Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC

The CMS collaboration Hayrapetyan, Aram ; Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; et al.
CMS-HIN-23-003, 2024.
Inspire Record 2747107 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.146016

Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions create a strongly interacting state of hot and dense quark-gluon matter that exhibits a remarkable collective flow behavior with minimal viscous dissipation. To gain deeper insights into its intrinsic nature and fundamental degrees of freedom, we extracted the speed of sound in this medium created using lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb$^{-1}$. The measurement is performed by studying the multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum of charged particles emitted in head-on PbPb collisions. Our findings reveal that the speed of sound in this matter is nearly half the speed of light, with a squared value of 0.241 $\pm$ 0.002 (stat) $\pm$ 0.016 (syst) in natural units. The effective medium temperature, estimated using the mean transverse momentum, is 219 $\pm$ 8 (syst) MeV. The measured squared speed of sound at this temperature aligns precisely with predictions from lattice quantum chromodynamic (QCD) calculations. This result provides a stringent constraint on the equation of state of the created medium and direct evidence for a deconfined QCD phase being attained in relativistic nuclear collisions.

3 data tables

The event fraction distribution as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity, $N_{\mathrm{ch}}$, within the kinematic range of $|\eta|<0.5$ and extrapolated to the full $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ range, in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}=5.02$ TeV. The $N_{\mathrm{ch}}$ value is normalized by its value in the $0-5\%$ centrality class ($N_{\mathrm{ch}}^{0}$).

The average transverse momentum of charged particles, $\langle p_{\mathrm{T}}\rangle$, as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity, $N_{\mathrm{ch}}$, within the kinematic range of $|\eta|<0.5$ and extrapolated to the full $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ range in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}=5.02$ TeV. Both $\langle p_{\mathrm{T}}\rangle$ and $N_{\mathrm{ch}}$ are normalized by their values in the $0-5\%$ centrality class (${\langle p_{\mathrm{T}}\rangle}^{0}$ and $N_{\mathrm{ch}}^{0}$).

The speed of sound, $c^2_{\mathrm{s}}$, as a function of the effective temperature, $T_{\mathrm{eff}}$, with the CMS data point obtained from ultra-central PbPb collision data at $\sqrt{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}=5.02$ TeV.


Higher-order moments of the elliptic flow distribution in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
JHEP 2024 (2024) 106, 2024.
Inspire Record 2724506 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.132638

The hydrodynamic flow-like behavior of charged hadrons in high-energy lead-lead collisions is studied through multiparticle correlations. The elliptic anisotropy values based on different orders of multiparticle cumulants, $v_{2}\{2k\}$, are measured up to the tenth order ($k$ = 5) as functions of the collision centrality at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb$^{-1}$. A hierarchy is observed between the coefficients, with $v_{2}\{2\} > v_{2}\{4\} \gtrsim v_{2}\{6\} \gtrsim v_{2}\{8\} \gtrsim v_{2}\{10\}$. Based on these results, centrality-dependent moments for the fluctuation-driven event-by-event $v_{2}$ distribution are determined, including the skewness, kurtosis and, for the first time, superskewness. Assuming a hydrodynamic expansion of the produced medium, these moments directly probe the initial-state geometry in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions.

8 data tables

The $v_2\{2k\}$ ($k = 1, ..., 5$) values as functions of centrality in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02~\textrm{Te}\textrm{V}$. The measurement is performed with charged particles within the acceptance region.

The relative differences $(v_2\{2k\}-v_2\{10\})/v_2\{10\}$ ($k = 1, ..., 4$) as functions of centrality in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02~\textrm{Te}\textrm{V}$. The measurement is performed with charged particles within the acceptance region.

The $h_1$ and the $h_2$ hydrodynamic probes as functions of centrality in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02~\textrm{Te}\textrm{V}$. The measurement is performed with charged particles within the acceptance region.

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Study of charm hadronization with prompt $\Lambda^+_\mathrm{c}$ baryons in proton-proton and lead-lead collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
JHEP 01 (2024) 128, 2024.
Inspire Record 2679262 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.135973

The production of prompt $\Lambda^+_\mathrm{c}$ baryons is measured via the exclusive decay channel $\Lambda^+_\mathrm{c}$$\to$ pK$^-\pi^+$ at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV, using proton-proton (pp) and lead-lead (PbPb) collision data collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. The pp and PbPb data were obtained in 2017 and 2018 with integrated luminosities of 252 and 0.607 nb$^{-1}$, respectively. The measurements are performed within the $\Lambda^+_\mathrm{c}$ rapidity interval $\vert y \vert$$\lt$ 1 with transverse momentum ($p_\mathrm{T}$) ranges of 3-30 and 6-40 GeV/$c$ for pp and PbPb collisions, respectively. Compared to the yields in pp collisions scaled by the expected number of nucleon-nucleon interactions, the observed yields of $\Lambda^+_\mathrm{c}$ with $p_\mathrm{T}$$\gt$ 10 GeV/$c$ are strongly suppressed in PbPb collisions. The level of suppression depends significantly on the collision centrality. The $\Lambda^+_\mathrm{c}$ / D$^0$ production ratio is similar in PbPb and pp collisions at $p_\mathrm{T}$$\gt$ 10 GeV/$c$, suggesting that the coalescence process does not play a dominant role in prompt $\Lambda^+_\mathrm{c}$ baryon production at higher $p_\mathrm{T}$.

