Evidence of rescattering effect in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC through production of $\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$ and $\phi(1020)$ mesons

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adler, Alexander ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 802 (2020) 135225, 2020.
Inspire Record 1762368 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.93150

Measurements of $\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$ and $\phi(1020)$ resonance production in Pb-Pb and pp collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider are reported. The resonances are measured at midrapidity ($|y|$ $<$ 0.5) via their hadronic decay channels and the transverse momentum ($p_{\rm{T}}$) distributions are obtained for various collision centrality classes up to $p_{\rm{T}}$ $=$ 20 GeV$/c$. The $p_{\rm{T}}$-integrated yield ratio $\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$$/$K in Pb-Pb collisions shows significant suppression relative to pp collisions and decreases towards more central collisions. In contrast, the $\phi(1020)$$/$K ratio does not show any suppression. Furthermore, the measured $\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$$/$K ratio in central Pb-Pb collisions is significantly suppressed with respect to the expectations based on a thermal model calculation, while the $\phi(1020)$$/$K ratio agrees with the model prediction. These measurements are an experimental demonstration of rescattering of $\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$ decay products in the hadronic phase of the collisions. The $\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$$/$K yield ratios in Pb-Pb and pp collisions are used to estimate the time duration between chemical and kinetic freeze-out, which is found to be $\sim$ 4-7 fm$/c$ for central collisions. The $p_{\rm{T}}$-differential ratios of $\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$$/$K, $\phi(1020)$$/$K, $\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$$/\pi$, $\phi(1020)$$/\pi$, $p/$$\rm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$ and $p/$$\phi(1020)$ are also presented for Pb-Pb and pp collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ $=$ 5.02 TeV. These ratios show that the rescattering effect is predominantly a low-$p_{\rm{T}}$ phenomenon.

20 data tables

$p_{\rm T}$-distributions of $\rm{K}^{*0}$ (average of particle and anti-particle) meson measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV.

$p_{\rm T}$-distributions of $\rm{K}^{*0}$ (average of particle and anti-particle) meson measured in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 5.02 TeV.

$p_{\rm T}$-distributions of $\phi$ meson measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV.

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Production of charged pions, kaons, and (anti-)protons in Pb-Pb and inelastic $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt {s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Acharya, Shreyasi ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Adhya, Souvik Priyam ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 101 (2020) 044907, 2020.
Inspire Record 1759506 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.104923

Mid-rapidity production of $\pi^{\pm}$, $\rm{K}^{\pm}$ and ($\bar{\rm{p}}$)p measured by the ALICE experiment at the LHC, in Pb-Pb and inelastic pp collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV, is presented. The invariant yields are measured over a wide transverse momentum ($p_{\rm{T}}$) range from hundreds of MeV/$c$ up to 20 GeV/$c$. The results in Pb-Pb collisions are presented as a function of the collision centrality, in the range 0$-$90%. The comparison of the $p_{\rm{T}}$-integrated particle ratios, i.e. proton-to-pion (p/$\pi$) and kaon-to-pion (K/$\pi$) ratios, with similar measurements in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV show no significant energy dependence. Blast-wave fits of the $p_{\rm{T}}$ spectra indicate that in the most central collisions radial flow is slightly larger at 5.02 TeV with respect to 2.76 TeV. Particle ratios (p/$\pi$, K/$\pi$) as a function of $p_{\rm{T}}$ show pronounced maxima at $p_{\rm{T}}$ $\approx$ 3 GeV/$c$ in central Pb-Pb collisions. At high $p_{\rm{T}}$, particle ratios at 5.02 TeV are similar to those measured in pp collisions at the same energy and in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV. Using the pp reference spectra measured at the same collision energy of 5.02 TeV, the nuclear modification factors for the different particle species are derived. Within uncertainties, the nuclear modification factor is particle species independent for high $p_{\rm{T}}$ and compatible with measurements at $\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV. The results are compared to state-of-the-art model calculations, which are found to describe the observed trends satisfactorily.

17 data tables

$p_{T}$-distributions of pions ($\pi^{+}+\pi^{-}$) measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV.

$p_{T}$-distributions of pions ($\pi^{+}+\pi^{-}$) measured in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 5.02 TeV.

$p_{T}$-distributions of kaons ($K^{+}+K^{-}$) measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV.

