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Production of light nuclei and anti-nuclei in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 93 (2016) 024917, 2016.
Inspire Record 1380491 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72547

The production of (anti-)deuteron and (anti-)$^{3}$He nuclei in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV has been studied using the ALICE detector at the LHC. The spectra exhibit a significant hardening with increasing centrality. Combined blast-wave fits of several particles support the interpretation that this behavior is caused by an increase of radial flow. The integrated particle yields are discussed in the context of coalescence and thermal-statistical model expectations. The particle ratios, $^3$He/d and $^3$He/p, in Pb-Pb collisions are found to be in agreement with a common chemical freeze-out temperature of $T_{\rm chem} \approx 156$ MeV. These ratios do not vary with centrality which is in agreement with the thermal-statistical model. In a coalescence approach, it excludes models in which nucleus production is proportional to the particle multiplicity and favors those in which it is proportional to the particle density instead. In addition, the observation of 31 anti-tritons in Pb-Pb collisions is reported. For comparison, the deuteron spectrum in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV is also presented. While the p/$\pi$ ratio is similar in pp and Pb-Pb collisions, the d/p ratio in pp collisions is found to be lower by a factor of 2.2 than in Pb-Pb collisions.

10 data tables

Anti-deuteron over deuteron ratio versus pT per nucleon for various centrality classes for Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV.

Anti-$^{3}$He over $^{3}$He ratio versus pT per nucleon for 0-20% centrality class.

Anti-$^{3}$He over $^{3}$He ratio versus pT per nucleon for 20-80% centrality class.

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Centrality dependence of particle production in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN} }$= 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 91 (2015) 064905, 2015.
Inspire Record 1335350 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.68361

We report measurements of the primary charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse momentum distributions in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV, and investigate their correlation with experimental observables sensitive to the centrality of the collision. Centrality classes are defined using different event activity estimators, i.e. charged particle multiplicities measured in three disjunct pseudorapidity regions as well as the energy measured at beam rapidity (zero-degree). The procedures to determine the centrality, quantified by the number of participants ($N_{\rm part}$), or the number of nucleon-nucleon binary collisions ($N_{\rm coll}$), are described. We show that, in contrast to Pb-Pb collisions, in p-Pb collisions large multiplicity fluctuations together with the small range of participants available, generate a dynamical bias in centrality classes based on particle multiplicity. We propose to use the zero-degree energy, which we expect not to introduce a dynamical bias, as an alternative event-centrality estimator. Based on zero-degree energy centrality classes, the $N_{\rm part}$ dependence of particle production is studied. Under the assumption that the multiplicity measured in the Pb-going rapidity region scales with the number of Pb-participants, an approximate independence of the multiplicity per participating nucleon measured at mid-rapitity of the number of participating nucleons is observed. Furthermore, at high-$p_{\rm T}$ the p-Pb spectra are found to be consistent with the pp spectra scaled by $N_{\rm coll}$ for all centrality classes. Our results represent valuable input for the study of the event activity dependence of hard probes in p-Pb collision and, hence, help to establish baselines for the interpretation of the Pb-Pb data.

10 data tables

dNdeta CL1.

dNdeta V0M.

dNdeta V0A.

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Charged jet cross sections and properties in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.D 91 (2015) 112012, 2015.
Inspire Record 1328629 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.68515

The differential charged jet cross sections, jet fragmentation distributions, and jet shapes are measured in minimum bias proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV using the ALICE detector at the LHC. Jets are reconstructed from charged particle momenta in the mid-rapidity region using the sequential recombination $k_{\rm T}$ and anti-$k_{\rm T}$ as well as the SISCone jet finding algorithms with several resolution parameters in the range $R=0.2$ to $0.6$. Differential jet production cross sections measured with the three jet finders are in agreement in the transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) interval $20<p_{\rm T}^{\rm jet,ch}<100$ GeV/$c$. They are also consistent with prior measurements carried out at the LHC by the ATLAS collaboration. The jet charged particle multiplicity rises monotonically with increasing jet $p_{\rm T}$, in qualitative agreement with prior observations at lower energies. The transverse profiles of leading jets are investigated using radial momentum density distributions as well as distributions of the average radius containing 80% ($\langle R_{\rm 80} \rangle$) of the reconstructed jet $p_{\rm T}$. The fragmentation of leading jets with $R=0.4$ using scaled $p_{\rm T}$ spectra of the jet constituents is studied. The measurements are compared to model calculations from event generators (PYTHIA, PHOJET, HERWIG). The measured radial density distributions and $\langle R_{\rm 80} \rangle$ distributions are well described by the PYTHIA model (tune Perugia-2011). The fragmentation distributions are better described by HERWIG.

