and gluons are not confined: the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) [1]. Such an extreme state of strongly-interacting QCD (Quantum Chromo-Dynamics) matter is produced in the laboratory with high-energy collisions of heavy nuclei, where an enhanced production of strange hadrons is observed [2-6]. Strangeness enhancement, originally proposed as a signature of QGP formation in nuclear collisions [7], is more pronounced for multi-strange baryons. Several effects typical of heavy-ion phenomenology have been observed in high-multiplicity proton-proton (pp) collisions [8,9]. Yet, enhanced production of multi-strange particles has not been reported so far. Here we present the first observation of strangeness enhancement in high-multiplicity pp collisions. We find that the integrated yields of strange and multi-strange particles relative to pions increases significantly with the event charged-particle multiplicity. The measurements are in remarkable agreement with p-Pb collision results [10,11] indicating that the phenomenon is related to the final system created in the collision. In high-multiplicity events strangeness production reaches values similar to those observed in Pb-Pb collisions, where a QGP is formed.

52 data tables

$K^{0}_{S}$ transverse momentum spectrum: V0M Class I (pp at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV).

$K^{0}_{S}$ transverse momentum spectrum: V0M Class II (pp at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV).

$K^{0}_{S}$ transverse momentum spectrum: V0M Class III (pp at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV).

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