6 data tables

The product of acceptance and efficiency ($A \epsilon$) as a function of $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ for prompt $\Lambda^+_c$ in pp collisions and within centrality regions of 0-90, 0-10, 10-30, 30-50 and 50-90% in PbPb collisions.

The $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ differential cross sections for prompt $\Lambda^+_c$ production in pp collisions. The global fit uncertainty is 8.6%.

The $\mathrm{T_{AA}}$-scaled $\Lambda^+_c$ yields as a function of $p_{\mathrm{T}}$ for PbPb collisions within centrality regions of 0-90, 0-10, 10-30, 30-50 and 50-90%.

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Two-particle Bose-Einstein correlations and their Lévy parameters in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
Phys.Rev.C 109 (2024) 024914, 2024.
Inspire Record 2670243 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.134676

Two-particle Bose-Einstein momentum correlation functions are studied for charged-hadron pairs in lead-lead collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV. The data sample, containing 4.27$\times10^{9}$ minimum bias events corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb$^{-1}$, was collected by the CMS experiment in 2018. The experimental results are discussed in terms of a Lévy-type source distribution. The parameters of this distribution are extracted as functions of particle pair average transverse mass and collision centrality. These parameters include the Lévy index or shape parameter ($\alpha$), the Lévy scale parameter ($R$), and the correlation strength parameter ($\lambda$). The source shape, characterized by $\alpha$, is found to be neither Cauchy nor Gaussian, implying the need for a full Lévy analysis. Similarly to what was previously found for systems characterized by Gaussian source radii, a hydrodynamical scaling is observed for the Lévy $R$ parameter. The $\lambda$ parameter is studied in terms of the core-halo model.

12 data tables

The correlation function $C_2(q)$ of negatively charged hadron pairs with $1.00<K_{\mathrm{T}}<1.05$ GeV/$c$ in the 10-20% centrality bin.

The double-ratio correlation function $DR(q)$ of negatively charged hadron pairs with $1.30<K_{\mathrm{T}}<1.35$ GeV/$c$ in the 20-30% centrality bin.

The two-particle correlation function of negatively charged hadron pairs with $0.9<K_{\mathrm{T}}<1.3$ GeV/$c$ in the 0-100% centrality range, calculated using MC events with (Reco) and without (Gen) detector reconstruction.

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Measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy of prompt and nonprompt charmonia in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
JHEP 10 (2023) 115, 2023.
Inspire Record 2663026 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130962

The second-order ($v_2$) and third-order ($v_3$) Fourier coefficients describing the azimuthal anisotropy of prompt and nonprompt (from b-hadron decays) J/$\psi$, as well as prompt $\psi$(2S) mesons are measured in lead-lead collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV. The analysis uses a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.61 nb$^{-1}$ recorded with the CMS detector. The J/$\psi$ and $\psi$(2S) mesons are reconstructed using their dimuon decay channel. The $v_2$ and $v_3$ coefficients are extracted using the scalar product method and studied as functions of meson transverse momentum and collision centrality. The measured $v_2$ values for prompt J/$\psi$ mesons are found to be larger than those for nonprompt J/$\psi$ mesons. The prompt J/$\psi$$v_2$ values at high $p_\mathrm{T}$ are found to be underpredicted by a model incorporating only parton energy loss effects in a quark-gluon plasma medium. Prompt and nonprompt J/$\psi$ meson $v_3$ and prompt $\psi$(2S) $v_2$ and $v_3$ values are also reported for the first time, providing new information about heavy quark interactions in the hot and dense medium created in heavy ion collisions.

9 data tables

The $v_{2}$ values as functions of $p_{\text{T}}$ for prompt and nonprompt J/$\psi$ mesons in the 10–60% centrality range. The results for 3 $< p_{\text{T}} <$ 6.5 and 6.5 $< p_{\text{T}} <$ 50 GeV/c are studied in the rapidity range of 1.6 $< |y| <$ 2.4 and $|y| <$ 2.4, respectively.