73 data tables

Measured charged jet differential cross sections for INEL proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV.

Measured charged jet differential cross sections for INEL proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV.

Measured charged jet differential cross sections for INEL proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV.

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Beauty production in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76 TeV measured via semi-electronic decays

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 738 (2014) 97-108, 2014.
Inspire Record 1296861 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.858

The ALICE collaboration at the LHC reports measurement of the inclusive production cross section of electrons from semi-leptonic decays of beauty hadrons with rapidity $|y|<0.8$ and transverse momentum $1<p_{\mathrm{T}}<10$ GeV/$c$, in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = $ 2.76 TeV. Electrons not originating from semi-electronic decay of beauty hadrons are suppressed using the impact parameter of the corresponding tracks. The production cross section of beauty decay electrons is compared to the result obtained with an alternative method which uses the distribution of the azimuthal angle between heavy-flavour decay electrons and charged hadrons. Perturbative QCD calculations agree with the measured cross section within the experimental and theoretical uncertainties. The integrated visible cross section, $\sigma_{\mathrm{b} \rightarrow \mathrm{e}} = 3.47\pm0.40(\mathrm{stat})^{+1.12}_{-1.33}(\mathrm{sys})\pm0.07(\mathrm{norm}) \mu$b, was extrapolated to full phase space using Fixed Order plus Next-to-Leading Log (FONLL) predictions to obtain the total b$\bar{\mathrm{b}}$ production cross section, $\sigma_{\mathrm{b\bar{b}}} = 130\pm15.1(\mathrm{stat})^{+42.1}_{-49.8}(\mathrm{sys})^{+3.4}_{-3.1}(\mathrm{extr})\pm2.5(\mathrm{norm})\pm4.4(\mathrm{BR}) \mu$b.

8 data tables

Azimuthal correlation distribution between heavy-flavour decay electrons and charged hadrons, scaled by the number of electrons in minimum bias triggered events in the electron transverse momentum range 1.5-2.5 GeV/$c$.

Azimuthal correlation distribution between heavy-flavour decay electrons and charged hadrons, scaled by the number of electrons in EMCal triggered events in the electron transverse momentum range 4.5-6 GeV/$c$.

Relative beauty contribution to the heavy-flavour electron yield obtained with the method based on the track impact parameter.

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$K^*(892)^0$ and $ϕ(1020)$ production in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 91 (2015) 024609, 2015.
Inspire Record 1288320 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66630

The yields of the K*(892)$^{0}$ and $\Phi$(1020) resonances are measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV through their hadronic decays using the ALICE detector. The measurements are performed in multiple centrality intervals at mid-rapidity (|$y$|<0.5) in the transverse-momentum ranges 0.3 < $p_{\rm T}$ < 5 GeV/$c$ for the K*(892)$^{0}$ and 0.5 < $p_{\rm T}$ < 5 GeV/$c$ for the $\Phi$(1020). The yields of K*(892)$^{0}$ are suppressed in central Pb-Pb collisions with respect to pp and peripheral Pb-Pb collisions (perhaps due to rescattering of its decay products in the hadronic medium), while the longer lived $\Phi$(1020) meson is not suppressed. These particles are also used as probes to study the mechanisms of particle production. The shape of the $p_{\rm T}$ distribution of the $\Phi$(1020) meson, but not its yield, is reproduced fairly well by hydrodynamic models for central Pb-Pb collisions. In central Pb-Pb collisions at low and intermediate $p_{\rm T}$, the p/$\Phi$(1020) ratio is flat in $p_{\rm T}$, while the p/$\pi$ and $\Phi$(1020)/$\pi$ ratios show a pronounced increase and have similar shapes to each other. These results indicate that the shapes of the $p_{\rm T}$ distributions of these particles in central Pb-Pb collisions are determined predominantly by the particle masses and radial flow. Finally, $\Phi$(1020) production in Pb-Pb collisions is enhanced, with respect to the yield in pp collisions and the yield of charged pions, by an amount similar to the $\Lambda$ and $\Xi$.

