Test of lepton universality in beauty-quark decays

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, Roel ; Abellán Beteta, Carlos ; Ackernley, Thomas ; et al.
LHCb-PAPER-2021-004, 2021.
Inspire Record 1852846 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.106855

The Standard Model of particle physics currently provides our best description of fundamental particles and their interactions. The theory predicts that the different charged leptons, the electron, muon and tau, have identical electroweak interaction strengths. Previous measurements have shown a wide range of particle decays are consistent with this principle of lepton universality. This article presents evidence for the breaking of lepton universality in beauty-quark decays, with a significance of 3.1 standard deviations, based on proton-proton collision data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. The measurements are of processes in which a beauty meson transforms into a strange meson with the emission of either an electron and a positron, or a muon and an antimuon. If confirmed by future measurements, this violation of lepton universality would imply physics beyond the Standard Model, such as a new fundamental interaction between quarks and leptons.

1 data table

Likelihood function from the fit to the nonresonant $B^+$ --> $K^+\ell^+ \ell^−$ candidates profiled as a function of $R_K$.


Angular Analysis of the $B^{+}\rightarrow K^{\ast+}\mu^{+}\mu^{-}$ Decay

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, Roel ; Abellán Beteta, Carlos ; Ackernley, Thomas ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 126 (2021) 161802, 2021.
Inspire Record 1838196 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.105273

We present an angular analysis of the $B^{+}\rightarrow K^{\ast+}(\rightarrow K_{S}^{0}\pi^{+})\mu^{+}\mu^{-}$ decay using 9$\,\mbox{fb}^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data collected with the LHCb experiment. For the first time, the full set of CP-averaged angular observables is measured in intervals of the dimuon invariant mass squared. Local deviations from Standard Model predictions are observed, similar to those in previous LHCb analyses of the isospin-partner $B^{0}\rightarrow K^{\ast0}\mu^{+}\mu^{-}$ decay. The global tension is dependent on which effective couplings are considered and on the choice of theory nuisance parameters.

38 data tables

Results for the CP-averaged observables Fl, Afb and S3–S9. The first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic.

Results for the optimised observables FL and P1–P'8. The first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic.

The CP-averaged observable Fl versus q2. The first (second) error bars represent the statistical (total) uncertainties.

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Observation of a narrow pentaquark state, $P_c(4312)^+$, and of two-peak structure of the $P_c(4450)^+$

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, Roel ; Abellán Beteta, Carlos ; Adeva, Bernardo ; et al.
Phys.Rev.Lett. 122 (2019) 222001, 2019.
Inspire Record 1728691 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.89271

A narrow pentaquark state, $P_c(4312)^+$, decaying to $J/\psi p$ is discovered with a statistical significance of $7.3\sigma$ in a data sample of ${\Lambda_b^0\to J/\psi p K^-}$ decays which is an order of magnitude larger than that previously analyzed by the LHCb collaboration. The $P_c(4450)^+$ pentaquark structure formerly reported by LHCb is confirmed and observed to consist of two narrow overlapping peaks, $P_c(4440)^+$ and $P_c(4457)^+$, where the statistical significance of this two-peak interpretation is $5.4\sigma$. Proximity of the $\Sigma_c^+\bar{D}^{0}$ and $\Sigma_c^+\bar{D}^{*0}$ thresholds to the observed narrow peaks suggests that they play an important role in the dynamics of these states.

4 data tables

Distribution of $(J/\psi p)$ system invariant mass from the decay of $\Lambda_{b}^{0}$ candidates in the channel $\Lambda_{b}^{0} \to J/\psi p K^{-}$.

Distribution of $(J/\psi p)$ system invariant mass from the decay of $\Lambda_{b}^{0}$ candidates in the channel $\Lambda_{b}^{0} \to J/\psi p K^{-}$. $\Lambda_{b}^{0}$ candidates are selected after the suppression of the dominant $\Lambda^{*} \to p K^{-}$ contributions using the $m_{Kp} > 1.9$ GeV$/c^2$ requirement.