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Multipion Bose-Einstein correlations in pp,p -Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 93 (2016) 054908, 2016.
Inspire Record 1411653 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.72937

Three- and four-pion Bose-Einstein correlations are presented in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC. We compare our measured four-pion correlations to the expectation derived from two- and three-pion measurements. Such a comparison provides a method to search for coherent pion emission. We also present mixed-charge correlations in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of several analysis procedures such as Coulomb corrections. Same-charge four-pion correlations in pp and p-Pb appear consistent with the expectations from three-pion measurements. However, the presence of non-negligible background correlations in both systems prevent a conclusive statement. In Pb-Pb collisions, we observe a significant suppression of three- and four-pion Bose-Einstein correlations compared to expectations from two-pion measurements. There appears to be no centrality dependence of the suppression within the 0-50% centrality interval. The origin of the suppression is not clear. However, by postulating either coherent pion emission or large multibody Coulomb effects, the suppression may be explained.

31 data tables

Mixed charge (- - - +) C4QS, a4QS, c4QS at low KT4 in pp collisions projected against Q4.

Mixed charge (- - - +) C4QS, a4QS, c4QS at high KT4 in pp collisions projected against Q4.

Mixed charge (- - - +) C4QS, a4QS, c4QS at low KT4 in pPb collisions projected against Q4.

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Centrality dependence of pion freeze-out radii in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s}_{NN}=$ 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 93 (2016) 024905, 2016.
Inspire Record 1384807 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.67353

We report on the measurement of freeze-out radii for pairs of identical-charge pions measured in Pb--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV as a function of collision centrality and the average transverse momentum of the pair $k_{\rm T}$. Three-dimensional sizes of the system (femtoscopic radii), as well as direction-averaged one-dimensional radii are extracted. The radii decrease with $k_{\rm T}$, following a power-law behavior. This is qualitatively consistent with expectations from a collectively expanding system, produced in hydrodynamic calculations. The radii also scale linearly with $\left< \mathrm{d}N_{\rm ch}/\mathrm{d}\eta \right>^{1/3}$. This behaviour is compared to world data on femtoscopic radii in heavy-ion collisions. While the dependence is qualitatively similar to results at smaller $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$, a decrease in the $R_{\rm out}/R_{\rm side}$ ratio is seen, which is in qualitative agreement with specific predictions from hydrodynamic models. The results provide further evidence for the production of a collective, strongly coupled system in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC.

5 data tables

Femtoscopic radii as a function od pair transverse momentum $k_{\rm T}$ for seven centrality ranges.

Femtoscopic radii as a function od pair transverse momentum $k_{\rm T}$ for seven centrality ranges.

Femtoscopic radii as a function od pair transverse momentum $k_{\rm T}$ for seven centrality ranges.

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Centrality dependence of the nuclear modification factor of charged pions, kaons, and protons in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 93 (2016) 034913, 2016.
Inspire Record 1377750 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.71310

Transverse momentum ($p_{\rm{T}}$) spectra of pions, kaons, and protons up to $p_{\rm{T}} = 20$ GeV/$c$ have been measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV using the ALICE detector for six different centrality classes covering 0-80%. The proton-to-pion and the kaon-to-pion ratios both show a distinct peak at $p_{\rm{T}} \approx 3$ GeV/$c$ in central Pb-Pb collisions that decreases towards more peripheral collisions. For $p_{\rm{T}} > 10$ GeV/$c$, the nuclear modification factor is found to be the same for all three particle species in each centrality interval within systematic uncertainties of 10-20%. This suggests there is no direct interplay between the energy loss in the medium and the particle species composition in the hard core of the quenched jet. For $p_{\rm{T}} < 10$ GeV/$c$, the data provide important constraints for models aimed at describing the transition from soft to hard physics.

16 data tables

Invariant yields of identified pions in Pb-Pb collisions.

Invariant yields of identified kaons in Pb-Pb collisions.

Invariant yields of identified protons in Pb-Pb collisions.

