Version 2
Centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of the charged-particle multiplicity density in Xe–Xe collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ =5.44TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Torales - Acosta, Fernando ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 790 (2019) 35-48, 2019.
Inspire Record 1672756 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.88397

In this Letter, the ALICE Collaboration presents the first measurements of the charged-particle multiplicity density, $\rm{d}N_{\rm{ch}}/\rm{d}\eta$, and total charged-particle multiplicity, $N_{\rm{ch}}^{\rm{tot}}$, in Xe-Xe collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon--nucleon pair of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.44 TeV. The measurements are performed as a function of collision centrality over a wide pseudorapidity range of $-3.5 < \eta < 5$. The values of $\rm{d}N_{\rm{ch}}/\rm{d}\eta$ at mid-rapidity and $N_{\rm{ch}}^{\rm{tot}}$ for central collisions, normalised to the number of nucleons participating in the collision ($N_{\rm{part}}$) as a function of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$, follow the trends established in previous heavy-ion measurements. The same quantities are also found to increase as a function of $N_{\rm{part}}$, and up to the 10% most central collisions the trends are the same as the ones observed in Pb-Pb at a similar energy. For more central collisions, the Xe-Xe scaled multiplicities exceed those in Pb-Pb for a similar $N_{\rm{part}}$. The results are compared to phenomenological models and theoretical calculations based on different mechanisms for particle production in nuclear collisions. All considered models describe the data reasonably well within 20%.

6 data tables

Charged-particle pseudorapidity density for 12 centrality classes over a broad $\eta$ range in Xe--Xe collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}} = 5.44\,\mathrm{TeV}$. Statistical errors are generally insignificant.

Values of $2/\langle N_\mathrm{part} \rangle \langle \mathrm{d}N_\mathrm{ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta\rangle$ and $2/\langle N_\mathrm{part} \rangle N^\mathrm{tot}_\mathrm{ch}$ in Xe--Xe collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}} = 5.44\,\mathrm{TeV}$ for the top 5$\%$ central collisions.

Values of $2/\langle N_\mathrm{part} \rangle \langle \mathrm{d}N_\mathrm{ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta\rangle$ and $2/\langle N_\mathrm{part} \rangle N^\mathrm{tot}_\mathrm{ch}$ as a function of $\langle N_\mathrm{part} \rangle$ in Xe--Xe collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}} = 5.44\,\mathrm{TeV}$.

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Version 2
Production of $\Sigma(1385)^{\pm}$ and $\Xi(1530)^{0}$ in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 77 (2017) 389, 2017.
Inspire Record 1510878 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77971

The transverse momentum distributions of the strange and double-strange hyperon resonances ($\Sigma(1385)^{\pm}$, $\Xi(1530)^{0}$) produced in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV were measured in the rapidity range $-0.5< y_{\rm{CMS}}<0$ for event classes corresponding to different charged-particle multiplicity densities, $\langle{\rm d}N_{\rm{ch}}/{\rm d}\eta_{\rm{lab}}\rangle$. The mean transverse momentum values are presented as a function of $\langle{\rm d}N_{\rm{ch}}/{\rm d}\eta_{\rm{lab}}\rangle$, as well as a function of the particle masses and compared with previous results on hyperon production. The integrated yield ratios of excited to ground-state hyperons are constant as a function of $\langle{\rm d}N_{\rm{ch}}/{\rm d}\eta_{\rm{lab}}\rangle$. The equivalent ratios to pions exhibit an increase with $\langle{\rm d}N_{\rm{ch}}/{\rm d}\eta_{\rm{lab}}\rangle$, depending on their strangeness content.

18 data tables

Average charged particle pseudo-rapidity density, $\langle\rm{d}N_{\rm{ch}}/\rm{d}\eta_{\rm{lab}}\rangle$, measured at mid-rapidity in visible cross section event classes. Multiplicity classes are defined using the V0A estimator; values for $\langle\rm{d}N_{\rm{ch}}/\rm{d}\eta_{\rm{lab}}\rangle$ are corrected for vertexing and trigger efficiency. Since statistical uncertainties are negligible, only total systematic uncertainties are reported.

$p_{\rm{T}}$-differential yield of $\Sigma^{*+}$ in p-Pb collisions with centre-of-mass energy/nucleon=5.02 TeV (NSD).

$p_{\rm{T}}$-differential yield of $\Sigma^{*+}$ in p-Pb collisions with centre-of-mass energy/nucleon=5.02 TeV (0-20% multiplicity class).