$\cos \theta_{P_c}$-weighted ditribution of $(J/\psi p)$ system invariant mass from the decay of $\Lambda_{b}^{0}$ candidates in the channel $\Lambda_{b}^{0} \to J/\psi p K^{-}$. Here $\theta_{P_c}$ is the helicity angle of the pentaquark exotic state (the angle between $K^-$ and $J/\psi$ in the pentaquark state rest frame).

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Measurements of the S-wave fraction in $B^{0}\rightarrow K^{+}\pi^{-}\mu^{+}\mu^{-}$ decays and the $B^{0}\rightarrow K^{\ast}(892)^{0}\mu^{+}\mu^{-}$ differential branching fraction

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, Roel ; Adeva, Bernardo ; Adinolfi, Marco ; et al.
JHEP 11 (2016) 047, 2016.
Inspire Record 1469448 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.82576

A measurement of the differential branching fraction of the decay ${B^{0}\rightarrow K^{\ast}(892)^{0}\mu^{+}\mu^{-}}$ is presented together with a determination of the S-wave fraction of the $K^+\pi^-$ system in the decay $B^{0}\rightarrow K^{+}\pi^{-}\mu^{+}\mu^{-}$. The analysis is based on $pp$-collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3\,fb$^{-1}$ collected with the LHCb experiment. The measurements are made in bins of the invariant mass squared of the dimuon system, $q^2$. Precise theoretical predictions for the differential branching fraction of $B^{0}\rightarrow K^{\ast}(892)^{0}\mu^{+}\mu^{-}$ decays are available for the $q^2$ region $1.1<q^2<6.0\,{\rm GeV}^2/c^4$. In this $q^2$ region, for the $K^+\pi^-$ invariant mass range $796 < m_{K\pi} < 996\,{\rm MeV}/c^2$, the S-wave fraction of the $K^+\pi^-$ system in $B^{0}\rightarrow K^{+}\pi^{-}\mu^{+}\mu^{-}$ decays is found to be \begin{equation*} F_{\rm S} = 0.101\pm0.017({\rm stat})\pm0.009 ({\rm syst}), \end{equation*} and the differential branching fraction of $B^{0}\rightarrow K^{\ast}(892)^{0}\mu^{+}\mu^{-}$ decays is determined to be \begin{equation*} {\rm d}\mathcal{B}/{\rm d} q^2 = (0.342_{\,-0.017}^{\,+0.017}({\rm stat})\pm{0.009}({\rm syst})\pm0.023({\rm norm}))\times 10^{-7}c^{4}/{\rm GeV}^{2}. \end{equation*} The differential branching fraction measurements presented are the most precise to date and are found to be in agreement with Standard Model predictions.

2 data tables

S-wave fraction ($F_{\rm S}$) in bins of $q^2$ for two $m_{K\pi}$ regions. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic.

Differential branching fraction of $B^0 \to K^*(892)^0 \mu^+ \mu^-$ decays in bins of $q^2$. The first uncertainty is statistical, the second systematic and the third due to the uncertainty on the $B^0 \to J/\psi K^{*0}$ and $J/\psi \to \mu^+ \mu^-$ branching fractions.


Angular analysis of the $B^{0} \to K^{*0} \mu^{+} \mu^{-}$ decay using 3 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, Roel ; Abellán Beteta, Carlos ; Adeva, Bernardo ; et al.
JHEP 02 (2016) 104, 2016.
Inspire Record 1409497 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.74247

An angular analysis of the $B^{0}\rightarrow K^{*0}(\rightarrow K^{+}\pi^{-})\mu^{+}\mu^{-}$ decay is presented. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $3.0\,{\mbox{fb}^{-1}}$ of $pp$ collision data collected at the LHCb experiment. The complete angular information from the decay is used to determine $C\!P$-averaged observables and $C\!P$ asymmetries, taking account of possible contamination from decays with the $K^{+}\pi^{-}$ system in an S-wave configuration. The angular observables and their correlations are reported in bins of $q^2$, the invariant mass squared of the dimuon system. The observables are determined both from an unbinned maximum likelihood fit and by using the principal moments of the angular distribution. In addition, by fitting for $q^2$-dependent decay amplitudes in the region $1.1<q^{2}<6.0\mathrm{\,Ge\kern -0.1em V}^{2}/c^{4}$, the zero-crossing points of several angular observables are computed. A global fit is performed to the complete set of $C\!P$-averaged observables obtained from the maximum likelihood fit. This fit indicates differences with predictions based on the Standard Model at the level of 3.4 standard deviations. These differences could be explained by contributions from physics beyond the Standard Model, or by an unexpectedly large hadronic effect that is not accounted for in the Standard Model predictions.

