Evidence of rescattering effect in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC through production of $\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$ and $\phi(1020)$ mesons

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 802 (2020) 135225, 2020.
Inspire Record 1762368 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.93150

Measurements of $\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$ and $\phi(1020)$ resonance production in Pb-Pb and pp collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider are reported. The resonances are measured at midrapidity ($|y|$ $<$ 0.5) via their hadronic decay channels and the transverse momentum ($p_{\rm{T}}$) distributions are obtained for various collision centrality classes up to $p_{\rm{T}}$ $=$ 20 GeV$/c$. The $p_{\rm{T}}$-integrated yield ratio $\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$$/$K in Pb-Pb collisions shows significant suppression relative to pp collisions and decreases towards more central collisions. In contrast, the $\phi(1020)$$/$K ratio does not show any suppression. Furthermore, the measured $\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$$/$K ratio in central Pb-Pb collisions is significantly suppressed with respect to the expectations based on a thermal model calculation, while the $\phi(1020)$$/$K ratio agrees with the model prediction. These measurements are an experimental demonstration of rescattering of $\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$ decay products in the hadronic phase of the collisions. The $\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$$/$K yield ratios in Pb-Pb and pp collisions are used to estimate the time duration between chemical and kinetic freeze-out, which is found to be $\sim$ 4-7 fm$/c$ for central collisions. The $p_{\rm{T}}$-differential ratios of $\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$$/$K, $\phi(1020)$$/$K, $\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$$/\pi$, $\phi(1020)$$/\pi$, $p/$$\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$ and $p/$$\phi(1020)$ are also presented for Pb-Pb and pp collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ $=$ 5.02 TeV. These ratios show that the rescattering effect is predominantly a low-$p_{\rm{T}}$ phenomenon.

20 data tables

$p_{\rm T}$-distributions of $\rm{K}^{*0}$ (average of particle and anti-particle) meson measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV.

$p_{\rm T}$-distributions of $\rm{K}^{*0}$ (average of particle and anti-particle) meson measured in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 5.02 TeV.

$p_{\rm T}$-distributions of $\phi$ meson measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV.

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Production of charged pions, kaons, and (anti-)protons in Pb-Pb and inelastic $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt {s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adhya, Souvik Priyam ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 101 (2020) 044907, 2020.
Inspire Record 1759506 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.104923

Mid-rapidity production of $\pi^{\pm}$, $\rm{K}^{\pm}$ and ($\bar{\rm{p}}$)p measured by the ALICE experiment at the LHC, in Pb-Pb and inelastic pp collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV, is presented. The invariant yields are measured over a wide transverse momentum ($p_{\rm{T}}$) range from hundreds of MeV/$c$ up to 20 GeV/$c$. The results in Pb-Pb collisions are presented as a function of the collision centrality, in the range 0$-$90%. The comparison of the $p_{\rm{T}}$-integrated particle ratios, i.e. proton-to-pion (p/$\pi$) and kaon-to-pion (K/$\pi$) ratios, with similar measurements in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV show no significant energy dependence. Blast-wave fits of the $p_{\rm{T}}$ spectra indicate that in the most central collisions radial flow is slightly larger at 5.02 TeV with respect to 2.76 TeV. Particle ratios (p/$\pi$, K/$\pi$) as a function of $p_{\rm{T}}$ show pronounced maxima at $p_{\rm{T}}$ $\approx$ 3 GeV/$c$ in central Pb-Pb collisions. At high $p_{\rm{T}}$, particle ratios at 5.02 TeV are similar to those measured in pp collisions at the same energy and in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV. Using the pp reference spectra measured at the same collision energy of 5.02 TeV, the nuclear modification factors for the different particle species are derived. Within uncertainties, the nuclear modification factor is particle species independent for high $p_{\rm{T}}$ and compatible with measurements at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV. The results are compared to state-of-the-art model calculations, which are found to describe the observed trends satisfactorily.

17 data tables

$p_{T}$-distributions of pions ($\pi^{+}+\pi^{-}$) measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV.

$p_{T}$-distributions of pions ($\pi^{+}+\pi^{-}$) measured in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 5.02 TeV.

$p_{T}$-distributions of kaons ($K^{+}+K^{-}$) measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV.