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Centrality dependence of the pseudorapidity density distribution for charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 772 (2017) 567-577, 2017.
Inspire Record 1507090 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.78365

We present the charged-particle pseudorapidity density in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02\,\mathrm{Te\kern-.25exV}$ in centrality classes measured by ALICE. The measurement covers a wide pseudorapidity range from $-3.5$ to $5$, which is sufficient for reliable estimates of the total number of charged particles produced in the collisions. For the most central (0-5%) collisions we find $21\,400\pm 1\,300$ while for the most peripheral (80-90%) we find $230\pm 38$. This corresponds to an increase of $(27\pm4)\%$ over the results at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76\,\mathrm{Te\kern-.25exV}$ previously reported by ALICE. The energy dependence of the total number of charged particles produced in heavy-ion collisions is found to obey a modified power-law like behaviour. The charged-particle pseudorapidity density of the most central collisions is compared to model calculations --- none of which fully describes the measured distribution. We also present an estimate of the rapidity density of charged particles. The width of that distribution is found to exhibit a remarkable proportionality to the beam rapidity, independent of the collision energy from the top SPS to LHC energies.

5 data tables

Charged-particle pseudorapidity density for ten centrality classes over a broad $\eta$ range in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}=5.02\,\mathrm{TeV}$. Boxes around the points reflect the total uncorrelated systematic uncertainties, while the filled squares on the right reflect the correlated systematic uncertainty (evaluated at $\eta=0$). Statistical errors are generally insignificant and smaller than the markers. Also shown is the reflection of the $3.5<\eta<5$ values around $\eta=0$ (open circles). The line corresponds to fits of the difference between two Gaussians centred at $\eta=0$ ($f_{\text{GG}}$) [PLB754.373] to the data.

Charged-particle pseudorapidity density at midrapidity in most perihperhal (80-90%) Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\scriptscriptstyle\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02\,\mathrm{TeV}$.

Total number of charged particles as a function of the mean number of participating nucleons [PRC88.044909]. The total charged-particle multiplicity is given as the integral over $\mathrm{d}N_{\mathrm{ch}}/\mathrm{d}\eta$ over the measured region ($-3.5<\eta<5$) and extrapolations from fitted functions in the unmeasured regions. The contribution from unmeasured $\eta$ regions amounts to $\approx30\%$ of the total number of charged particles. The uncertainty on the extrapolation to the unmeasured pseudorapidity region is smaller than the size of the markers. The contribution to the systematic uncertainties from the centrality determination and electromagnetic processes are vanishing compared to the contribution from the largest differences between the fitted functions. A function inspired by factorisation [PRC83.024913] is fitted to the data, and the best fit yields $a=51.5\pm7.3$, $b=0.16\pm0.05$.

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Production of K$^{*}$ (892)$^{0}$ and $\phi $ (1020) in p–Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{{\text {NN}}}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 76 (2016) 245, 2016.
Inspire Record 1418181 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72720

The production of K$^{*}$(892)$^{0}$ and $\phi$(1020) mesons has been measured in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV. K$^{*0}$ and $\phi$ are reconstructed via their decay into charged hadrons with the ALICE detector in the rapidity range $-0.5 < y <0$. The transverse momentum spectra, measured as a function of the multiplicity, have p$_{\mathrm{T}}$ range from 0 to 15 GeV/$c$ for K$^{*0}$ and from 0.3 to 21 GeV/$c$ for $\phi$. Integrated yields, mean transverse momenta and particle ratios are reported and compared with results in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV. In Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions, K$^{*0}$ and $\phi$ probe the hadronic phase of the system and contribute to the study of particle formation mechanisms by comparison with other identified hadrons. For this purpose, the mean transverse momenta and the differential proton-to-$\phi$ ratio are discussed as a function of the multiplicity of the event. The short-lived K$^{*0}$ is measured to investigate re-scattering effects, believed to be related to the size of the system and to the lifetime of the hadronic phase.

30 data tables

Average charged particle pseudo-rapidity density, $\langle\mathrm{d}N_{\rm ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta_{\mathrm{lab}}\rangle$, measured at mid-rapidity in visible cross section event classes and average number of colliding nucleons, $\langle\mathrm{N_{coll}}\rangle$. Multiplicity classes are defined using the V0A estimator; values for $\langle\mathrm{d}N_{\rm ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta_{\mathrm{lab}}\rangle$ are corrected for vertexing and trigger efficiency. Since statistical uncertainties are negligible, only total systematic uncertainties are reported.

$p_{\rm T}$-differential yield of (K$^{*0}$ + $\overline{K^{*0}}$)/2 in p-Pb collisions with centre-of-mass energy/nucleon=5.02 TeV (NSD). Additional systematic error: +- 3.1% (normalization).

$p_{\rm T}$-differential yield of (K$^{*0}$ + $\overline{K^{*0}}$)/2 in p-Pb collisions with centre-of-mass energy/nucleon=5.02 TeV (0-20% multiplicity class).