83 data tables

CP-averaged angular observables evaluated by the unbinned maximum likelihood fit.

CP-averaged angular observables evaluated by the unbinned maximum likelihood fit. The first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic.

CP-asymmetric angular observables evaluated by the unbinned maximum likelihood fit. The first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic.

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Measurement of forward W and Z boson production in $pp$ collisions at $ \sqrt{s}=8 $ TeV

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, Roel ; Abellán Beteta, Carlos ; Adeva, Bernardo ; et al.
JHEP 01 (2016) 155, 2016.
Inspire Record 1406555 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.71419

Measurements are presented of electroweak boson production using data from $pp$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\sqrt{s} = 8\mathrm{\,Te\kern -0.1em V}$. The analysis is based on an integrated luminosity of $2.0\mathrm{\,fb}^{-1}$ recorded with the LHCb detector. The bosons are identified in the $W\rightarrow\mu\nu$ and $Z\rightarrow\mu^{+}\mu^{-}$ decay channels. The cross-sections are measured for muons in the pseudorapidity range $2.0 < \eta < 4.5$, with transverse momenta $p_{\rm T} > 20{\mathrm{\,Ge\kern -0.1em V\!/}c}$ and, in the case of the $Z$ boson, a dimuon mass within $60 < M_{\mu^{+}\mu^{-}} < 120{\mathrm{\,Ge\kern -0.1em V\!/}c^{2}}$. The results are \begin{align*} \sigma_{W^{+}\rightarrow\mu^{+}\nu} &= 1093.6 \pm 2.1 \pm 7.2 \pm 10.9 \pm 12.7{\rm \,pb} \, , \sigma_{W^{-}\rightarrow\mu^{-}\bar{\nu}} &= \phantom{0}818.4 \pm 1.9 \pm 5.0 \pm \phantom{0}7.0 \pm \phantom{0}9.5{\rm \,pb} \, , \sigma_{Z\rightarrow\mu^{+}\mu^{-}} &= \phantom{00}95.0 \pm 0.3 \pm 0.7 \pm \phantom{0}1.1 \pm \phantom{0}1.1{\rm \,pb} \, , \end{align*} where the first uncertainties are statistical, the second are systematic, the third are due to the knowledge of the LHC beam energy and the fourth are due to the luminosity determination. The evolution of the $W$ and $Z$ boson cross-sections with centre-of-mass energy is studied using previously reported measurements with $1.0\mathrm{\,fb}^{-1}$ of data at $7\mathrm{\,Te\kern -0.1em V}$. Differential distributions are also presented. Results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions at next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative quantum chromodynamics.

23 data tables

Inclusive cross-section for $W^+$ and $W^-$ boson production in bins of muon pseudorapidity. The uncertainties are statistical, systematic, beam and luminosity.

Inclusive cross-section for $Z$ boson production in bins of rapidity. The uncertainties are statistical, systematic, beam and luminosity.

Inclusive cross-section for $Z$ boson production in bins of transverse momentum. The uncertainties are statistical, systematic, beam and luminosity.

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Production of associated Y and open charm hadrons in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{s}=7 $ and 8 TeV via double parton scattering

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, Roel ; Abellán Beteta, Carlos ; Adeva, Bernardo ; et al.
JHEP 07 (2016) 052, 2016.
Inspire Record 1399056 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.73583

Associated production of bottomonia and open charm hadrons in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ and $8$TeV is observed using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3$fb^{-1}$ accumulated with the LHCb detector. The observation of five combinations, $\Upsilon(1S)D^0$, $\Upsilon(2S)D^0$, $\Upsilon(1S)D^+$, $\Upsilon(2S)D^+$ and $\Upsilon(1S)D^+_{s}$, is reported. Production cross-sections are measured for $\Upsilon(1S)D^0$ and $\Upsilon(1S)D^+$ pairs in the forward region. The measured cross-sections and the differential distributions indicate the dominance of double parton scattering as the main production mechanism. This allows a precise measurement of the effective cross-section for double parton scattering.