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Production of K$^{*}$ (892)$^{0}$ and $\phi $ (1020) in p–Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{{\text {NN}}}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 76 (2016) 245, 2016.
Inspire Record 1418181 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72720

The production of K$^{*}$(892)$^{0}$ and $\phi$(1020) mesons has been measured in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV. K$^{*0}$ and $\phi$ are reconstructed via their decay into charged hadrons with the ALICE detector in the rapidity range $-0.5 < y <0$. The transverse momentum spectra, measured as a function of the multiplicity, have p$_{\mathrm{T}}$ range from 0 to 15 GeV/$c$ for K$^{*0}$ and from 0.3 to 21 GeV/$c$ for $\phi$. Integrated yields, mean transverse momenta and particle ratios are reported and compared with results in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV. In Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions, K$^{*0}$ and $\phi$ probe the hadronic phase of the system and contribute to the study of particle formation mechanisms by comparison with other identified hadrons. For this purpose, the mean transverse momenta and the differential proton-to-$\phi$ ratio are discussed as a function of the multiplicity of the event. The short-lived K$^{*0}$ is measured to investigate re-scattering effects, believed to be related to the size of the system and to the lifetime of the hadronic phase.

30 data tables

Average charged particle pseudo-rapidity density, $\langle\mathrm{d}N_{\rm ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta_{\mathrm{lab}}\rangle$, measured at mid-rapidity in visible cross section event classes and average number of colliding nucleons, $\langle\mathrm{N_{coll}}\rangle$. Multiplicity classes are defined using the V0A estimator; values for $\langle\mathrm{d}N_{\rm ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta_{\mathrm{lab}}\rangle$ are corrected for vertexing and trigger efficiency. Since statistical uncertainties are negligible, only total systematic uncertainties are reported.

$p_{\rm T}$-differential yield of (K$^{*0}$ + $\overline{K^{*0}}$)/2 in p-Pb collisions with centre-of-mass energy/nucleon=5.02 TeV (NSD). Additional systematic error: +- 3.1% (normalization).

$p_{\rm T}$-differential yield of (K$^{*0}$ + $\overline{K^{*0}}$)/2 in p-Pb collisions with centre-of-mass energy/nucleon=5.02 TeV (0-20% multiplicity class).

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Multiplicity dependence of charged pion, kaon, and (anti)proton production at large transverse momentum in p-Pb collisions at $\mathbf{\sqrt{{\textit s}_{\rm NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 760 (2016) 720-735, 2016.
Inspire Record 1415274 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73749

The production of charged pions, kaons and (anti)protons has been measured at mid-rapidity ($-0.5 y 0$) in p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV using the ALICE detector at the LHC. Exploiting particle identification capabilities at high transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$), the previously published $p_{\rm T}$ spectra have been extended to include measurements up to 20 GeV/$c$ for seven event multiplicity classes. The $p_{\rm T}$ spectra for pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV, needed to interpolate a pp reference spectrum, have also been extended up to 20 GeV/$c$ to measure the nuclear modification factor ($R_{\rm pPb}$) in non-single diffractive p-Pb collisions. At intermediate transverse momentum ($2 p_{\rm T} 10$\,GeV/$c$) the proton-to-pion ratio increases with multiplicity in p-Pb collisions, a similar effect is not present in the kaon-to-pion ratio. The $p_{\rm T}$ dependent structure of such increase is qualitatively similar to those observed in pp and heavy-ion collisions. At high $p_{\rm T}$ ($>10$ GeV/$c$), the particle ratios are consistent with those reported for pp and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC energies. At intermediate $p_{\rm T}$ the (anti)proton $R_{\rm pPb}$ shows a Cronin-like enhancement, while pions and kaons show little or no nuclear modification. At high $p_{\rm T}$ the charged pion, kaon and (anti)proton $R_{\rm pPb}$ are consistent with unity within statistical and systematic uncertainties.