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Centrality dependence of the charged-particle multiplicity density at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 116 (2016) 222302, 2016.
Inspire Record 1410589 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73052

The pseudorapidity density of charged particles ($\mathrm{d}N_\mathrm{ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta$) at mid-rapidity in Pb-Pb collisions has been measured at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV. It increases with centrality and reaches a value of $1943 \pm 54$ in $|\eta|<0.5$ for the 5% most central collisions. A rise in $\mathrm{d}N_\mathrm{ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta$ as a function of $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ for the most central collisions is observed, steeper than that observed in proton-proton collisions and following the trend established by measurements at lower energy. The centrality dependence of $\mathrm{d}N_\mathrm{ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta$ as a function of the average number of participant nucleons, ${\langle N_\mathrm{part} \rangle}$, calculated in a Glauber model, is compared with the previous measurement at lower energy. A constant factor of about 1.2 describes the increase in $\frac{2}{\langle N_\mathrm{part} \rangle}\langle \mathrm{d}N_\mathrm{ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta \rangle$ from $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV to $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV for all centrality intervals, within the measured range of 0-80% centrality. The results are also compared to models based on different mechanisms for particle production in nuclear collisions.

3 data tables

The values of ${\langle N_\mathrm{part} \rangle}$ obtained with the Glauber model are measured in $|\eta|$ < 0.5 for eleven centrality classes. The statistical error contribution being negligible.

The $\mathrm{d}N_\mathrm{ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta$ values measured in $|\eta|$ < 0.5 for eleven centrality classes.

The $\frac{2}{\langle N_\mathrm{part} \rangle}\langle \mathrm{d}N_\mathrm{ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta \rangle$ values measured in $|\eta|$ < 0.5 for eleven centrality classes. The statistical error contribution being negligible.


Pseudorapidity and transverse-momentum distributions of charged particles in proton–proton collisions at $\sqrt s=$ 13 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 753 (2016) 319-329, 2016.
Inspire Record 1395253 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.70847

The pseudorapidity ($\eta$) and transverse-momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) distributions of charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions are measured at the centre-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV. The pseudorapidity distribution in $|\eta|<$ 1.8 is reported for inelastic events and for events with at least one charged particle in $|\eta|<$ 1. The pseudorapidity density of charged particles produced in the pseudorapidity region $|\eta|<$ 0.5 is 5.31 $\pm$ 0.18 and 6.46 $\pm$ 0.19 for the two event classes, respectively. The transverse-momentum distribution of charged particles is measured in the range 0.15 $<$ $p_{\rm T}$ $<$ 20 GeV/c and $|\eta|<$ 0.8 for events with at least one charged particle in $|\eta|<$ 1. The correlation between transverse momentum and particle multiplicity is also investigated by studying the evolution of the spectra with event multiplicity. The results are compared with calculations from PYTHIA and EPOS Monte Carlo generators.

4 data tables

Average pseudorapidity density of charged particles as a function of eta produced in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV. The results are shown in the normalisation classes INEL and INEL>0. The uncertainties are the quadratic sum of statistical and systematic contributions.

Invariant charged-particle yield as a function of pT normalised to INEL>0 events.

Ratio of transverse-momentum spectra in INEL>0 events at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 and 7 TeV.

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Centrality evolution of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density over a broad pseudorapidity range in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} =$ 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 754 (2016) 373-385, 2016.
Inspire Record 1394676 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.70834

The centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density measured with ALICE in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ over a broad pseudorapidity range is presented. This Letter extends the previous results reported by ALICE to more peripheral collisions. No strong change of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density distributions with centrality is observed, and when normalised to the number of participating nucleons in the collisions, the evolution over pseudorapidity with centrality is likewise small. The broad pseudorapidity range allows precise estimates of the total number of produced charged particles which we find to range from $162\pm22$ (syst.) to $17170\pm770$ (syst.) in 80-90% and 0-5 central collisions, respectively. The total charged-particle multiplicity is seen to approximately scale with the number of participating nucleons in the collision. This suggests that hard contributions to the charged-particle multiplicity are limited. The results are compared to models which describe $\mbox{d}N_{\mbox{ch}}/\mbox{d}\eta$ at mid-rapidity in the most central Pb-Pb collisions and it is found that these models do not capture all features of the distributions.

4 data tables

Measurement of $\mbox{d}N_{\mbox{ch}}/\mbox{d}\eta$ for all centralities and a broad $\eta$ range. Combined and symmetrised $\mbox{d}N_{\mbox{ch}}/\mbox{d}\eta$ over 30-90 PCT centrality from both SPD and FMD. Previously published results for 0-30 PCT over the full pseudorapidity range available elsewhere [PLB726.610]. Please note the systematic uncertainty from the centrality determination is encoded as a qualifier in the table header.