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Freeze-out radii extracted from three-pion cumulants in pp, p–Pb and Pb–Pb collisions at the LHC

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 739 (2014) 139-151, 2014.
Inspire Record 1288705 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.65772

In high-energy collisions, the spatio-temporal size of the particle production region can be measured using the Bose-Einstein correlations of identical bosons at low relative momentum. The source radii are typically extracted using two-pion correlations, and characterize the system at the last stage of interaction, called kinetic freeze-out. In low-multiplicity collisions, unlike in high-multiplicity collisions, two-pion correlations are substantially altered by background correlations, e.g. mini-jets. Such correlations can be suppressed using three-pion cumulant correlations. We present the first measurements of the size of the system at freeze-out extracted from three-pion cumulant correlations in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC with ALICE. At similar multiplicity, the invariant radii extracted in p-Pb collisions are found to be 5-15% larger than those in pp, while those in Pb-Pb are 35-55% larger than those in p-Pb. Our measurements disfavor models which incorporate substantially stronger collective expansion in p-Pb as compared to pp collisions at similar multiplicity.

27 data tables

Mixed charge C3 and c3 in pp collisions projected against 1 of a mixed-charge pair invariant relative momentum.

Same charge C3 and c3 in pp collisions projected against Q3.

Same charge C3 and c3 in p Pb collisions projected against Q3.

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$K^*(892)^0$ and $ϕ(1020)$ production in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 91 (2015) 024609, 2015.
Inspire Record 1288320 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.66630

The yields of the K*(892)$^{0}$ and $\Phi$(1020) resonances are measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV through their hadronic decays using the ALICE detector. The measurements are performed in multiple centrality intervals at mid-rapidity (|$y$|<0.5) in the transverse-momentum ranges 0.3 < $p_{\rm T}$ < 5 GeV/$c$ for the K*(892)$^{0}$ and 0.5 < $p_{\rm T}$ < 5 GeV/$c$ for the $\Phi$(1020). The yields of K*(892)$^{0}$ are suppressed in central Pb-Pb collisions with respect to pp and peripheral Pb-Pb collisions (perhaps due to rescattering of its decay products in the hadronic medium), while the longer lived $\Phi$(1020) meson is not suppressed. These particles are also used as probes to study the mechanisms of particle production. The shape of the $p_{\rm T}$ distribution of the $\Phi$(1020) meson, but not its yield, is reproduced fairly well by hydrodynamic models for central Pb-Pb collisions. In central Pb-Pb collisions at low and intermediate $p_{\rm T}$, the p/$\Phi$(1020) ratio is flat in $p_{\rm T}$, while the p/$\pi$ and $\Phi$(1020)/$\pi$ ratios show a pronounced increase and have similar shapes to each other. These results indicate that the shapes of the $p_{\rm T}$ distributions of these particles in central Pb-Pb collisions are determined predominantly by the particle masses and radial flow. Finally, $\Phi$(1020) production in Pb-Pb collisions is enhanced, with respect to the yield in pp collisions and the yield of charged pions, by an amount similar to the $\Lambda$ and $\Xi$.

36 data tables

Transverse-momentum distributions of (K*(892)0 + anti-K*(892)0)/2 in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt(sNN)=2.76 TeV, centrality 0.0-20.0%.

Transverse-momentum distributions of (K*(892)0 + anti-K*(892)0)/2 in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt(sNN)=2.76 TeV, centrality 20.0-40.0%.

Transverse-momentum distributions of (K*(892)0 + anti-K*(892)0)/2 in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt(sNN)=2.76 TeV, centrality 40.0-60.0%.

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Production of charged pions, kaons and protons at large transverse momenta in pp and Pb–Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ =2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 736 (2014) 196-207, 2014.
Inspire Record 1276299 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.62520

Transverse momentum spectra of $\pi^{\pm}$, $\rm K^{\pm}$ and p($\bar{\rm p}$) up to $p_{\rm T}$ = 20 GeV/$c$ at mid-rapidity in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=$ 2.76 TeV have been measured using the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The proton-to-pion and the kaon-to-pion ratios both show a distinct peak at $p_{\rm T} \approx 3 GeV/c$ in central Pb-Pb collisions. Below the peak, $p_{\rm T}$ < 3 GeV/$c$, both ratios are in good agreement with hydrodynamical calculations, suggesting that the peak itself is dominantly the result of radial flow rather than anomalous hadronization processes. For $p_{\rm T}$ > 10 GeV/$c$ particle ratios in pp and Pb-Pb collisions are in agreement and the nuclear modification factors for $\pi^{\pm}$, $\rm K^{\pm}$ and $\rm p$($\bar{\rm p}$) indicate that, within the systematic and statistical uncertainties, the suppression is the same. This suggests that the chemical composition of leading particles from jets in the medium is similar to that of vacuum jets.