13 data tables

pT-differential invariant yield of charged pions in p-Pb collisions with centre-of-mass energy/nucleon=5.02 TeV, measured for different V0A multiplicity classes. The first uncertainty is statistical, the second one is the total systematic uncertainty, while the third one is the uncorrelated systematic uncertainty which is multiplicity dependent.

pT-differential invariant yield of charged pions in p-Pb collisions with centre-of-mass energy/nucleon=5.02 TeV, measured for NSD events. The first uncertainty is statistical, the second one is the total systematic uncertainty, while the third one is the uncorrelated systematic uncertainty which is multiplicity dependent.

pT-differential invariant yield of charged kaons in p-Pb collisions with centre-of-mass energy/nucleon=5.02 TeV, measured for different V0A multiplicity classes. The first uncertainty is statistical, the second one is the total systematic uncertainty, while the third one is the uncorrelated systematic uncertainty which is multiplicity dependent.

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Multipion Bose-Einstein correlations in pp,p -Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 93 (2016) 054908, 2016.
Inspire Record 1411653 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72937

Three- and four-pion Bose-Einstein correlations are presented in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC. We compare our measured four-pion correlations to the expectation derived from two- and three-pion measurements. Such a comparison provides a method to search for coherent pion emission. We also present mixed-charge correlations in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of several analysis procedures such as Coulomb corrections. Same-charge four-pion correlations in pp and p-Pb appear consistent with the expectations from three-pion measurements. However, the presence of non-negligible background correlations in both systems prevent a conclusive statement. In Pb-Pb collisions, we observe a significant suppression of three- and four-pion Bose-Einstein correlations compared to expectations from two-pion measurements. There appears to be no centrality dependence of the suppression within the 0-50% centrality interval. The origin of the suppression is not clear. However, by postulating either coherent pion emission or large multibody Coulomb effects, the suppression may be explained.

31 data tables

Mixed charge (- - - +) C4QS, a4QS, c4QS at low KT4 in pp collisions projected against Q4.

Mixed charge (- - - +) C4QS, a4QS, c4QS at high KT4 in pp collisions projected against Q4.

Mixed charge (- - - +) C4QS, a4QS, c4QS at low KT4 in pPb collisions projected against Q4.

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Centrality dependence of the nuclear modification factor of charged pions, kaons, and protons in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 93 (2016) 034913, 2016.
Inspire Record 1377750 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.71310

Transverse momentum ($p_{\rm{T}}$) spectra of pions, kaons, and protons up to $p_{\rm{T}} = 20$ GeV/$c$ have been measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV using the ALICE detector for six different centrality classes covering 0-80%. The proton-to-pion and the kaon-to-pion ratios both show a distinct peak at $p_{\rm{T}} \approx 3$ GeV/$c$ in central Pb-Pb collisions that decreases towards more peripheral collisions. For $p_{\rm{T}} > 10$ GeV/$c$, the nuclear modification factor is found to be the same for all three particle species in each centrality interval within systematic uncertainties of 10-20%. This suggests there is no direct interplay between the energy loss in the medium and the particle species composition in the hard core of the quenched jet. For $p_{\rm{T}} < 10$ GeV/$c$, the data provide important constraints for models aimed at describing the transition from soft to hard physics.

16 data tables

Invariant yields of identified pions in Pb-Pb collisions.

Invariant yields of identified kaons in Pb-Pb collisions.

Invariant yields of identified protons in Pb-Pb collisions.

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Measurement of pion, kaon and proton production in proton–proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 75 (2015) 226, 2015.
Inspire Record 1357424 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.68129

The measurement of primary $\pi^{\pm}$, K$^{\pm}$, p and $\overline{p}$ production at mid-rapidity ($|y| <$ 0.5) in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV performed with ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is reported. Particle identification is performed using the specific ionization energy loss and time-of-flight information, the ring-imaging Cherenkov technique and the kink-topology identification of weak decays of charged kaons. Transverse momentum spectra are measured from 0.1 up to 3 GeV/$c$ for pions, from 0.2 up to 6 GeV/$c$ for kaons and from 0.3 up to 6 GeV/$c$ for protons. The measured spectra and particle ratios are compared with QCD-inspired models, tuned to reproduce also the earlier measurements performed at the LHC. Furthermore, the integrated particle yields and ratios as well as the average transverse momenta are compared with results at lower collision energies.

5 data tables

Combined transverse momentum spectra of PI, K and P, sum of particles and antiparticles, measured at mid-rapidity in pp collisions at SQRT(S) = 7 TeV normalized to the number of inelastic collisions. Statistical and systematic uncertainties are reported. The uncertainty due to the normalization to inelastic collisions (+7-4 %) is not included.

Kaon/Pion ratio in pp collisions at SQRT(S) = 7 TeV.