The $v_{2}$ values as a function of centrality for prompt and nonprompt J/$\psi$ mesons. The kinematic range is 6.5 $< p_{\text{T}} <$ 50 GeV/c and $|y| <$ 2.4.

The $v_{3}$ values as functions of $p_{\text{T}}$ for prompt and nonprompt J/$\psi$ mesons in the 10–60% centrality range. The results for 3 $< p_{\text{T}} <$ 6.5 and 6.5 $< p_{\text{T}} <$ 50 GeV/c are studied in the rapidity range of 1.6 $< |y| <$ 2.4 and $|y| <$ 2.4, respectively.

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Observation of the $\Upsilon$(3S) meson and suppression of $\Upsilon$ states in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
CMS-HIN-21-007, 2023.
Inspire Record 2648528 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130959

The production of $\Upsilon$(2S) and $\Upsilon$(3S) mesons in lead-lead (PbPb) and proton-proton (pp) collisions is studied in their dimuon decay channel using the CMS detector at the LHC. The $\Upsilon$(3S) meson is observed for the first time in PbPb collisions, with a significance above five standard deviations. The ratios of yields measured in PbPb and pp collisions are reported for both the $\Upsilon$(2S) and $\Upsilon$(3S) mesons, as functions of transverse momentum and PbPb collision centrality. These ratios, when appropriately scaled, are significantly less than unity, indicating a suppression of $\Upsilon$ yields in PbPb collisions. This suppression increases from peripheral to central PbPb collisions. Furthermore, the suppression is stronger for $\Upsilon$(3S) mesons compared to $\Upsilon$(2S) mesons, extending the pattern of sequential suppression of quarkonium states in nuclear collisions previously seen for the $\psi$/J, $\psi$(2S), $\Upsilon$(1S), and $\Upsilon$(2S) mesons.

9 data tables

Measured $R_\text{AA}$ for the $\Upsilon(2S)$ state as functions of PbPb collision centrality, integrated over the full kinematic range $p_\text{T}$ < 30 GeV/c and |y| < 2.4. The global uncertainty "PP MB" represents the pp luminosity and PbPb $N_\text{MB}$ combined uncertainties, whereas the global uncertainty "PP 2S" corresponds to the uncertainty on the $\Upsilon(2S)$ pp yields.

Measured $R_\text{AA}$ for the $\Upsilon(3S)$ state as functions of PbPb collision centrality, integrated over the full kinematic range $p_\text{T}$ < 30 GeV/c and |y| < 2.4. The global uncertainty "PP MB" represents the pp luminosity and PbPb $N_\text{MB}$ combined uncertainties, whereas the global uncertainty "PP 3S" corresponds to the uncertainty on the $\Upsilon(3S)$ pp yields.

Measured $R_\text{AA}$ for the$\Upsilon(2S)$ state in the 0–90% centrality interval, integrated over the full kinematic range $p_\text{T}$ < 30 GeV/c and |y| < 2.4. The global uncertainty "PP MB" represents the pp luminosity and PbPb $N_\text{MB}$ combined uncertainties, whereas the global uncertainty "PP 2S" corresponds to the uncertainty on the $\Upsilon(2S)$ pp yields.

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Probing small Bjorken-$x$ nuclear gluonic structure via coherent J/$\psi$ photoproduction in ultraperipheral PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 131 (2023) 262301, 2023.
Inspire Record 2648536 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.138867

Quasireal photons exchanged in relativistic heavy ion interactions are powerful probes of the gluonic structure of nuclei. The coherent J/$\psi$ photoproduction cross section in ultraperipheral lead-lead collisions is measured as a function of photon-nucleus center-of-mass energies per nucleon (W$^\text{Pb}_{\gamma\text{N}}$), over a wide range of 40 $\lt$ W$^\text{Pb}_{\gamma\text{N}}$$\lt$ 400 GeV. Results are obtained using data at the nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.52 nb$^{-1}$. The cross section is observed to rise rapidly at low W$^\text{Pb}_{\gamma\text{N}}$, and plateau above W$^\text{Pb}_{\gamma\text{N}}$$\approx$ 40 GeV, up to 400 GeV, a new regime of small Bjorken-$x$ ($\approx$ 6 $\times$ 10$^{-5}$) gluons being probed in a heavy nucleus. The observed energy dependence is not predicted by current quantum chromodynamic models.

6 data tables

The differential coherent $\mathrm{J}/\psi$ photoproduction cross section as a function of rapidity, in different neutron multiplicity classes: 0n0n, 0nXn, XnXn , and AnAn.

The total coherent $\mathrm{J}/\psi$ photoproduction cross section as a function of photon-nuclear center-of-mass energy per nucleon $W_{\gamma \mathrm{N}}^{\mathrm{Pb}}$, measured in PbPb ultra-peripheral collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV. The $W_{\gamma \mathrm{N}}^{\mathrm{Pb}}$ values used correspond to the center of each rapidity range. The theoretical uncertainties is due to the uncertainties in the photon flux.