Full--width half--maximum of the charged--particle pseudorapidity distributions versus the average number of participants. The uncertainties on the ALICE measurements are from the fit of $f_{\text{GG}}$ only and evaluated at $95\%$ confidence level.

The charged--particle pseudorapidity density distributions scaled by the average number of participants in various pseudorapidity intervals as a function of the number of participants. Data for the 0 to 30 PCT most central events, and in ETARAP < 0.5 is available in previously published results [PLB726.610,PRC88.044910]. The uncertainties on $\left\langle N_{\text{part}}\right\rangle$ from the Glauber calculations not included (see [PRC88.044910]).

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Charged-particle multiplicities in proton–proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 0.9$ to 8 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 77 (2017) 33, 2017.
Inspire Record 1394854 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.77011

A detailed study of pseudorapidity densities and multiplicity distributions of primary charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions, at $\sqrt{s} =$ 0.9, 2.36, 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV, in the pseudorapidity range $|\eta|<2$, was carried out using the ALICE detector. Measurements were obtained for three event classes: inelastic, non-single diffractive and events with at least one charged particle in the pseudorapidity interval $|\eta|<1$. The use of an improved track-counting algorithm combined with ALICE's measurements of diffractive processes allows a higher precision compared to our previous publications. A KNO scaling study was performed in the pseudorapidity intervals $|\eta|<$ 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. The data are compared to other experimental results and to models as implemented in Monte Carlo event generators PHOJET and recent tunes of PYTHIA6, PYTHIA8 and EPOS.

75 data tables

Measured pseudorapidity dependence of $dN/d\eta$ for INEL collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV.

Measured pseudorapidity dependence of $dN/d\eta$ for NSD collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV.

Measured pseudorapidity dependence of $dN/d\eta$ for INEL>0 collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV.

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Two-pion femtoscopy in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, J. ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 91 (2015) 034906, 2015.
Inspire Record 1342499 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66872

We report the results of the femtoscopic analysis of pairs of identical pions measured in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV. Femtoscopic radii are determined as a function of event multiplicity and pair momentum in three spatial dimensions. As in the pp collision system, the analysis is complicated by the presence of sizable background correlation structures in addition to the femtoscopic signal. The radii increase with event multiplicity and decrease with pair transverse momentum. When taken at comparable multiplicity, the radii measured in p-Pb collisions, at high multiplicity and low pair transverse momentum, are 10-20% higher than those observed in pp collisions but below those observed in A-A collisions. The results are compared to hydrodynamic predictions at large event multiplicity as well as discussed in the context of calculations based on gluon saturation.

8 data tables

Definition of the V0A multiplicity classes and their corresponding $ <\mathrm{d}N_{\rm ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta> $. The given uncertainties are systematic only since the statistical ones are negligible.

Femtoscopic radii (GGG fit) in out direction as a function of pair transverse momentum for four V0A multiplicity classes.

Femtoscopic radii (GGG fit) in side direction as a function of pair transverse momentum for four V0A multiplicity classes.

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Centrality dependence of particle production in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN} }$= 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 91 (2015) 064905, 2015.
Inspire Record 1335350 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.68361

We report measurements of the primary charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse momentum distributions in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV, and investigate their correlation with experimental observables sensitive to the centrality of the collision. Centrality classes are defined using different event activity estimators, i.e. charged particle multiplicities measured in three disjunct pseudorapidity regions as well as the energy measured at beam rapidity (zero-degree). The procedures to determine the centrality, quantified by the number of participants ($N_{\rm part}$), or the number of nucleon-nucleon binary collisions ($N_{\rm coll}$), are described. We show that, in contrast to Pb-Pb collisions, in p-Pb collisions large multiplicity fluctuations together with the small range of participants available, generate a dynamical bias in centrality classes based on particle multiplicity. We propose to use the zero-degree energy, which we expect not to introduce a dynamical bias, as an alternative event-centrality estimator. Based on zero-degree energy centrality classes, the $N_{\rm part}$ dependence of particle production is studied. Under the assumption that the multiplicity measured in the Pb-going rapidity region scales with the number of Pb-participants, an approximate independence of the multiplicity per participating nucleon measured at mid-rapitity of the number of participating nucleons is observed. Furthermore, at high-$p_{\rm T}$ the p-Pb spectra are found to be consistent with the pp spectra scaled by $N_{\rm coll}$ for all centrality classes. Our results represent valuable input for the study of the event activity dependence of hard probes in p-Pb collision and, hence, help to establish baselines for the interpretation of the Pb-Pb data.

10 data tables

dNdeta CL1.

dNdeta V0M.

dNdeta V0A.

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