36 data tables

Transverse-momentum distributions of (K*(892)0 + anti-K*(892)0)/2 in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt(sNN)=2.76 TeV, centrality 0.0-20.0%.

Transverse-momentum distributions of (K*(892)0 + anti-K*(892)0)/2 in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt(sNN)=2.76 TeV, centrality 20.0-40.0%.

Transverse-momentum distributions of (K*(892)0 + anti-K*(892)0)/2 in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt(sNN)=2.76 TeV, centrality 40.0-60.0%.

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$K^0_S$ and $\Lambda$ production in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 111 (2013) 222301, 2013.
Inspire Record 1243863 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.61857

The ALICE measurement of K$^0_{\rm S}$ and $\rm\Lambda$ production at mid-rapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV is presented. The transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) spectra are shown for several collision centrality intervals and in the $p_{\rm T}$ range from 0.4 GeV/$c$ (0.6 GeV/$c$ for $\rm\Lambda$) to 12 GeV/$c$. The $p_{\rm T}$ dependence of the $\rm \Lambda$/K$^0_{\rm S}$ ratios exhibits maxima in the vicinity of 3 GeV/$c$, and the positions of the maxima shift towards higher $p_{\rm T}$ with increasing collision centrality. The magnitude of these maxima increases by almost a factor of three between most peripheral and most central Pb-Pb collisions. This baryon excess at intermediate $p_{\rm T}$ is not observed in pp interactions at sqrt(s) = 0.9 TeV and at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV. Qualitatively, the baryon enhancement in heavy-ion collisions is expected from radial flow. However, the measured $p_{\rm T}$ spectra above 2 GeV/$c$ progressively decouple from hydrodynamical-model calculations. For higher values of $p_{\rm T}$, models that incorporate the influence of the medium on the fragmentation and hadronization processes describe qualitatively the $p_{\rm T}$ dependence of the $\rm\Lambda$/K$^0_{\rm S}$ ratio.

23 data tables

pT spectra of K0Short in the rapidity range -0.5<y<0.5 in the centrality interval 0.0-5.0%.

pT spectra of K0Short in the rapidity range -0.5<y<0.5 in the centrality interval 5.0-10.0%.

pT spectra of K0Short in the rapidity range -0.5<y<0.5 in the centrality interval 10.0-20.0%.

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Centrality dependence of the pseudorapidity density distribution for charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abbas, Ehab ; Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 726 (2013) 610-622, 2013.
Inspire Record 1225979 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.68753

We present the first wide-range measurement of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density distribution, for different centralities (the 0-5%, 5-10%, 10-20%, and 20-30% most central events) in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV at the LHC. The measurement is performed using the full coverage of the ALICE detectors, $-5.0 < \eta < 5.5$, and employing a special analysis technique based on collisions arising from LHC "satellite" bunches. We present the pseudorapidity density as a function of the number of participating nucleons as well as an extrapolation to the total number of produced charged particles ($N_{\rm ch} = 17165 \pm 772$ for the 0-5% most central collisions). From the measured ${\rm d}N_{\rm ch}/{\rm d}\eta$ distribution we derive the rapidity density distribution, ${\rm d}N_{\rm ch}/{\rm d}y$, under simple assumptions. The rapidity density distribution is found to be significantly wider than the predictions of the Landau model. We assess the validity of longitudinal scaling by comparing to lower energy results from RHIC. Finally the mechanisms of the underlying particle production are discussed based on a comparison with various theoretical models.

