The importance of two-photon exchange in elastic electron-proton scattering was investigated by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton scattering. Four-momentum transfers as large as 0.756 (BeV/c)2 (19.5 F−2) were used. The data indicate that two-photon effects are (4.0±1.5)% larger than those predicted by the radiative corrections at the highest momentum transfers attained in these experiments. The two-photon corrections predicted using a static charge distribution fit the data well at lower momentum transfers and forward angles, but appear to be small at higher momentum transfers and backward angles.
Data recalculated from the data of Yount and Pine.
Data recalculated from the data of Yount and Pine. RUN_1 and RUN_2 of the Yount and Pine experiment were separated by large time interval.
Data recalculated from the data of Yount and Pine.
Three narrow peaks with masses 1632 ± 15, 1700 ± 15 and 1748 ± 15, reffered to as R 1 , R 2 and R 3 , have been observed in missing-mass spectrometer runs at incident pion momenta of 7 and 12 GeV/ c and a mass-resolution of ± 15 MeV. One-peak hypothesis gives a confidence level P ( χ 2 )=0.8%; the three-peak one gives P ( χ 2 )=60%. Statistical significance for R 1 , R 2 and R 3 is, respectively, 3.8, 6.6 and 6.1 standard deviations from the highest background line. R 1 and R 2 decay into one and three, while the R 3 decays mainly into three charged particles. Their physical widths are compatible with zero, with upper limits of the order of Γ ⩽30 MeV.
Total cross-section data are presented for negative pions, kaons, and antiprotons on protons and deuterons in the momentum range 20 GeV/ c to 65 GeV/ c in 5 GeV/ c steps.
Axis error includes +- 0.0/0.0 contribution.
The measurements of the differential cross section of elastic p-p scattering in relative units were performed in the energy range of 12–70 GeV. The values of the slope parameter were obtained from this data. It was shown that the slope parameter of the differential p-p scattering is monotonously increasing when the proton energy rises in the range 12–70 GeV. We have obtained the slope Pomeranchuk's pole trajectory from this data: α′ p = 0.40 ± 0.09.
Measurements have been made of the π ∓ proton total cross sections over the laboratory kinetic energy range 70 to 290 MeV. The absolute accuracy of the data is generally 0.5 %, but decreases to 1 % for some points where applied corrections are large or where low particle fluxes limit the statistical accuracy.
Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured over the angular range 7 to 16 mrad at centre-of-mass energies of 31, 45 and 53 GeV using the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. The results indicate that the diffraction peak has continued to shrink with increasing energy, but not as fast as suggested by the results at lower energies.
This work extends our previous investigations at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings, with improved statistics at three different energies, wider angular range and a better control over systematic errors. Values for the (diffraction) shape parameter b are given.
The differential cross-sections in the range of four momentum transfer squared from 0.003 to 0.120 (GeV c) 2 were measured at 30, 50 and 70 GeV by using a thin polyethilene target in the internal proton beam of the Serpukhov accelerator. The slope parameter, the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward amplitude and the cross-section in the diffraction cone were measured.
ASSUMING UNIFORM SLOPE.
Small angle elastic scattering events have been observed at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. Directions of both particles as well as the collision vertex are reconstructed with the help of four sets of spark chambers, two for each of the two arms. The elastic nature of the events is demonstrated by a collinearity requirement. We find values for the (diffraction) slope parameter in disagreement with the simple linear extrapolation of lower energy (Surpukov) data.
NUMBER OF EVENTS 87364.
NUMBER OF EVENTS 8305.
Total cross-section data are presented for protons, positive pions and positive kaons on protons and deuterons in the momentum range 15 GeV/ c to 60 GeV/ c in 5 GeV/ c steps.
π − p , K − p and p p total cross-sections are measured at momenta up to 65GeV/ c with statistical accuracy 0.3 ÷ 0.6% and systematical (scale) error ≈ 0.4%.
The single-particle inclusive pion spectrum from the reaction p + p → π ± + anything at 28.5 GeV is presented in both tabular and graphical form. The data are from exposures in the BNL 203 cm bubble chamber. The emphasis of this paper is on exhibiting the single-particle spectra in sufficient detail so that the data will be useful to those interested in testing models and developing new concepts.
The result of a search for magnetic charged particles at 70 GeV IPHE proton synchrotron is presented. Using the ferromagnetic trap method the upper limit of the magnetic monopole production cross-section in proton-nucleon collisions was found to be α (95%) ⩾ × 10 −43 cm 2 .
Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured over the four-momentum transfer squared 0.0007 ⩽ t ⩽ 0.02 GeV 2 /c 2 . A gas hydrogen jet has been used as an internal target of the accelerator. The results indicate that the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the proton-proton forward scattering amplitude rises smoothly with increasing energy from α = −0.35 ± 0.05 at p = 9.39 GeV/ c to α = −0.092 ± 0.011 at p = 69.8 GeV/ c .
THE TOTAL ELASTIC CROSS SECTION IS DERIVED FROM THE OPTICAL THEOREM POINT AND SLOPE PARAMETER.
We have investigated the above processes at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR). Results show a marked change of the slope parameter b ( t , s ) = (d/d t ) ln (d σ /d t ) around − t ≈ 0.10 GeV 2 . The s − and t − dependence of b ( t , s ) have been observed over the interval 460 GeV 2 < s < 2900 GeV 2 and 0.02 GeV 2 < t < 0.40 GeV 2 .
Total cross sections for π − , K − and p on protons and deutrons have been measured in the momentum range 15 to 60 GeV/ c . Total cross sections for particle interactions with neutrons have been determined with an energy dependent Glauber correction. Using the positive particle data obtained earlier with the same experimental apparatus, the differences of total cross sections for particles and antiparticles as well as for particles belonging to the same isospin multiplet have been calculated.
THESE DATA WERE PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED IN YU. P. GORIN ET AL., SJNP 15, 530 (1972) OR YF 15, 953 (1972).
We have measured the differential cross section for small angle p−p scattering from 25 to 200 GeV incident energy and in the momentum transfer range 0.015<|t|<0.080 (GeVc)2. We find that the slope of the forward diffraction peak, b(s), increases with energy and can be fitted by the form b(s)=b0+2α′ lns, where b0=8.3±1.3 and α′=0.28±0.13 (GeVc)−2. Such dependence is compatible with the data existing both at higher and lower energies. We have also obtained the energy dependence of the p−p total cross section in the energy range from 48 to 196 GeV. Within our errors which are ± 1.1 mb the total cross section remains constant.
THE TOTAL CROSS SECTION IS NORMALIZED TO 38.5 +- 0.1 MB AT 48 GEV. IT HAS BEEN DERIVED USING THE OPTICAL THEOREM FROM THE EXTRAPOLATED FORWARD ELASTIC CROSS SECTION AND WITH ALPHA = -0.09.
In an exposure of the 30-in. hydrogen bubble chamber to a 303−GeVc proton beam, 2245 interactions have been observed. The measured total cross section is 39.0±1.0 mb and the average charged particle multiplicity 〈nch〉=8.86±0.16.
TOPOLOGICAL CROSS SECTIONS.
In an exposure of the chamber Mirabelle at the Serpukhov accelerator, 1 943 interactions at 50 GeV/ c and 8 959 at 69 GeV/ c have been observed. Topological cross sections and charged multiplicity distributions are presented. The average charged multiplicities found are respectively 5.32 ± 0.13 and 5.89 ± 0.07.
2PRONG INELASTIC CROSS SECTIONS DERIVED BY SUBTRACTION OF OTHER PRONG CROSS SECTIONS AND KNOWN ELASTIC MEASUREMENTS FROM THE TOTAL.
Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings in the four-momentum transfer range 0.001 ⩽… t …⩽ 0.015 GeV 2 at centre-of-mass energies of 23 and 31 GeV. The detection of Coulomb scattering and of its interference with nuclear scattering leads to the determination of the real part of the nuclear amplitude and of the total proton-proton cross section by the optical theorem.
In this paper we present tables of absolute differential cross sections of elastic pp scattering together with the values of the slope parameter B and the real-part parameter α, where B= d d t In dσ d t α= Re A(0) Im A(0) and A (0) is the amplitude of elastic pp scattering at t = 0. The cross-section data have been obtained at the Serpukhov accelerator from 8 to 70 GeV in the | t |-range 0.0007 − 0.12 (GeV/ c ) 2 .
From measurements of proton-proton elastic scattering at very small momentum transfers where the nuclear and Coulomb amplitudes interfere, we have deduced values of ρ, the ratio of the real to the imaginary forward nuclear amplitude, for energies from 50 to 400 GeV. We find that ρ increases from -0.157 ± 0.012 at 51.5 GeV to +0.039 ± 0.012 at 393 GeV, crossing zero at 280 ± 60 GeV.