Proton/Pion ratio in pp collisions at SQRT(S) = 7 TeV.

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Freeze-out radii extracted from three-pion cumulants in pp, p–Pb and Pb–Pb collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 739 (2014) 139-151, 2014.
Inspire Record 1288705 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.65772

In high-energy collisions, the spatio-temporal size of the particle production region can be measured using the Bose-Einstein correlations of identical bosons at low relative momentum. The source radii are typically extracted using two-pion correlations, and characterize the system at the last stage of interaction, called kinetic freeze-out. In low-multiplicity collisions, unlike in high-multiplicity collisions, two-pion correlations are substantially altered by background correlations, e.g. mini-jets. Such correlations can be suppressed using three-pion cumulant correlations. We present the first measurements of the size of the system at freeze-out extracted from three-pion cumulant correlations in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC with ALICE. At similar multiplicity, the invariant radii extracted in p-Pb collisions are found to be 5-15% larger than those in pp, while those in Pb-Pb are 35-55% larger than those in p-Pb. Our measurements disfavor models which incorporate substantially stronger collective expansion in p-Pb as compared to pp collisions at similar multiplicity.

27 data tables

Mixed charge C3 and c3 in pp collisions projected against 1 of a mixed-charge pair invariant relative momentum.

Same charge C3 and c3 in pp collisions projected against Q3.

Same charge C3 and c3 in p Pb collisions projected against Q3.

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Production of charged pions, kaons and protons at large transverse momenta in pp and Pb–Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ =2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 736 (2014) 196-207, 2014.
Inspire Record 1276299 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.62520

Transverse momentum spectra of $\pi^{\pm}$, $\rm K^{\pm}$ and p($\bar{\rm p}$) up to $p_{\rm T}$ = 20 GeV/$c$ at mid-rapidity in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=$ 2.76 TeV have been measured using the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The proton-to-pion and the kaon-to-pion ratios both show a distinct peak at $p_{\rm T} \approx 3 GeV/c$ in central Pb-Pb collisions. Below the peak, $p_{\rm T}$ < 3 GeV/$c$, both ratios are in good agreement with hydrodynamical calculations, suggesting that the peak itself is dominantly the result of radial flow rather than anomalous hadronization processes. For $p_{\rm T}$ > 10 GeV/$c$ particle ratios in pp and Pb-Pb collisions are in agreement and the nuclear modification factors for $\pi^{\pm}$, $\rm K^{\pm}$ and $\rm p$($\bar{\rm p}$) indicate that, within the systematic and statistical uncertainties, the suppression is the same. This suggests that the chemical composition of leading particles from jets in the medium is similar to that of vacuum jets.

7 data tables

Invariant yields of identified pions in central and peripheral Pb-Pb collisions, together with the unscaled pp reference yields.

Invariant yields of identified kaons in central and peripheral Pb-Pb collisions, together with the unscaled pp reference yields.

Invariant yields of identified protons in central and peripheral Pb-Pb collisions, together with the unscaled pp reference yields.

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Production of pions, kaons and protons in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}= 900$ GeV with ALICE at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Aamodt, K. ; Abel, N. ; Abeysekara, U. ; et al.
Eur.Phys.J.C 71 (2011) 1655, 2011.
Inspire Record 885104 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.57568

The production of $\pi^+$, $\pi^-$, $K^+$, $K^-$, p, and pbar at mid-rapidity has been measured in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 900$ GeV with the ALICE detector. Particle identification is performed using the specific energy loss in the inner tracking silicon detector and the time projection chamber. In addition, time-of-flight information is used to identify hadrons at higher momenta. Finally, the distinctive kink topology of the weak decay of charged kaons is used for an alternative measurement of the kaon transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) spectra. Since these various particle identification tools give the best separation capabilities over different momentum ranges, the results are combined to extract spectra from $p_{\rm T}$ = 100 MeV/$c$ to 2.5 GeV/$c$. The measured spectra are further compared with QCD-inspired models which yield a poor description. The total yields and the mean $p_{\rm T}$ are compared with previous measurements, and the trends as a function of collision energy are discussed.

4 data tables

Transverse momentum spectra for positive and negative pions.

Transverse momentum spectra for positive and negative kaons.

Transverse momentum spectra for protons and antiprotons.

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