7 data tables

Invariant yields of identified pions in central and peripheral Pb-Pb collisions, together with the unscaled pp reference yields.

Invariant yields of identified kaons in central and peripheral Pb-Pb collisions, together with the unscaled pp reference yields.

Invariant yields of identified protons in central and peripheral Pb-Pb collisions, together with the unscaled pp reference yields.

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Two- and three-pion quantum statistics correlations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{{s}_{NN}} =$ 2.76 TeV at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 89 (2014) 024911, 2014.
Inspire Record 1262523 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.69985

Correlations induced by quantum statistics are sensitive to the spatio-temporal extent as well as dynamics of particle emitting sources in heavy-ion collisions. In addition, such correlations can be used to search for the presence of a coherent component of pion production. Two and three-pion correlations of same and mixed-charge are measured at low relative momentum to estimate the coherent fraction of charged pions in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV at the LHC with ALICE. The genuine three-pion quantum statistics correlation is found to be suppressed relative to the two-pion correlation based on the assumption of fully chaotic pion emission. The suppression is observed to decrease with triplet momentum. The observed suppression at low triplet momentum may correspond to a coherent fraction in charged pion emission of 23% $\pm$ 8%.

19 data tables

C2 versus qinv for same-charge pions in six kT intervals. 0-5% centrality.

C2 versus qinv for mixed-charge pions in six kT intervals. 0-5% centrality.

C2 versus qinv for same-charge pions in six kT intervals. 45-50% centrality.

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Pion, Kaon, and Proton Production in Central Pb--Pb Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 109 (2012) 252301, 2012.
Inspire Record 1126966 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.59720

In this Letter we report the first results on $\pi^\pm$, K$^\pm$, p and $\mathrm {p\overline{p}}$ production at mid-rapidity ($\left|y\right|<0.5$) in central Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV, measured by the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The $p_{\rm T}$ distributions and yields are compared to previous results at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV and expectations from hydrodynamic and thermal models. The spectral shapes indicate a strong increase of the radial flow velocity with $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$, which in hydrodynamic models is expected as a consequence of the increasing particle density. While the ${\rm K}/\pi$ ratio is in line with predictions from the thermal model, the ${\rm p}/\pi$ ratio is found to be lower by a factor of about 1.5. This deviation from thermal model expectations is still to be understood.

4 data tables

Transverse momentum distribution for positve and negative pions.

Transverse momentum distribution for positve and negative kaons.

Transverse momentum distribution for positve and negative protons.

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Anisotropic flow of charged hadrons, pions and (anti-)protons measured at high transverse momentum in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV

The ALICE collaboration Abelev, Betty ; Adam, Jaroslav ; Adamova, Dagmar ; et al.
Phys.Lett.B 719 (2013) 18-28, 2013.
Inspire Record 1116150 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.62177

The elliptic, $v_2$, triangular, $v_3$, and quadrangular, $v_4$, azimuthal anisotropic flow coefficients are measured for unidentified charged particles, pions and (anti-)protons in Pb-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76$ TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Results obtained with the event plane and four-particle cumulant methods are reported for the pseudo-rapidity range $|\eta|<0.8$ at different collision centralities and as a function of transverse momentum, $p_{\rm T}$, out to $p_{\rm T}=20$ GeV/$c$. The observed non-zero elliptic and triangular flow depends only weakly on transverse momentum for $p_{\rm T}>8$ GeV/$c$. The small $p_{\rm T}$ dependence of the difference between elliptic flow results obtained from the event plane and four-particle cumulant methods suggests a common origin of flow fluctuations up to $p_{\rm T}=8$ GeV/$c$. The magnitude of the (anti-)proton elliptic and triangular flow is larger than that of pions out to at least $p_{\rm T}=8$ GeV/$c$ indicating that the particle type dependence persists out to high $p_{\rm T}$.

16 data tables

Elliptic flow (v2) estimated with Event Plane method (with eta gap of 2.0) measured for unidentified charged particles as a function of transverse momentum for various centrality classes.

Elliptic flow (v2) estimated with four-particle cumulants measured for unidentified charged particles as a function of transverse momentum for various centrality classes.

Triangular flow (v3) estimated with Event Plane method (with eta gap of 2.0) measured for unidentified charged particles as a function of transverse momentum for various centrality classes.

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