20 data tables

Normalized differential cross-section $\frac{1}{\sigma}\frac{ \mathrm{d}\sigma(\Upsilon(1S)D^0)}{\mathrm{d} p_T(\Upsilon(1S))}$ for $2<y(\Upsilon(1S))<4.5$, $2<y(D^0)<4.5$, $p_T(D^0)>1$ GeV/$c$. Only statistical uncertainties are quoted as systematic uncertainties are found to be negligible. The distribution is normalized to unity.

Normalized differential cross-section $\frac{1}{\sigma}\frac{ \mathrm{d}\sigma(\Upsilon(1S)D^+)}{\mathrm{d} p_T(\Upsilon(1S))}$ for $2<y(\Upsilon(1S))<4.5$, $2<y(D^+)<4.5$, $p_T(D^+)>1$ GeV/$c$. Only statistical uncertainties are quoted as systematic uncertainties are found to be negligible. The distribution is normalized to unity.

Normalized differential cross-section $\frac{1}{\sigma}\frac{ \mathrm{d}\sigma(\Upsilon(1S)D^0)}{\mathrm{d} p_T(D^0)}$ for $2<y(\Upsilon(1S))<4.5$, $2<y(D^0)<4.5$, $p_T(D^0)>1$ GeV/$c$. Only statistical uncertainties are quoted as systematic uncertainties are found to be negligible. The distribution is normalized to unity.

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Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry in $Z/\gamma^{\ast} \rightarrow \mu^{+}\mu^{-}$ decays and determination of the effective weak mixing angle

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, Roel ; Adeva, Bernardo ; Adinolfi, Marco ; et al.
JHEP 11 (2015) 190, 2015.
Inspire Record 1394859 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.76490

The forward-backward charge asymmetry for the process $q\bar{q} \rightarrow Z/\gamma^{\ast} \rightarrow \mu^{+}\mu^{-}$ is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the dimuon system. Measurements are performed using proton proton collision data collected with the LHCb detector at $\sqrt{s} = 7$ and 8\tev, corresponding to integrated luminosities of $1$fb$^{-1}$ and $2$fb$^{-1}$ respectively. Within the Standard Model the results constrain the effective electroweak mixing angle to be $$sin^{2}\theta_{W}^{eff} = 0.23142 \pm 0.00073 \pm 0.00052 \pm 0.00056 $$ where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second systematic and the third theoretical. This result is in agreement with the current world average, and is one of the most precise determinations at hadron colliders to date.

2 data tables

Values for $A_{\rm{FB}}$ with the statistical and positive and negative systematic uncertainties for $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV data. The theoretical uncertainties presented in this table, corresponding to the PDF, scale and FSR uncertainties described in Sec. 5, affect only the predictions of $A_{\rm{FB}}$ and the sin$^2\theta^{\rm{eff}}_{\rm W}$ determination, and do not apply to the uncertainties on the measured $A_{\rm{FB}}$.

Values for $A_{\rm{FB}}$ with the statistical and positive and negative systematic uncertainties for $\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV data. The theoretical uncertainties presented in this table, corresponding to the PDF, scale and FSR uncertainties described in Sec. 5, affect only the predictions of $A_{\rm{FB}}$ and the sin$^2\theta^{\rm{eff}}_{\rm W}$ determination, and do not apply to the uncertainties on the measured $A_{\rm{FB}}$.


Forward production of $\Upsilon$ mesons in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ and 8TeV

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, Roel ; Adeva, Bernardo ; Adinolfi, Marco ; et al.
JHEP 11 (2015) 103, 2015.
Inspire Record 1392456 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.249

The production of $\Upsilon$ mesons in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt=7$ and $8\,\mathrm{TeV}$ is studied with the LHCb detector using data samples corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $1\,\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ and $2\,\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ respectively. The production cross-sections and ratios of cross-sections are measured as functions of the meson transverse momentum $p_T$ and rapidity $y$, for $p_T<30\,\mathrm{GeV}/c$} and $2.0<y<4.5$.