5 data tables

$\rm dN_{ch}/d\eta$ versus $\eta$ for different centralities. Errors are systematic as statistical errors are negligible.

Total number of produced charged particles extrapolated to beam rapidity as a function of the number of participating nucleons in the collision. Statistical errors are negligible. The first(sys) error is the correlated systematic error and the second is that which is uncorrelated to the other points.

$\rm dN_{ch}/d\eta$ per participant pair versus the number of participating nucleons in the collision for different eta ranges. Errors are systematic as statistical errors are negligible.

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Pseudorapidity density of charged particles in $p$ + Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 110 (2013) 032301, 2013.
Inspire Record 1190545 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.60099

The charged-particle pseudorapidity density measured over 4 units of pseudorapidity in non-single-diffractive (NSD) p-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV is presented. The average value at midrapidity is measured to be $16.81 \pm 0.71$ (syst.), which corresponds to $2.14 \pm 0.17$ (syst.) per participating nucleon. This is 16% lower than in NSD pp collisions interpolated to the same collision energy, and 84% higher than in d-Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 0.2$ TeV. The measured pseudorapidity density in p-Pb collisions is compared to model predictions, and provides new constraints on the description of particle production in high-energy nuclear collisions.

1 data table

The pseudorapidity density of charged particles in the lab. frame.


Production of $K^*(892)^0$ and $\phi(1020)$ in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 72 (2012) 2183, 2012.
Inspire Record 1182213 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.59933

The production of K$^{*}$(892)$^{0}$ and $\phi$(1020) in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV was measured by the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The yields and the transverse momentum spectra d$^{2}$N/d$y$d$p_{\rm T}$ at midrapidity $|y|<0.5$ in the range $0<p_{\rm T}<6$ GeV/$c$ for K$^{*}$(892)$^{0}$ and $0.4<p_{\rm T}<6$ GeV/$c$ for $\phi$(1020) are reported and compared to model predictions. Using the yield of pions, kaons, and Omega baryons measured previously by ALICE at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV, the ratios K$^{*}$/K$^{-}$, $\phi$/K$^{*}$, $\phi$/K$^{-}$, $\phi/\pi^{-}$, and ($\Omega$ + $\overline{\Omega}$)/$\phi$ are presented. The values of the K$^{*}$/K$^{-}$, $\phi$/K$^{*}$ and $\phi$/K$^{-}$ ratios are similar to those found at lower centre-of-mass energies. In contrast, the $\phi/\pi^{-}$ ratio, which has been observed to increase with energy, seems to saturate above 200 GeV. The ($\Omega$ + $\overline{\Omega}$)/$\phi$ ratio in the $p_{\rm T}$ range $1$-$5$ GeV/$c$ is found to be in good agreement with the prediction of the HIJING/BB v2.0 model with a strong colour field.

2 data tables

pT-differential production yields of K*0 mesons in INEL pp collisions at sqrts 7 TeV in |y| < 0.5.

pT-differential production yields of phi mesons in INEL pp collisions at sqrts 7 TeV in |y| < 0.5.


Pion, Kaon, and Proton Production in Central Pb--Pb Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 109 (2012) 252301, 2012.
Inspire Record 1126966 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.59720

In this Letter we report the first results on $\pi^\pm$, K$^\pm$, p and $\mathrm {p\overline{p}}$ production at mid-rapidity ($\left|y\right|<0.5$) in central Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV, measured by the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The $p_{\rm T}$ distributions and yields are compared to previous results at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV and expectations from hydrodynamic and thermal models. The spectral shapes indicate a strong increase of the radial flow velocity with $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$, which in hydrodynamic models is expected as a consequence of the increasing particle density. While the ${\rm K}/\pi$ ratio is in line with predictions from the thermal model, the ${\rm p}/\pi$ ratio is found to be lower by a factor of about 1.5. This deviation from thermal model expectations is still to be understood.

4 data tables

Transverse momentum distribution for positve and negative pions.

Transverse momentum distribution for positve and negative kaons.

Transverse momentum distribution for positve and negative protons.

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