The nuclear gluon suppression factor $R_{\mathrm{g}}^{\mathrm{Pb}}$ as a function of Bjorken $x$ extracted from the CMS measurement of the coherent $\mathrm{J}/\psi$ photoproduction in PbPb ultra-peripheral collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV. The $x$ values are evaluated at the centers of their corresponding rapidity ranges. The theoretical uncertainties are due to the uncertainties in the photon flux and the impulse approximation model.

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K$^0_\mathrm{S}$ and $\Lambda(\overline\Lambda)$ two-particle femtoscopic correlations in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The CMS collaboration
CMS-HIN-21-006, 2023.
Inspire Record 2623117 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.133573

Two-particle correlations are presented for K$^0_\mathrm{S}$, $\Lambda$, and $\overline\Lambda$ strange hadrons as a function of relative momentum in lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb$^{-1}$ and was collected using the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. These correlations are sensitive to quantum statistics and to final-state interactions between the particles. The source size extracted from the K$^0_\mathrm{S}$K$^0_\mathrm{S}$ correlations is found to decrease from 4 to 1 fm in going from central to peripheral collisions. Strong interaction scattering parameters (i.e., scattering length and effective range) are determined from the $\Lambda$K$^0_\mathrm{S}$ and $\Lambda\Lambda$ (including their charge conjugates) correlations using the Lednick$\'y$-Lyuboshitz model and are compared to theoretical and other experimental results.

14 data tables

The $K^{0}_{S}$ Invariant mass in $0-80\%$ centrality,

The $\Lambda (\overline{\Lambda})$ Invariant mass in $0-80\%$ centrality.

$K^{0}_{S} K^{0}_{S}$ correlation meassurement in $0-10\%$ centrality.

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Azimuthal anisotropy of dijet events in PbPb collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
JHEP 07 (2023) 139, 2023.
Inspire Record 2165916 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.130961

The path-length dependent parton energy loss within the dense partonic medium created in lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV is studied by determining the azimuthal anisotropies for dijets with high transverse momentum. The data were collected by the CMS experiment in 2018 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 1.69 nb$^{-1}$. For events containing back-to-back jets, correlations in relative azimuthal angle and pseudorapidity ($\eta$) between jets and hadrons, and between two hadrons, are constructed. The anisotropies are expressed as the Fourier expansion coefficients $v_n$, $n = $ 2-4 of these azimuthal distributions. The dijet $v_n$ values are extracted from long-range (1.5 $\lt$$\vert\Delta\eta\vert$$\lt$ 2.5) components of these correlations, which suppresses the background contributions from jet fragmentation processes. Positive dijet $v_2$ values are observed which increase from central to more peripheral events, while the $v_3$ and $v_4$ values are consistent with zero within experimental uncertainties.

4 data tables

The dijet $v_{n}$ data points factorized using different associated hadron pT bins for 0-10 % centrality bin. The data points are corrected for the jet reconstruction bias effects.

The dijet $v_{n}$ data points factorized using different associated hadron pT bins for 10-30 % centrality bin. The data points are corrected for the jet reconstruction bias effects.

The dijet $v_{n}$ data points factorized using different associated hadron pT bins for 30-50 % centrality bin. The data points are corrected for the jet reconstruction bias effects.

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Version 2
Observation of $\tau$ lepton pair production in ultraperipheral lead-lead collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The CMS collaboration Tumasyan, Armen ; Adam, Wolfgang ; Andrejkovic, Janik Walter ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 131 (2023) 151803, 2023.
Inspire Record 2094321 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.129600

We present an observation of photon-photon production of $\tau$ lepton pairs in ultraperipheral lead-lead collisions. The measurement is based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 404 $\mu$b$^{-1}$ collected by the CMS experiment at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. The $\gamma\gamma$$\to$$\tau^+\tau^-$ process is observed for $\tau\tau$ events with a muon and three charged hadrons in the final state. The measured fiducial cross section is $\sigma(\gamma\gamma$$\to$$\tau^+\tau^-)$ = 4.8 $\pm$ 0.6 (stat) $\pm$ 0.5 (syst) $\mu$b, in agreement with leading-order QED predictions. Using $\sigma(\gamma\gamma$$\to$$\tau^+\tau^-)$, we estimate a model-dependent value of the anomalous magnetic moment of the $\tau$ lepton of $a_\tau$ = 0.001 $^{+0.055}_{-0.089}$.

4 data tables

$\gamma\gamma\to\tau\tau$ fiducial cross section

$\gamma\gamma\to\tau\tau$ fiducial cross section

Limits on anomalous magnetic moment of the tau lepton

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