22 data tables

Double-differential cross-section $\mathrm{d}^2 \sigma ( pp \to ( \Upsilon \to \mu^+ \mu^- ) X ) / \mathrm{d} p_T/\mathrm{d}y$ [pb/(GeV/$c$)] for $2.0 < y < 2.5$.

Double-differential cross-section $\mathrm{d}^2 \sigma ( pp \to ( \Upsilon \to \mu^+ \mu^- ) X ) / \mathrm{d} p_T/\mathrm{d}y$ [pb/(GeV/$c$)] for $2.0 < y < 2.5$.

Double-differential cross-section $\mathrm{d}^2 \sigma ( pp \to ( \Upsilon \to \mu^+ \mu^- ) X ) / \mathrm{d} p_T/\mathrm{d}y$ [pb/(GeV/$c$)].

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Study of the production of $\Lambda_b^0$ and $\overline{B}^0$ hadrons in $pp$ collisions and first measurement of the $\Lambda_b^0\rightarrow J/\psi pK^-$ branching fraction

The LHCb collaboration Aaij, R. ; Adeva, Bernardo ; Adinolfi, Marco ; et al.
Chin.Phys.C 40 (2016) 011001, 2016.
Inspire Record 1391317 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.75485

The product of the $\Lambda_b^0$ ($\overline{B}^0$) differential production cross-section and the branching fraction of the decay $\Lambda_b^0\rightarrow J/\psi pK^-$ ($\overline{B}^0\rightarrow J/\psi\overline{K}^*(892)^0$) is measured as a function of the beauty hadron transverse momentum, $p_{\rm T}$, and rapidity, $y$. The kinematic region of the measurements is $p_{\rm T}<20~{\rm GeV}/c$ and $2.0<y<4.5$. The measurements use a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~{\rm fb}^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies $\sqrt{s}=7~{\rm TeV}$ in 2011 and $\sqrt{s}=8~{\rm TeV}$ in 2012. Based on previous LHCb results of the fragmentation fraction ratio, $f_{\Lambda_B^0}/f_d$, the branching fraction of the decay $\Lambda_b^0\rightarrow J/\psi pK^-$ is measured to be \begin{equation*} \mathcal{B}(\Lambda_b^0\rightarrow J/\psi pK^-)= (3.17\pm0.04\pm0.07\pm0.34^{+0.45}_{-0.28})\times10^{-4}, \end{equation*} where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, the third is due to the uncertainty on the branching fraction of the decay $\overline{B}^0\rightarrow J/\psi\overline{K}^*(892)^0$, and the fourth is due to the knowledge of $f_{\Lambda_b^0}/f_d$. The sum of the asymmetries in the production and decay between $\Lambda_b^0$ and $\overline{\Lambda}_b^0$ is also measured as a function of $p_{\rm T}$ and $y$. The previously published branching fraction of $\Lambda_b^0\rightarrow J/\psi p\pi^-$, relative to that of $\Lambda_b^0\rightarrow J/\psi pK^-$, is updated. The branching fractions of $\Lambda_b^0\rightarrow P_c^+(\rightarrow J/\psi p)K^-$ are determined.

6 data tables

Products of $\Lambda_b^0$ production cross-sections and the branching fraction $\mathcal{B}(\Lambda_b^0 \rightarrow J\psi pK^-)$ in bins of $p_\rm{T}$ and $y$ in the 2011 data sample.

Products of $\Lambda_b^0$ production cross-sections and the branching fraction $\mathcal{B}(\Lambda_b^0 \rightarrow J\psi pK^-)$ in bins of $p_\rm{T}$ and $y$ in the 2012 data sample.

Products of $\overline{B}^0$ production cross-sections and $\mathcal{B}(\overline{B}^0 \rightarrow J\psi \overline{K}^{*0})$ in bins of $p_\rm{T}$ and $y$ in the 2011 data sample.

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